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1.
Pediatrics ; 151(2)2023 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2324609

ABSTRACT

A 7-year-old boy presented to the emergency department with fever, cough, congestion, abdominal pain, myalgias, and morbilliform rash. Several aspects of the patient's history, including recent travel, living on a farm, exposure to sick contacts, and new medications, resulted in a wide differential diagnosis. Initial laboratory testing revealed leukocytosis with neutrophilia and elevated atypical lymphocytes, but did not reveal any infectious causes of illness. He was discharged from the hospital, but then represented to the emergency department a day later with worsening rash, continued fever, abdominal pain, and poor intake. He was then admitted. A more comprehensive laboratory evaluation was initiated. During this hospital course, the patient's physical examination changed when he developed head and neck edema, and certain laboratory trends became clearer. With the assistance of several specialists, the team was able to reach a more definitive diagnosis and initiate treatment to appropriately manage his condition.


Subject(s)
Cough , Exanthema , Male , Humans , Child , Cough/etiology , Fever/etiology , Abdominal Pain/etiology , Leukocytosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Exanthema/etiology
2.
J Cosmet Dermatol ; 21(9): 3667-3672, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2295485

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has been linked to a variety of dermatological conditions. OBJECTIVE: To determine the presence of various cutaneous manifestations in patients with COVID-19, also to define their features in relation to the systemic symptoms. METHODS: This research enrolled a total of 1206 lab-confirmed COVID-19 individuals at a tertiary-care hospital in Karachi, Pakistan. Expert dermatologists assessed patients for COVID-related skin conditions. COVID-19 severity was categorized as asymptomatic/mild, moderate, or severe. RESULTS: Of the 102 (85.7%) patients with only one cutaneous sign, 26.5% developed maculopapular/morbiliform/erythematous rash; 14.7% urticaria; 9.85% vesicular/pustular exanthem; 14.7% vascular pattern; 12.7% infections, 7.8% miscellaneous and 9.8% late cutaneous findings A longer-lasting vascular pattern was related with an older age and a fatal COVID-19 outcomes (P: 0.000) compared with mild/moderate disease. Most of the retiform purpura presented exclusively with thromboembolic episodes. The moderate severity was correlated with maculopapular/morbiliform/exanthematous phenotype (P: 0.009), whereas urticaria was attributed to asymptomatic/mild disease (0.001) compared with moderate/severe infection. LIMITATIONS: Single-Center and observational study. CONCLUSION: Vascular lesions were correlated with disastrous COVID-19 outcomes, whereas retiform purpura was linked to adverse outcomes. The maculopapular/morbiliform/erythematous rash was associated with moderate severity, while the urticarial rash was linked to milder course compared with moderate/severe severity infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drug Eruptions , Exanthema , Purpura , Urticaria , COVID-19/complications , Exanthema/diagnosis , Exanthema/etiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Urticaria/etiology
4.
Clin Infect Dis ; 76(6): 1149-1151, 2023 03 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2247476
7.
Curr Opin Infect Dis ; 36(2): 109-113, 2023 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2222952

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Skin rashes seen during COVID-19 usually feature maculopapular or vesicular morphology, thus mimicking cutaneous eruptions occurring in other common infectious dermatoses, such as mononucleosis, chickenpox, sixth disease and measles, with possible diagnostic mistakes. In this review article, we sought to provide a practical overview about clinical appearance of skin rashes related to SARS-CoV-2 infection. RECENT FINDINGS: The study summarizes literature evidence on clinical patterns of COVID-19-associated maculopapular or vesicular rash, with a particular emphasis on the principal points of differentiation with possible mimickers. SUMMARY: Several differences do exist between rashes due to SARS-CoV-2 infection and other viral eruptions, mainly including lesions morphology, spreading pattern, symptoms and mucosal involvement. The increase of awareness of such features among clinicians may help promptly recognize COVID-19-related exanthemas in order to take proper action to manage the infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chickenpox , Exanthema Subitum , Exanthema , Measles , Skin Diseases , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/complications , Exanthema Subitum/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Chickenpox/complications , Chickenpox/diagnosis , Exanthema/etiology , Exanthema/complications , Measles/complications , Measles/diagnosis , Skin Diseases/complications , Skin Diseases/diagnosis
8.
J Dermatol ; 50(3): 280-289, 2023 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2192130

