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1.
Am J Otolaryngol ; 43(4): 103484, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1819422

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study compared distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) and click-evoked auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) recorded from infants whose mother had Covid-19 during pregnancy (Covid-19 group) to infants whose mother did not have Covid-19 (Control group) during pregnancy. METHODS: This study retrospectively examined records of infants in the Covid-19 group (n = 15) and control group (n = 46) who had distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) and click-evoked auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) recorded as part of their clinical assessment. DPOAE amplitudes, absolute latencies (I, III, and V), and I-V interpeak intervals were examined. RESULTS: DPOAE amplitudes were similar between the Covid-19 group and the control group. The absolute latency of wave I was similar between groups. But absolute latencies III and V and I-V interpeak intervals of the Covid-19 group were significantly prolonged compared to the control group. CONCLUSION: Covid-19 infection and its complications during pregnancy may not affect the cochlear function but may affect the functioning of the auditory brainstem.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Otoacoustic Emissions, Spontaneous , Auditory Threshold/physiology , Evoked Potentials, Auditory, Brain Stem , Female , Humans , Infant , Otoacoustic Emissions, Spontaneous/physiology , Pregnancy , Retrospective Studies
2.
Am J Otolaryngol ; 43(3): 103428, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1773092

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: It is thought that COVID-19 may cause hearing loss, but its effects on the hearing system are not clear. This study aimed to reveal the effects of COVID-19 on the auditory system by using various audiological measurement methods in individuals diagnosed with COVID-19. METHODS: Thirty individuals between the ages of 18-45, who were diagnosed with COVID-19 by PCR at least one month ago, and had no pre-COVID-19 hearing loss complaints, constituted the test group. Thirty individuals aged between 18 and 30 years and who had no history of hearing loss constituted the control group. Audiological evaluations of all participants were made with pure-tone audiometry, high-frequency audiometry, transient-evoked otoacoustic emission (TEOAE), distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE), and auditory brainstem response (ABR) measurements. RESULTS: A significant difference was found between the groups at all high frequencies between 4 and 14 kHz (p < 0.05). TEOAE amplitudes at 1500 Hz, 2000 Hz and 4000 Hz frequencies and DPOAE amplitudes at 4003 Hz and higher frequencies were significantly lower in the test group (p < 0.05). While there was a significant difference between the I, III and V absolute latencies between the groups (p < 0.05), there was no significant difference between the I-III, III-V and I-V interpeak latencies (p > 0.05) as a result of the ABR test. CONCLUSION: This study showed that COVID-19 can cause cochlear damage, especially at high frequencies. More studies are needed to determine the effects of COVID-19 on the auditory system.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Deafness , Hearing Loss , Adolescent , Adult , Audiometry, Pure-Tone , Auditory Threshold/physiology , COVID-19/complications , Evoked Potentials, Auditory, Brain Stem , Hearing Loss/diagnosis , Hearing Loss/etiology , Humans , Middle Aged , Otoacoustic Emissions, Spontaneous/physiology , Young Adult
3.
Am J Otolaryngol ; 43(2): 103379, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1664635

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 infection can cause a wide spectrum of symptoms. The audio-vestibular system can also be involved, but there is still debate about this so findings need to be considered carefully. Furthermore, mother to fetus intrauterine transmission of COVID-19 infection in pregnant women is controversial. Few studies are available about the audio-vestibular symptomatology of newborns with intrauterine COVID19 exposure. OBJECTIVES: This study investigates the possible correlation between the COVID19 gestational infection and hearing impairment onset in newborns. The involvement of hearing in COVID19 is verified so the timing and methodology of audiological evaluation of children can be planned. METHODS: Children were subject to newborn hearing screening and audiological evaluation. Newborn hearing screening is carried out prior to hospital discharge using the Automatic Transient Evoked Otoacoustic Emissions test. Audiological evaluation is performed within the child age of 4 months by using maternal, pregnancy, and perinatal case history, COVID19 case history, otoscopy, acoustic immittance test, Distortion Product Otoacoustic Emissions test, and the Auditory Brainstem Response test. RESULTS: 63 children were included in the study. 82.5% of these children were subjects of the newborn hearing screening program. The remaining 11 newborns were not subjected to hearing screening due to isolation measures and their audiological evaluation was carried out directly. Only one of 52 screened neonates showed a bilateral REFER test result but hearing threshold was normal at audiological evaluation. Audiological evaluation showed normal bilateral ABR thresholds in 59/63 children. Four children (6.3% of the total) had ABR threshold alterations but two showed normal threshold at ABR retest performed within 1 month of the first. The other two infants showed monolateral ABR alterations but one of these had a concomitant middle ear effusion. In conclusion, only one child (1.6% of the sample) had an altered ABR. This child had shown one positive SARS-CoV-2 swab in the absence of risk factors for hearing loss. CONCLUSION: This study finds no evidence that maternal COVID19 infection is a risk factor in the development of congenital hearing loss in newborns.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mothers , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Evoked Potentials, Auditory, Brain Stem , Female , Hearing Tests/methods , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Neonatal Screening/methods , Otoacoustic Emissions, Spontaneous/physiology , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Ear Hear ; 43(1): 41-44, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528197

