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1.
Hypertension ; 76(5): 1368-1383, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2153222

ABSTRACT

Telemedicine allows the remote exchange of medical data between patients and healthcare professionals. It is used to increase patients' access to care and provide effective healthcare services at a distance. During the recent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, telemedicine has thrived and emerged worldwide as an indispensable resource to improve the management of isolated patients due to lockdown or shielding, including those with hypertension. The best proposed healthcare model for telemedicine in hypertension management should include remote monitoring and transmission of vital signs (notably blood pressure) and medication adherence plus education on lifestyle and risk factors, with video consultation as an option. The use of mixed automated feedback services with supervision of a multidisciplinary clinical team (physician, nurse, or pharmacist) is the ideal approach. The indications include screening for suspected hypertension, management of older adults, medically underserved people, high-risk hypertensive patients, patients with multiple diseases, and those isolated due to pandemics or national emergencies.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Hypertension/drug therapy , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Telemedicine/statistics & numerical data , Blood Pressure Determination/methods , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Management , Evidence-Based Medicine , Female , Humans , Hypertension/diagnosis , Italy , Male , Occupational Health , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Patient Safety , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Severity of Illness Index
2.
Anaesthesia ; 77(12): 1430-1438, 2022 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2136638

ABSTRACT

Frailty is a multidimensional state related to accumulation of age- and disease-related deficits across multiple domains. Older people represent the fastest growing segment of the peri-operative population, and 25-50% of older surgical patients live with frailty. When frailty is present before surgery, adjusted rates of morbidity and mortality increase at least two-fold; the odds of delirium and loss of independence are increased more than four- and five-fold, respectively. Care of the older person with frailty presenting for emergency surgery requires individualised and evidence-based care given the high-risk and complex nature of their presentations. Before surgery, frailty should be assessed using a multidimensional frailty instrument (most likely the Clinical Frailty Scale), and all members of the peri-operative team should be aware of each patient's frailty status. When frailty is present, pre-operative care should focus on documenting and communicating individualised risk, considering advanced care directives and engaging shared decision-making when feasible. Shared multidisciplinary care should be initiated. Peri-operatively, analgesia that avoids polypharmacy should be provided, along with delirium prevention strategies and consideration of postoperative care in a monitored environment. After the acute surgical episode, transition out of hospital requires that adequate support be in place, along with clear discharge instructions, and review of new and existing prescription medications. Advanced care directives should be reviewed or initiated in case of readmission. Overall, substantial knowledge gaps about the optimal peri-operative care of older people with frailty must be addressed through robust, patient-oriented research.


Subject(s)
Delirium , Frailty , Humans , Aged , Frailty/epidemiology , Frail Elderly , Geriatric Assessment/methods , Delirium/therapy , Evidence-Based Medicine
4.
Curr Opin Psychiatry ; 34(3): 216-221, 2021 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2114158

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Agitation associated with schizophrenia remains an important clinical concern and if not managed effectively, can escalate into aggressive behavior. This is a review of the recent biomedical literature on agitation in individuals with schizophrenia. RECENT FINDINGS: Themes in the recent literature include consideration of comorbidities such as cigarette smoking and cannabis use. Surveys reveal that pharmacological approaches to manage agitation have changed little, with haloperidol remaining in common use and intramuscular administration of antipsychotics and/or benzodiazepines being frequently administered to more severely agitated/aggressive individuals. Of note, ketamine has been recently adopted for use in severe agitation in medical emergency departments, but the risk of this medication for people with schizophrenia is unclear. At present, inhaled loxapine remains the only rapidly acting noninjectable FDA-approved treatment for agitation associated with schizophrenia. In development is an intranasal formulation for olanzapine (a well characterized atypical antipsychotic already approved to treat agitation) and a sublingual film for dexmedetomidine (an α2-adrenergic agonist used as an anesthetic and now being repurposed). SUMMARY: Comorbidities can contribute to agitation and can make an accurate differential diagnosis challenging. The ongoing development of rapidly acting novel formulations of antiagitation medications, if successful, may facilitate clinical treatment by providing additional options.


Subject(s)
Antipsychotic Agents/therapeutic use , Evidence-Based Medicine , Psychomotor Agitation/drug therapy , Psychomotor Agitation/etiology , Schizophrenia/complications , Aggression , Benzodiazepines/therapeutic use , Humans , Loxapine/therapeutic use , Schizophrenia/drug therapy
9.
CJEM ; 24(6): 566-568, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2060195
10.
Front Public Health ; 10: 907201, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2022939

ABSTRACT

Adopting audit and feedback (A&F) strategies could be a suitable healthcare intervention to fulfill the challenge of monitoring and improving clinical guidelines in evidence-based medicine. Indeed, A&F is used to encourage professionals to better adhere to standard guidelines to improve healthcare performance. Briefly, an audit is an inspection of professional practice in comparison to professional standards or targets whose results are subsequently communicated to professionals in a structured manner. Although A&F strategies have been adopted in several time-dependent settings, such as for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and stroke, interest of audits in rehabilitation care is also emerging. Recently, the Italian Ministry of Health has funded a national network project called EASY-NET, whose main objective is to evaluate the effectiveness of A&F strategies to improve healthcare practice and equity in various clinical and organizational settings in seven Italian regions. Last but not the least of these regions is the Sicily, represented within the project by the IRCCS Centro Neurolesi Bonino-Pulejo of Messina as the work package 7 (WP7). The EASY-NET WP7 is focused on the effectiveness of A&F strategies in both AMI and ischemic stroke setting, from acute to rehabilitation process of care. In this study, we described the study protocol, including the study design and methodology, providing a detailed description of the new model of A&F based on telemedicine, and discussing the possible challenges of this project.


