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1.
Neurol Sci ; 43(4): 2285-2293, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1739338

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: COVID-19 infection is associated with peripheral neuropathy. However, subclinical neurological involvement may occur anytime, and diagnostic methods that reveal this subclinical involvement are not well established. We aimed to assess the subclinical neurological involvement by visual evoked potential (VEP) measurements and nerve conduction studies (NCS) and explore the relationship between neurological electrophysiological findings and the severity of COVID-19 infection. METHODS: Seventy-six patients recovered from COVID-19 infection, and 44 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. Patients were assessed for clinical and demographic parameters. NCS and VEP analyses were performed to detect any peripheral neuropathy or optic neuropathy in both groups. RESULTS: None of the COVID-19 patients had electrophysiological evidence of peripheral neuropathy. However, patients with COVID-19 pneumonia had significant abnormalities in several peripheral nerve measurements compared to patients without pneumonia. Although P100 parameters did not differ significantly between patients and controls, 12 patients with COVID-19 had prolonged P100 latencies. CONCLUSIONS: We detected subclinical afferent visual pathway abnormality evaluated by VEP analysis. In addition, we found subtle electrophysiological features in the NCS of the patients presented with COVID-19 pneumonia. However, our findings did not fortify the diagnosis of peripheral neuropathy or optic neuropathy. Further studies are needed to determine the characteristics of COVID-19-related peripheral neuropathy/optic neuropathy whether it has distinct clinical features and disease course.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Optic Nerve Diseases , COVID-19/complications , Evoked Potentials, Visual , Humans , Neural Conduction/physiology , SARS-CoV-2
2.
BMC Neurol ; 22(1): 54, 2022 Feb 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1677495

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is a rare immune-mediated inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. We report a case of ADEM presenting with bilateral optic neuritis temporally associated with the ChAdOx1 vaccine against SARS-COVID19 virus. CASE PRESENTATION: A 36-year-old female presented with bilateral optic neuritis following her first dose of the ChAdOx1 vaccine. Initial MRI Brain showed evidence of demyelination within the subcortical white matter, with no radiological involvement of the optic nerves. Visual evoked potentials were consistent with bilateral optic neuritis which was confirmed radiologically on follow up MRI. She was treated with intravenous steroids with improvement both in symptoms and radiological appearance. A pseudo-relapse occurred which was treated with a further course of intravenous steroids followed by an oral taper. The clinical, radiological and serological results were most consistent with diagnosis of ADEM. CONCLUSIONS: ADEM is an exceedingly rare complication of ChAdOx1 vaccine despite millions of doses. While it is imperative clinicians remain aware of neurological complications of vaccines, the importance of vaccination to control a pandemic should not be undermined.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Encephalomyelitis, Acute Disseminated , Optic Neuritis , Adult , COVID-19 Vaccines , Encephalomyelitis, Acute Disseminated/diagnostic imaging , Encephalomyelitis, Acute Disseminated/drug therapy , Encephalomyelitis, Acute Disseminated/etiology , Evoked Potentials, Visual , Female , Humans , Optic Neuritis/drug therapy , Optic Neuritis/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
3.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 52: 102984, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1230680

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It is suspected that patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) are at greater risk for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection due to disability and immunotherapy. The relationship between MS and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is uncertain. The aim of the study was to collect and analyze this relationship. METHODS: All MS patients of the Neurological Outpatient Clinic in Zabrze, Poland, were regularly questioned for the symptoms of COVID-19 and contact with an infected person. Patients that presented with COVID-19 symptoms or confirmed contact with an infected person were referred for the COVID-19 test. All patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection (n = 41) were included in the analysis. Medical records of the study group were analyzed. Patient condition was monitored in the outpatient clinic after recovery. In 26 subjects, additional examinations, including brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), electroneurography (ENG), electroencephalography (EEG), color duplex Doppler (CDD), visual evoked potentials (VEPs), brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEPs) and psychological assessment were performed following recovery. RESULTS: Only one patient required hospitalization during COVID-19 infection, whereas 87.80% of patients did not require treatment for COVID-19. In all patients, C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were below 10 mg/L. In 2.44% of patients, oxygen partial pressure was below 95%. In most MS patients, the results of further examinations after COVID-19 infection were similar to those prior to infection. Psychological assessment revealed that anxiety was found in 42.31% of patients. CONCLUSIONS: A mild course of COVID-19 in MS patients seems common despite disease-modifying drug treatment and disability. Self-isolation is recommended to reduce the number of infected patients. COVID-19 infection did not worsen the course of MS in most subjects. Patients with MS may require additional psychological support during the pandemic due to their susceptibility to anxiety.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis , Evoked Potentials, Visual , Humans , Poland , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 69(5): 1327-1329, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1207866

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) is showing a wide spectrum of ocular manifestations. They are creeping from vision sparing to irreversible visual loss as a result of its thromboembolic events. Hypercoagulability associated with COVID-19 is also called "sepsis-induced coagulopathy" and may predispose to thromboembolic phenomenon that decides the morbidity and mortality of this pandemic. A 37-year-old man presented with no perception of light in the left eye with optic atrophy and macular pucker on fundus examination. Visual evoked potential showed extinguished P 100 wave. His past medical history revealed severe pneumonia secondary to severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV 2) infection about 3 months back.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cavernous Sinus Thrombosis , Adult , Evoked Potentials, Visual , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Curr Eye Res ; 46(8): 1247-1250, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1061052

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We documented an older female with Coronavirus(CoV) Disease 2019 (COVID-19) and concomitant acquired monocular blindness. We examined this phenomenon in order to understand COVID-19 better. METHODS: We observed an older female with COVID-19 and concomitant acquired monocular blindness. The following indicators were monitored during the course of the disease: ocular examinations, flash visual evoked potential examination, a blood test for COVID-19 IgM antibodies, as well as nasopharyngeal swab and tear sample tests for COVID-19 nucleic acid. RESULTS: The patient's visual acuity for the left eye was NLP and the intraocular pressure was 51 mmHg. Keratic precipitates similar to mutton-fat were spread over the corneal endothelium of the left eye. The funduscopic examination of the patient's left eye revealed severe retinal arterial ischemia, and the color of the retina was off-white. Compared to the right eye, the flash visual evoked potential examination revealed a moderate decrease in P2 wave amplitude for the left eye. A blood test was positive for COVID-19 IgM antibodies, and a nasopharyngeal swab test taken for COVID-19 nucleic acid was positive on May 4, 2020. A sample of the patient's tears was taken, and the nucleic acid test for COVID-19 was still positive two weeks later. CONCLUSIONS: Our study was the first to find that acute viral retinitis could occur in patients with COVID-19 and severe blindness could be associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Therefore, physicians should consider the possibility of coronavirus infection in patients with an abnormal fundus or suddenly vision loss.


Subject(s)
Blindness/diagnosis , COVID-19/diagnosis , Eye Infections, Viral/diagnosis , Retinitis/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Aged , Blindness/virology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Evoked Potentials, Visual/physiology , Eye Infections, Viral/virology , Female , Fluorescein Angiography , Humans , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Photic Stimulation , Retina/physiopathology , Retinitis/physiopathology , Retinitis/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Visual Acuity
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