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Viral infections are known to be a risk factor for neonatal hearing loss. COVID-19 infection has been reported to affect hearing test results in one small sample sized study. We aimed to investigate the incidence the risk of neonatal hearing loss in infants of mothers who had COVID-19 infection during pregnancy, regarding their trimesters, by evaluating the neonatal hearing screening results. DESIGN: In this retrospective case-control study, neonatal hearing test results of 458 women with a history of COVID-19 infection in pregnancy were compared with 339 women who gave birth before the pandemic. Data of pregnant women who attended the COVID-19 outpatient clinic of the emergency service of a tertiary pandemic hospital and who had confirmed infection with a reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test were determined from the hospital's records and their neonatal hearing screening results were analyzed from the national database. Neonates born before <34 weeks, and with reported risk factors in the database such as congenital anomaly or known TORCH infection during pregnancy were excluded. The screening tests, Automated Auditory Brainstem Response or Transient Evoked Otoacoustic Emission (TEOAE), were used for screening, and patients who failed the first screening were reevaluated at least 2 weeks apart with a second screening. RESULTS: The incidence of failed second screening was 1.3% in the COVID-19 group and 2.9% in controls, and no significant difference was observed between the two groups according to the final screening results on the second test. Among the 458 mothers, 8 were infected in first trimester, 126 in second trimester, 127 in third trimester but did not deliver within 15 days after infection and 197 were positive at birth. Six neonates in the infected group failed the second screening (3 [2.4%] in the second trimester, 1 [0.8%] third trimester, and 2 [1.0%] positive at birth). CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 infection during pregnancy was not found to be a risk factor for hearing loss, according to the newborn hearing screening results.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Case-Control Studies , Evoked Potentials, Auditory, Brain Stem , Female , Hearing Tests , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Mothers , Neonatal Screening , Otoacoustic Emissions, Spontaneous , Pregnancy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Otol Neurotol ; 42(5): 666-670, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1294812

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: While COVID-19 symptoms impact rhinology (anosmia) and laryngology (airways), two major disciplines of the otolaryngology armamentarium, the virus has seemed to spare the auditory system. A recent study, however, reported changes in otoacoustic emission (OAE) signals measured in SARS-COV-2 positive patients. We sought to assess the effect of COVID-19 infection on auditory performance in a cohort of recovered SARS-COV-2 patients and controls. To avoid a potential bias of previous audiological dysfunction not related to SARS-COV-2 infection, the study encompasses patients with normal auditory history. We hypothesized that if SARS-COV-2 infection predisposes to hearing loss, we would observe subtle and early audiometric deficits in our cohort in the form of subclinical auditory changes. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Tertiary referral center. PATIENTS: The Institutional Review Board approved the study and we recruited participants who had been positive for SARS-COV-2 infection, according to an Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) test on two nasopharyngeal swabs. The patients included in this study were asymptomatic for the SARS-COV-2 infection and were evaluated following recovery, confirmed by repeated swab testing. The control group comprised healthy individuals matched for age and sex, and with a normal auditory and otologic history. INTERVENTIONS: The eligibility to participate in this study included a normal audiogram, no previous auditory symptoms, normal otoscopy examination with an intact tympanic membrane, and bilateral tympanometry type A. None of our volunteers reported any new auditory symptoms following SARS-COV-2 infection. Ototacoustic emissions (OAE) and auditory brainstem response (ABR) measurements were used to evaluate the auditory function. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: OAE and ABR measurements. RESULTS: We have found no significant differences between recovered asymptomatic SARS-COV-2 patients and controls in any of transitory evoked otoacoustic emission (TEOAE), distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE), or ABR responses. CONCLUSIONS: There is no cochlear dysfunction represented by ABR, TEOAE, and DPOAE responses in recovered COVID-19 asymptomatic patients. Retrocochlear function was also preserved as evident by the ABR responses. A long-term evaluation of a larger cohort of SARS-COV-2 patients will help to identify a possible contribution of SARS-COV-2 infection to recently published anecdotal auditory symptoms associated with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Evoked Potentials, Auditory, Brain Stem , Humans , Otoacoustic Emissions, Spontaneous
6.
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol ; 146: 110754, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1213280

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The current study aimed to investigate possible association of maternal SARS-CoV-2 with newborn hearing loss. We compared hearing screening outcomes in neonates born to women with positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR test results during pregnancy with healthy controls. METHODS: Neonates born between April and December 2020 in our hospital to mothers with positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR test results during pregnancy were included in this study. Neonates with risk factors for universal newborn hearing screening (NHS) were excluded. Neonates born to mothers with positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR test results during pregnancy were compared with healthy controls in terms of newborn hearing screening results and independent variables. RESULTS: Neonates in the COVID-19 group were more likely to have a "refer" result in auditory brainstem responses (ABR) compared with the control group (53/118 and 28/118, respectively; p = 0.001). The second ABR test results did not differ significantly between the groups (p = 0.618). Logistic regression revealed that birth week and type of birth were not associated with the "refer" result. PCR positivity in the second trimester was more likely to produce the "refer" result in the first ABR test (p = 0.014). CONCLUSION: SARS-CoV-2 PCR positivity in pregnancy is significantly associated with an increased risk of abnormal NHS results. Also, the timing of PCR positivity in pregnancy (trimester) may be related to abnormal NHS results.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hearing Disorders/diagnosis , Hearing Tests , Neonatal Screening , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Evoked Potentials, Auditory, Brain Stem , Female , Hearing Disorders/virology , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Pregnancy Outcome , Pregnant Women , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Eur Ann Otorhinolaryngol Head Neck Dis ; 138(5): 363-375, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-885178

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Access to diagnosis and treatments for auditory disorders and related pathologies has regressed in France during the COVID-19 pandemic, posing a risk to the patient's chance of recovery. This best practice recommendations guide aims to list the existing technological solutions for the remote examination of a patient with hearing complaint, and to outline their benefits and, where applicable, their limitations. METHODS: The recommendations were developed both from the clinical experience of the medical experts who drafted the guide, and from an extensive review of the literature dealing with clinical practice recommendations for tele-audiology. Tele-audiometry solutions were identified on the basis of a search engine query carried out in April 2020, prior to verification of their availability on the European market. RESULTS: Video otoscopy solutions allow for the teletransmission of images compatible with a high-quality diagnosis, either by connecting via internet to a tele-health platform or using a smartphone or a tablet with an iOS or Android operating system. Using the same telecommunication methods, it is possible to remotely conduct a pure-tone audiometry test in accordance with standard practice, a speech-in-quiet or a speech-in-noise audiometry test, as well as objective measures of hearing. Clinical and paraclinical examinations can be accessed by the physician to be interpreted on a deferred basis (asynchronous tele-audiology). Examinations can also be conducted in real time in a patient, at any age of life, as long as a caregiver can be present during the installation of the transducers or the acoumetry. Tele-audiology solutions also find application in the remote training of future healthcare professionals involved in the management of deafness and hearing impairment. CONCLUSION: Under French law, tele-otoscopy is a medical procedure that is either a tele-expertise (asynchronous adive) or a teleconsultation act (synchronous advice). Subjective and objective evaluation of the patient's hearing functions can be done remotely provided that the listed precautions are respected.


Subject(s)
Audiology/methods , Hearing Disorders/diagnosis , Telemedicine , Audiometry/methods , Decision Trees , Evoked Potentials, Auditory, Brain Stem , France , Hearing Tests , Humans , Otoacoustic Emissions, Spontaneous , Otoscopy , Smartphone , Video Recording
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