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, a new infectious pathogen named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was identified in Wuhan, China. Transmitted through respiratory droplets, SARS-CoV-2 is the causative pathogen of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Although this new COVID-19 infection is known to cause primarily interstitial pneumonia and respiratory failure, it is often associated with cutaneous manifestations as well. These manifestations with COVID-19 can be classified into seven categories: (i) chilblain-like skin eruption (e.g., COVID toes), (ii) urticaria-like skin eruption, (iii) maculopapular lesions, (iv) vesicular eruptions, (v) purpura, (vi) livedo reticularis and necrotic lesions, (vii) urticarial vasculitis, and others such as alopecia and herpes zoster. The pathogenesis of skin eruptions can be broadly divided into vasculitic and inflammatory skin eruptions. Various cutaneous adverse reactions have also been observed after COVID-19 mRNA vaccination. The major cutaneous adverse reactions are type I hypersensitivity (urticaria and anaphylaxis) and type IV hypersensitivity (COVID arm and erythema multiform). Autoimmune-mediated reactions including bullous pemphigus, vasculitis, vitiligo, and alopecia areata have also been reported. Several cases with chilblain-like lesions and herpes zoster after COVID-19 mRNA vaccination have been published. Various skin diseases associated with COVID-19 and COVID-19 vaccination have been reported, and the mechanism has been partly elucidated. In the process, for example, some papers have reported that it is not related to COVID-19 infection, although it was initially called COVID-toe and considered a COVID-19-associated cutaneous eruption. In fact, some COVID-19-associated skin reactions are indistinguishable from drug eruptions. In the future, the mechanisms of COVID-19- or COVID-19 vaccine-associated skin reactions need to be elucidated and verification of causal relationships is required.


Subject(s)
Alopecia Areata , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Chilblains , Exanthema , Herpes Zoster , Skin Diseases , Urticaria , Humans , Alopecia Areata/complications , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Exanthema/etiology , Herpes Zoster/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Skin Diseases/etiology , Urticaria/complications , Vaccination/adverse effects
11.
Br J Dermatol ; 187(6): 900-908, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2152638

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 infection have differed during the different waves of the pandemic but little is known about how cutaneous manifestations have changed. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the diagnostic value, frequency and duration of cutaneous manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 infection and to explore their variations between the Delta and Omicron waves of the pandemic. METHODS: In this retrospective study, we used self-reported data from 348 691 UK users of the ZOE COVID Study app, matched 1 : 1 for age, sex, vaccination status and self-reported eczema diagnosis between the Delta and Omicron waves, to assess the diagnostic value, frequency and duration of five cutaneous manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 infection (acral, burning, erythematopapular and urticarial rash, and unusual hair loss), and how these changed between waves. We also investigated whether vaccination had any effect on symptom frequency. RESULTS: We show a significant association between any cutaneous manifestations and a positive SARS-CoV-2 test result, with a diagnostic value higher in the Delta compared with the Omicron wave (odds ratio 2·29, 95% confidence interval 2·22-2·36, P < 0·001; and odds ratio 1·29, 95% confidence interval 1·26-1·33, P < 0·001, respectively). Cutaneous manifestations were also more common with Delta vs. Omicron (17·6% vs. 11·4%, respectively) and had a longer duration. During both waves, cutaneous symptoms clustered with other frequent symptoms and rarely (in < 2% of the users) as first or only clinical sign of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Finally, we observed that vaccinated and unvaccinated users showed similar odds of presenting with a cutaneous manifestation, apart from burning rash, where the odds were lower in vaccinated users. CONCLUSIONS: Cutaneous manifestations are predictive of SARS-CoV-2 infection, and their frequency and duration have changed with different variants. Therefore, we advocate for their inclusion in the list of clinically relevant COVID-19 symptoms and suggest that their monitoring could help identify new variants. What is already known about this topic? Several studies during the wildtype COVID-19 wave reported that patients presented with common skin-related symptoms. It has been observed that COVID-19 symptoms differ among variants. No study has focused on how skin-related symptoms have changed across different variants. What does this study add? We showed, in a community-based retrospective study including over 348 000 individuals, that the presence of cutaneous symptoms is predictive of SARS-CoV-2 infection during the Delta and Omicron waves and that this diagnostic value, along with symptom frequency and duration, differs between variants. We showed that infected vaccinated and unvaccinated individuals reported similar skin-related symptoms during the Delta and Omicron waves, with only burning rashes being less common after vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Exanthema , Mobile Applications , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Retrospective Studies , Exanthema/diagnosis , Exanthema/epidemiology , Exanthema/etiology , United Kingdom/epidemiology
14.
Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol ; 36: 3946320221131981, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053630

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection may present with some systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) manifestations intermingled with Kawasaki disease features. These emerging presentations were dubbed under the umbrella term 'multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C)'. A one and half-year-old girl, admitted to Mansoura University Children's Hospital (MUCH) with fever, bad general condition, vomiting, widespread maculopapular, vasculitic rash, hands and feet oedema, oral ulceration, arthralgia and lymphadenopathy. Moreover, bicytopenia, positive antinuclear, anti-double-stranded DNA antibodies and low C3 qualified her as a case of juvenile SLE. Despite the child received the initial therapy of immunosuppressive medication, her general condition deteriorated with fever persistence and rash exacerbation. At that time, the skin of her hands and feet started to peel. Thus, an expanded study for other alternatives was obligatory; SARS-CoV-2 infection testing revealed positive IgG serology, and retesting for lupus autoantibodies turned negative. HRCT chest showed bilateral basal consolidation with ground-glass appearance. Furthermore, Echo exhibited coronary artery dilation with thrombus inside. This evolution raised the concern for COVID-related MIS-C syndrome. This report provides a model of COVID-19 heterogeneity with protean immune-related manifestations. This case has a unique presentation that necessities its description, in order to provide a nidus for future studies in this new entity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Exanthema , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic , Antibodies, Viral , Autoantibodies , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Child , DNA , Exanthema/etiology , Female , Fever , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Infant , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/complications , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis
15.
Pediatrics ; 150(4)2022 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2039480

ABSTRACT

A previously healthy 14-year-old boy developed right-sided neck pain, tachycardia, a diffuse erythematous rash, and subjective fevers over 2 days. He sought medical attention in a local urgent care clinic, where he had a negative Sars-CoV-2 antigen test and was referred to the local emergency department (ED) for persistent tachycardia and further workup. After fluid resuscitation, his tachycardia was not improved, so he was admitted to the Pediatric Hospital Medicine Service. Physical examination showed large areas of erythema and erythroderma of multiple body sites, perioral sparing, increased erythema in flexor skin folds, posterior soft palate petechiae, and a white strawberry tongue. There was a small, tender lesion with surrounding erythema without discharge on his right neck thought to be a possible entry point for infection. Laboratory results showed thrombocytopenia, normal white blood cell count, normal hemoglobin concentration, absolute lymphopenia, and an elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) to 130 mg/L. He was started on intravenous fluids and antibiotics for a presumed infectious cause of the rash and laboratory findings. The next morning, an expanded diagnostic workup was undertaken including electrocardiogram, echocardiogram, ferritin, triglycerides, liver enzymes, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), brain natriuretic peptide, coagulation studies, and fibrinogen. With treatment and supportive care, his tachycardia and energy improved, so he was discharged with oral antibiotics and follow-up with the Infectious Disease Clinic in 2 days. When seen in follow-up, he was immediately admitted to the hospital for worsening fatigue, tachycardia, and new findings that prompted multiple consultations, and transfer to pediatric critical care services.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Exanthema , Adolescent , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , C-Reactive Protein , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Child , Erythema , Exanthema/diagnosis , Exanthema/etiology , Ferritins , Fever , Fibrinogen , Humans , Lactate Dehydrogenases , Male , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain , Neck Pain , SARS-CoV-2 , Triglycerides
17.
Int J Dermatol ; 61(10): 1187-1204, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2019306

ABSTRACT

To date, over 250 million people have been reportedly infected by COVID-19 disease, which has spread across the globe and led to approximately 5.1 million fatalities. To prevent both COVID-19 and viral transmission, DNA-based/RNA-based vaccines, non-replicating viral vector vaccines, and inactivated vaccines have been recently developed. However, a precise clinical and histological characterization of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine-related dermatological manifestations is still lacking. A systematic review of 229 articles was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, in order to provide an extensive overview of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine-related skin manifestations. Data on demographics, number of reported cases with cutaneous involvement, vaccine, and rash type (morphology) were extracted from articles and summarized. A total of 5941 SARS-CoV-2 vaccine-related dermatological manifestations were gathered. Local injection-site reactions were the most frequently observed, followed by rash/unspecified cutaneous eruption, urticarial rashes, angioedema, herpes zoster, morbilliform/maculopapular/erythematous macular eruption, pityriasis rosea and pityriasis rosea-like eruptions, and other less common dermatological manifestations. Flares of pre-existing dermatological conditions were also reported. Cutaneous adverse reactions following SARS-CoV-2 vaccine administration seem to be heterogeneous, rather infrequent, and not life-threatening. Vaccinated patients should be monitored for skin manifestations, and dermatological evaluation should be offered, when needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Exanthema , Pityriasis Rosea , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Exanthema/etiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
18.
N Engl J Med ; 387(8): 679-691, 2022 08 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2016969

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Before April 2022, monkeypox virus infection in humans was seldom reported outside African regions where it is endemic. Currently, cases are occurring worldwide. Transmission, risk factors, clinical presentation, and outcomes of infection are poorly defined. METHODS: We formed an international collaborative group of clinicians who contributed to an international case series to describe the presentation, clinical course, and outcomes of polymerase-chain-reaction-confirmed monkeypox virus infections. RESULTS: We report 528 infections diagnosed between April 27 and June 24, 2022, at 43 sites in 16 countries. Overall, 98% of the persons with infection were gay or bisexual men, 75% were White, and 41% had human immunodeficiency virus infection; the median age was 38 years. Transmission was suspected to have occurred through sexual activity in 95% of the persons with infection. In this case series, 95% of the persons presented with a rash (with 64% having ≤10 lesions), 73% had anogenital lesions, and 41% had mucosal lesions (with 54 having a single genital lesion). Common systemic features preceding the rash included fever (62%), lethargy (41%), myalgia (31%), and headache (27%); lymphadenopathy was also common (reported in 56%). Concomitant sexually transmitted infections were reported in 109 of 377 persons (29%) who were tested. Among the 23 persons with a clear exposure history, the median incubation period was 7 days (range, 3 to 20). Monkeypox virus DNA was detected in 29 of the 32 persons in whom seminal fluid was analyzed. Antiviral treatment was given to 5% of the persons overall, and 70 (13%) were hospitalized; the reasons for hospitalization were pain management, mostly for severe anorectal pain (21 persons); soft-tissue superinfection (18); pharyngitis limiting oral intake (5); eye lesions (2); acute kidney injury (2); myocarditis (2); and infection-control purposes (13). No deaths were reported. CONCLUSIONS: In this case series, monkeypox manifested with a variety of dermatologic and systemic clinical findings. The simultaneous identification of cases outside areas where monkeypox has traditionally been endemic highlights the need for rapid identification and diagnosis of cases to contain further community spread.


Subject(s)
Global Health , Monkeypox , