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1.
Front Public Health ; 10: 851061, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776070

ABSTRACT

Background: Altogether, 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are an urgent call for action to end poverty, protect the planet, and ensure prosperity for all. Goal 3 is crucial in terms of good health and wellbeing. The main aim of this study is to analyze and evaluate differences among indicators of SDG 3: Sustainable health and wellbeing in the EU countries. Methods: The status and development of the EU Member States regarding their successes or failures in terms of Goal 3 were subjected to analysis. Altogether, 11 indicators were used to rank the EU countries using the TOPSIS and ranking methods. The ranks were assigned to the countries in two periods. The first period is related to the time from 2010 till 2014, and the second period from 2015 till 2019. Results: The EU countries achieved a positive development in 10 of 11 indicators that monitor the achievement of the EU in terms of Goal 3. The only variable that changed negatively was the obesity rate. Positivity was observed in the decline of the standardized preventable and treatable mortality, which declined from 317.3 in the first period to 295 in the second period; the drop of the population weighted annual mean concentration of fine particulate PM2.5, from 16.4 to 13.6 µg/m3, and also in the increase of the share of people with good or very good perceived health, which was combined with a decrease of the self-reported unmet need for medical examination and care. The best-rated country in terms of SDG 3 was, in both periods, Sweden, while the worst-rated was Latvia. Conclusions: Governments and institutions in the EU can intervene to increase the accessibility and quality of the health care system, but every citizen should try to do their best to reduce some of the risk factors, such as smoking or obesity, to try living healthier and to help to achieve higher ambitions in terms of sustainable health and wellbeing.


Subject(s)
Health Status , Mental Health , European Union , Humans , Poverty
2.
Front Public Health ; 10: 841013, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776047

ABSTRACT

Background: In the Euregio-Meuse-Rhine (EMR), cross-border collaboration is essential for resource-saving and needs-based patient care within the emergency medical service (EMS) systems and interhospital transport (IHT). However, at the onset of the novel coronavirus SARS-COV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic, differing national measures highlighted the fragmentation within the European Union (EU) in its various approaches to combating the pandemic. To assess the consequences of the pandemic in the EMR border area, the aim of this study was to analyze the effects and "lessons learned" regarding cross-border collaboration in EMS and IHT. Method: A qualitative study with 22 semi-structured interviews was carried out. Experts from across the EMR area, including the City of Aachen, the City region of Aachen, the District of Heinsberg (Germany), South Limburg (The Netherlands), and the Province of Limburg, as well as Liège (Belgium), took part. The interviews were coded and analyzed according to changes in cross-border collaboration before and during the pandemic, as well as lessons learned and recommendations. Results: Each EU member country within the EMR area, addressed the pandemic individually with national measures. Cross-border collaboration between regional actors was hardly or not at all addressed at the national level during political decision- or policymaking. Previous direct communication at the personal level was replaced by national procedures, which made regular cross-border collaboration significantly more difficult. The cross-border transfer regulations of patients with COVID-19 proved to be complex and led, among other things, to patients being transported to hospitals far outside the border region. Collaboration continues to be seen as valuable and Euregional emergency services including hospitals work well together, albeit to different degrees. The information and data exchange should, however, be more transparent to use resources more efficiently. Conclusion: Effective Euregional collaboration of emergency services is imperative for public safety in a multi-border region with strong economic, cultural, and social cross-border links. Our findings indicate that existing (pre-pandemic) structures which included regular meetings of senior managerial staff in the region and a number of thematic working groups were helpful to deal with and to compensate for the disruptions during the crisis. Regional cross-border agreements that are currently based on mutual but more or less informal arrangements need to be formalized and better promoted and recognized also at the national and EU level to increase resilience. The continuous determination of synergies and good and best practices are further approaches to support cross-border collaboration especially in preparation for future crises.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emergency Medical Services , COVID-19/epidemiology , European Union , Expert Testimony , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Lancet Glob Health ; 10 Suppl 1: S11, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1773860

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The global COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted substantial health inequities in Europe. Minorities and immigrants are the populations most likely to experience disparities related to health-care access and health outcomes. We aimed to link self-reports of health conditions with experiences of discrimination when using health-care services among Romani ethnic minorities in the European Union (EU). METHODS: The Second EU Minorities and Discrimination Survey was disseminated in 2016 to ethnic minorities, immigrants, and descendants of immigrants in 19 member states of the EU (Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Germany, Denmark, Greece, Spain, Finland, France, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Sweden, Slovenia, and the UK). The primary outcomes were self-reported health status (subjective assessment of own health conditions), health-care utilisation, and unmet health-care need. Experiences of discrimination when using health-care services in the past 5 years was the key explanatory variable. Anonymised data relating to perceived discrimination, self-reported good health, health-care utilisation, and socioeconomic status were available for individuals who identify as Romani ethnic minorities in nine EU member states-Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Greece, Hungary, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, and Spain. We used multivariate logistic regression analyses to examine the association between perceived discrimination and self-reported health status, health-care utilisation, and unmet health-care needs, controlled for sex, age, income level, education level, health insurance coverage, and residential location. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs of self-perceived discrimination are reported. FINDINGS: Using data on perceived discrimination when using health care, self-reported health status, health-care access, and socioeconomic status for 7942 Romani individuals (aged 16-90 years), including 4046 Romani individuals who have used health-care services during the past 5 years, we found that perceived discrimination when utilising health care is more prevalent for Romani people than other ethnic minorities in Europe (OR 2·19, 95% CI 1·96-2·44). After controlling for sex, age, income level, education level, health insurance coverage, and residential location, our multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that the perceived discrimination of Romani people is negatively associated with self-reported good health (adjusted OR 0·84, 0·69-1·03), and health-care utilisation (adjusted OR 0·34, 0·25-0·44). Furthermore, Romani people's perceived discrimination is associated with an increased risk of unmet health-care needs (adjusted OR 3·01, 2·27-3·98). The results were robust across sexes. INTERPRETATION: A multifaceted strategy might be needed to eliminate the disparities in health outcomes and health-care access between the Romani ethnic group and other ethnic minority groups in the EU, including expanding access to health care, addressing social determinants of health, and advancing anti-discrimination regulations in the EU. FUNDING: None.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Roma , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Europe , European Union , Health Services , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Middle Aged , Minority Groups , Pandemics , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Young Adult
5.
Int J Popul Data Sci ; 5(4): 1704, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1754160

ABSTRACT

This paper serves to alert IJPDS readers to the availability of a major new longitudinal survey data resource, the COVID-19 Psychological Research Consortium (C19PRC) Study, which is being released for secondary use via the Open Science Framework. The C19PRC Study is a rich and detailed dataset that provides a convenient and valuable foundation from which to study the social, political, and health status of European adults during an unprecedented time of change as a direct result of the COVID-19 pandemic and Brexit. Here, we provide an overview of the C19PRC Study design, with the purpose of stimulating interest about the study among social scientists and maximising use of this resource.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , European Union , Humans , Information Dissemination , Pandemics , United Kingdom
6.
Eur J Health Law ; 29(1): 7-32, 2022 03 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1752962

ABSTRACT

The timely availability of accurate information on disease outbreaks with a potential for cross-border spread is a global public good, allowing for a more effective preparedness and response. An ensuing question for national public health authorities is how such information is attained when it is gathered in territories beyond their jurisdiction. International and regional law norms emerge as an option for providing such a global public good. Therefore, the current article examines existing legal frameworks for ad hoc disease surveillance beyond the state at the international and regional levels, namely: the World Health Organization's International Health Regulations of 2005; Regulation (EC) No. 851/2004 and Decision No. 1082/2013/EU in the European Union; the Statute of the Africa Centres for Disease Control and Prevention within the African Union; and the Protocol from the Economic Community of West African States, which created the West African Health Organisation. The comparison offers broader insights on the role of rules as a vehicle for securing prompt and reliable information of new and re-emerging communicable diseases, such as Covid-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , COVID-19/epidemiology , European Union , Global Health , Humans , Public Health
7.
Eur J Health Law ; 29(1): 33-52, 2022 03 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1752960

ABSTRACT

The decision of the EU Commission, based on positive advice from the European Medicines Agency, to grant conditional marketing authorisation to Covid-19 vaccines should be qualified as a precautionary measure. Under the established case law of the CJEU, the conditions for the application of this principle are met. Such conditions are the existence of a risk to the environment and public health and uncertainty. Given this qualification as a precautionary measure, whether the Commission had complied with the procedural obligations that surround the implementation of this principle under EU law was assessed. Some shortcomings are identified concerning the risk assessment conducted by the European Medicines Agency and the risk management carried out by the Commission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , COVID-19/prevention & control , European Union , Humans , Marketing , Public Health
8.
Eur J Health Law ; 29(1): 53-78, 2022 Mar 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1752957

ABSTRACT

To respond to the need for a vaccine against and a treatment for Covid-19, the German Federal Government (German government) used various economic incentives to promote pharmaceutical and biotechnological (biotech) research and development (R&D) as well as manufacturing. More specifically, it decided to subsidise several German companies working in this field. Such domestic measures might, however, present a challenge to European state aid law. It is against this backdrop that this article discusses the compatibility of the payments made with the new 'crisis-born' European legal framework for state aid. Furthermore, the article offers some critical comments on the aid's effects on solidarity and cohesion in the European Union (EU) and the proposals put forward for expanding the EU's health policy competencies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , European Union , Health Policy , Humans
9.
Br Dent J ; 232(5): 303-306, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1740430

ABSTRACT

Due to the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, internationally qualified dentists have been negatively impacted. This is due to the suspension of the Overseas Registration Exam (ORE) with no confirmation of any future dates. Similarly, UK dentistry was also affected by a significant increase in waiting lists all over the UK, with long waiting lists being present even before the pandemic. Due to these factors, many have highlighted and argued the need for internationally qualified dentists and urged the need to facilitate their registrations. Additionally, after Brexit, the government has introduced new immigration routes to attract overseas, highly educated human resources, so that they can contribute to different sectors in the UK. Considering these circumstances, there are a few alternatives to the ORE that could be introduced to facilitate the registration of internationally qualified dentists and to support NHS dental services. This paper suggests short- and long-term solutions to support the registration of internationally qualified dentists, considering that after two years, European-qualified dentists might need to undertake registration exams as well.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dentists , COVID-19/epidemiology , European Union , Humans , Pandemics , United Kingdom
10.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(5)2022 03 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736930

ABSTRACT

This paper explores occupational safety and health regulation in Great Britain following the UK's exit from the European Union. In particular, the paper focuses on the credibility of regulatory enforcement. The prospects raised by the UK's exit from the European Union have long been part of a free-market fantasy-even obsession-of right-wing politicians and their ideologues. As the UK's relationship with the EU is recalibrated, this will present right-wing opportunists with a new rationale for undermining health and safety law and enforcement. The paper uses empirical evidence of Great Britain's record in health and safety law enforcement to evidence a drift towards an extreme form of self-regulation. It deepens this evidence with a detailed analysis of key international policy debates, arguing that Brexit now raises an imminent threat of the UK entering a 'race to the bottom'. The paper concludes that the 2021 EU/UK Trade and Co-operation Agreement may enable the UK to evade its formal health and safety responsibilities under the treaty because of the lack of the prospect of significant retaliatory 'rebalancing' measures. Should minimal health and safety requirements cease to apply in the post-EU era, then the UK Government will be free to pursue a system of self-regulation that will allow health and safety standards to fall even further behind those of other developed economies.


Subject(s)
International Cooperation , Law Enforcement , European Union , United Kingdom
11.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 1165, 2022 03 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1730283

ABSTRACT

The EU emissions trading system's (ETS) invalidation rule implies that shocks and overlapping policies can change cumulative carbon emissions. This paper explains these mechanisms and simulates the effect of COVID-19, the European Green Deal, and the recovery stimulus package on cumulative EU ETS emissions and allowance prices. Our results indicate that the negative demand shock of the pandemic should have a limited effect on allowance prices and rather translates into lower cumulative carbon emissions. Aligning EU ETS with the 2030 reduction target of -55% might increase allowance prices to 45-94 €/ton CO2 today and reduce cumulative carbon emissions to 14.2-18.3 GtCO2 compared to 23.5-33.1 GtCO2 under a -40% 2030 reduction target. Our results crucially depend on when the waterbed will be sealed again, which is an endogenous market outcome, driven by the EU ETS design, shocks and overlapping climate policies such as the recovery plan.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/prevention & control , COVID-19/prevention & control , Carbon Dioxide/analysis , Carbon/analysis , Conservation of Energy Resources/methods , Air Pollution/economics , Air Pollution/legislation & jurisprudence , Algorithms , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Conservation of Energy Resources/economics , Conservation of Energy Resources/legislation & jurisprudence , Environment , Environmental Policy , European Union , Humans , Models, Theoretical , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
12.
Vaccine ; 40(14): 2215-2225, 2022 03 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1721052

ABSTRACT

Vaccine hesitancy can hinder the successful roll-out of vaccines. This paper examines COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy in the European Union, drawing from a large-scale cross-national survey covering all 27 EU Member States, carried out between February and March 2021 (n = 29,755). We study the determinants of vaccine hesitancy, focusing on the role of social media use. In multivariate regression models, we find statistically significant (p < 0.05) impacts on vaccine hesitancy of heavy use of social media and using social media as a main source of news. However, the effect of social media and the drivers of vaccine hesitancy vary depending on the reason for hesitancy. Most notably, hesitancy due to health concerns is mainly driven by physical health status and less by social media use, while views that COVID-19 risks are exaggerated (or that COVID-19 does not exist) are more common among men, people in good health, and those using social media as their main source of news.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Media , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , European Union , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(4)2022 02 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715303

ABSTRACT

This paper assesses the convergence process in the health care expenditure for selected European Union (EU) countries over the past 50 years. As a novel contribution, we use bound unit root tests and, for robustness purposes, a series of tests for strict stationarity to provide new insights about the convergence process. We make a comparison between public and private health expenditure per capita and as a percentage of the gross domestic product (GDP), with a focus on six EU countries with different health care systems in place. When we consider the health expenditure per capita, we report mixed findings. We show that the spread from the group average is stationary in the cases of Finland and Portugal when the overall and public expenditure is considered. In terms of private expenditure, the convergence process is noticed only for Austria. For all other countries included in our sample, we document a non-stationary process, indicating a lack of convergence. This result is robust to the different tests we use. However, when we assess the convergence in terms of the health-expenditure-to-GDP ratio, the convergence process is recorded for Austria only. The robustness check we performed using strict stationarity tests partially confirmed the mixed results we obtained. Therefore, our findings highlight the heterogeneity of the EU health care systems and the need for identification of common solutions to the EU health care systems' problems in order to enhance their convergence processes.


Subject(s)
Delivery of Health Care , Health Expenditures , Austria , European Union , Gross Domestic Product
14.
Med Sci Monit ; 28: e936523, 2022 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1716153

ABSTRACT

The Nuvaxovid™ (NVX-CoV2373) Novavax vaccine is a recombinant spike (S) protein nanoparticle vaccine combined with the Matrix-M adjuvant. On December 20, 2021, the European Commission of the European Union (EU) granted conditional marketing authorization for the Nuvaxovid™ (NVX-CoV2373) Novavax vaccine, following recommendations from the European Medicines Agency (EMA). On February 3, 2022, this vaccine was granted conditional marketing authorization (CMA) in Great Britain by the Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) for use in individuals ≥18 years. The two vaccine components elicit both B-lymphocyte and T-lymphocyte immune responses to the S protein of SARS-CoV-2. The full-length S protein in this vaccine has common epitopes that could protect against all the SARS-CoV-2 viral variants. Also, the vaccine is stable and has a shelf life of 9 months when stored at standard refrigerated temperatures of between 2-8°C. This Editorial aims to present an update on the first approval of a protein-based adjuvanted vaccine for SARS-CoV-2, Nuvaxovid (NVX-CoV2373) from Novavax, and why it is such a significant development at this time.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Drug Approval , Drug Stability , Drug Storage , European Union , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , United Kingdom , Vaccination Coverage
16.
Front Public Health ; 9: 756633, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1703359

ABSTRACT

Introduction: This study aims to provide a risk assessment of the adverse reactions related to the COVID-19 vaccines manufactured by AstraZeneca, Janssen, Moderna, and Pfizer-BioNTech which have been in use in the European Union and the United States between December 2020 and October 2021. Methods: Data from the European Database of Suspected Adverse Drug Reaction (EudraVigilance) and the Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System (VAERS) from 2020 to October 2021 are analysed. More than 7.8 million adverse reactions of about 1.6 million persons are included. The adverse reactions are classified with the Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC) categories. COVID-19 vaccine exposures and adverse reactions reported between December 2020 and October 2021 are compared to influenza vaccine exposures and adverse reactions reported between 2020 and 2021. The population-level vaccine exposures to COVID-19 and influenza vaccines comprised about 451 million and 437 million exposures, respectively. Absolute and relative risk estimates are calculated by CTC categories and COVID-19 vaccines for the EU and US populations aged 18 years and older. Results: A higher risk of reporting serious adverse reactions was observed for the COVID-19 vaccines in comparison to the influenza vaccines. Individuals age 65 and older were associated with a higher frequency of death, hospitalisations, and life-threatening reactions than younger individuals (relative risk estimates between 1.49 99% CI [1.44-1.55] and 8.61 99% CI [8.02-9.23]). Outcome onset of serious adverse reactions occurred within the first 7 days after vaccination in about 77.6-89.1% of cases. The largest absolute risks were observed for allergic, constitutional reactions, dermatological, gastrointestinal, neurological reactions, and localised and non-localised pain. The largest relative risks between COVID-19 vs. influenza vaccines were observed for allergic reactions, arrhythmia, general cardiovascular events, coagulation, haemorrhages, gastrointestinal, ocular, sexual organs reactions, and thrombosis. Conclusion: The present study provides an overview of adverse reactions frequently reported to the pharmacovigilance systems following COVID-19 vaccination in the EU and US populations. Despite the limitations of passive reporting systems, these results may inform further clinical research investigating in more detail the pathophysiological mechanisms potentially associated with the COVID-19 vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Adolescent , Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems , Aged , COVID-19 Vaccines , European Union , Humans , Influenza Vaccines/adverse effects , Pharmacovigilance , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
18.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 206, 2022 01 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662415

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: On 23 June 2016, the United Kingdom voted to leave the European Union. From that date until the UK left the EU in January 2021, there were frequent warnings from industry and government sources of potential disruption to the food supply chain and possible food shortages. Over this period, the media had an important role in communicating on the potential impacts of Brexit. This study examines how food supply and demand, in the context of Brexit, was portrayed by the British media. METHODS: The study consisted of two components: (1) a quantitative analysis measuring frequency of reporting and information sources for articles on food supply and demand in the context of Brexit, in three daily newspapers, between January 2015 and January 2020; and (2) a content analysis exploring key themes and media framing of relevant issues in a subset of articles. RESULTS: Reports by the media about the impact of Brexit on the UK food system were largely absent in the six months before the UK voted to leave the EU in June 2016, increasing in frequency from mid-2018 onward, peaking in mid-2019 following the appointment of Boris Johnson as prime minister. Five themes were developed from included articles: food shortages/panic buying (appearing in 96% of articles); food chain disruption (86%); economic impacts (80%); preparation and stockpiling by the government/food sector (63%) and preparation and stockpiling by individuals (22%). CONCLUSION: Government messaging sought to reassure the public that even under a worst-case scenario there would be no food shortages. These messages, however, contradicted warnings in the media of disruption to the food supply chain and food shortages. The media further reinforced this narrative of potential food shortages by reporting on the experiences of those preparing for Brexit by stockpiling food. The media must consider the impact of their messaging on public behaviour, as even imagined food shortages can instigate stockpiling and panic buying behaviour, as observed during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , European Union , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , United Kingdom
19.
Int J Technol Assess Health Care ; 38(1): e14, 2022 Jan 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1655362

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The European Network for Health Technology Assessment (EUnetHTA) was established in 2006. During its final project phase (joint action 3 [JA3]), it undertook an activity to define the scientific and technical principles of a model of health technology assessment (HTA) cooperation in Europe. This policy article presents the key learnings from JA3 partners about developing a model of HTA cooperation. METHODS: There were two phases to the activity: (i) A descriptive phase to describe the elements of HTA cooperation that were already in place in EUnetHTA JA3 and to identify which elements could be improved or were missing. (ii) An analytic phase synthesizing the data collected to identify learnings from the JA3 and to define the scientific and technical principles for a future model of HTA cooperation. RESULTS: Learnings for developing HTA cooperation were identified in regard to the framework used to support the cooperation, the HTA activities undertaken, the involvement of internal and external actors, managing decision making and the required human resources and support services needed to undertake HTA activities and to coordinate collaboration. CONCLUSIONS: These learnings coming from the experiences of the EUnetHTA JA3 are useful to inform discussions on a European Union regulation for HTA cooperation as well as subsequent work to set up the structures that will be defined in the regulation. The findings also have broader applicability and are relevant to individuals, groups, and organizations setting up HTA programs or establishing their own international collaborations.


Subject(s)
Technology Assessment, Biomedical , Europe , European Union , Humans
20.
Euro Surveill ; 26(50)2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1631277

ABSTRACT

While many European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) countries recently expanded human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination to boys, HPV vaccine supply is currently limited for girls in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) that are severely affected by HPV.Globally, about 50% of countries have introduced HPV vaccination. Some LMIC with high burden of cervical cancer have not yet introduced HPV vaccination, or are reaching suboptimal vaccination coverage. While WHO issued a call for cervical cancer elimination in 2018, a global shortage of HPV vaccines is currently predicted to last at least until 2024.We reviewed national policies of EU/EEA countries and recommendations of the World Health Organization (WHO) Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on immunisation to discuss current challenges and dose-sparing options. Several EU/EEA countries have extended HPV vaccination to boys and the European Cancer Organisation has issued a resolution for elimination of all HPV-associated cancers in both sexes. The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control concluded in its 2020 guidance that cost-effectiveness of extending routine vaccination to boys depends on several context-specific factors. The extension of HPV vaccination to boys in EU/EEA countries may affect global availability of vaccines. Temporary dose-sparing options could be considered during the COVID-19 post-pandemic period.


Subject(s)
Alphapapillomavirus , COVID-19 , Papillomavirus Infections , Papillomavirus Vaccines , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , European Union , Female , Humans , Immunization , Male , Morals , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control , Vaccination
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