Subject(s)
Delivery of Health Care , Evidence-Based Medicine , Feedback , Italy , Reproducibility of Results
13.
J Community Health ; 47(6): 943-948, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1971769

ABSTRACT

Due to the sudden rise in the cases of COVID-19 in the North-Eastern region of India, this study was conducted to survey the felt needs of the medical professionals with regards to education on the evidence-based management of COVID-19. A total of 25 North-East leaders were recruited and a baseline survey was conducted through the digital medium. Out of 25 North-East leaders, 52% were undergoing training in evidence-based medicine in the capacity-building program for evidence-based child health. Participants (48%) strongly agreed and 40% agreed on the possibility of enhanced care by capacity building in the areas of COVID-19 management through discussing cases. Out of 25 North East leaders, 48% agreed to join both as a speaker as well as a participant. Various priority topics on COVID-19 management e.g. childhood, adult, ocular manifestation, ICU management, telemedicine, vaccines, lab protocols, psychological distress, and treatment strategy have emerged. We have presented the findings of the survey which will help guide the mentoring program focusing on evidence-based management of COVID-19 in remote areas through Tele-education.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Evidence-Based Medicine , Telemedicine , Adult , Child , Humans , Capacity Building , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Mentors , Evidence-Based Medicine/education , Needs Assessment , India/epidemiology
14.
Front Public Health ; 10: 873881, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1933897

ABSTRACT

During health emergencies such as the COVID-19 pandemic, healthcare workers face numerous ethical challenges while catering to the needs of patients in healthcare settings. Although the data recapitulating high-income countries ethics frameworks are available, the challenges faced by clinicians in resource-limited settings of low- and middle-income countries are not discussed widely due to a lack of baseline data or evidence. The Nepali healthcare system, which is chronically understaffed and underequipped, was severely affected by the COVID-19 pandemic in its capacity to manage health services and resources for needy patients, leading to ethical dilemmas and challenges during clinical practice. This study aimed to develop a standard guideline that would address syndemic ethical dilemmas during clinical care of COVID-19 patients who are unable to afford standard-of-care. A mixed method study was conducted between February and June of 2021 in 12 government designated COVID-19 treatment hospitals in central Nepal. The draft guideline was discussed among the key stakeholders in the pandemic response in Nepal. The major ethical dilemmas confronted by the study participants (50 healthcare professionals providing patient care at COVID-19 treatment hospitals) could be grouped into five major pillars of ethical clinical practice: rational allocation of medical resources, updated treatment protocols that guide clinical decisions, standard-of-care regardless of patient's economic status, effective communication among stakeholders for prompt patient care, and external factors such as political and bureaucratic interference affecting ethical practice. This living clinical ethics guideline, which has been developed based on the local evidence and case stories of frontline responders, is expected to inform the policymakers as well as the decision-makers positioned at the concerned government units. These ethics guidelines could be endorsed with revisions by the concerned regulatory authorities for the use during consequent waves of COVID-19 and other epidemics that may occur in the future. Other countries affected by the pandemic could conduct similar studies to explore ethical practices in the local clinical and public health context.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Ethics, Clinical , Evidence-Based Medicine , Health Services , Humans , Nepal , Pandemics , Practice Guidelines as Topic
17.
J Midwifery Womens Health ; 67(2): 270-276, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1861417
20.
Lancet ; 399(10337): 1810-1829, 2022 05 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1829701

ABSTRACT

Progress has been made globally in improving the coverage of key maternal, newborn, and early childhood interventions in low-income and middle-income countries, which has contributed to a decrease in child mortality and morbidity. However, inequities remain, and many children and adolescents are still not covered by life-saving and nurturing care interventions, despite their relatively low costs and high cost-effectiveness. This Series paper builds on a large body of work from the past two decades on evidence-based interventions and packages of care for survival, strategies for delivery, and platforms to reach the most vulnerable. We review the current evidence base on the effectiveness of a variety of essential and emerging interventions that can be delivered from before conception until age 20 years to help children and adolescents not only survive into adulthood, but also to grow and develop optimally, support their wellbeing, and help them reach their full developmental potential. Although scaling up evidence-based interventions in children younger than 5 years might have the greatest effect on reducing child mortality rates, we highlight interventions and evidence gaps for school-age children (5-9 years) and the transition from childhood to adolescence (10-19 years), including interventions to support mental health and positive development, and address unintentional injuries, neglected tropical diseases, and non-communicable diseases.


Subject(s)
Child Mortality , Delivery of Health Care , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Evidence-Based Medicine , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Morbidity , Poverty , Young Adult
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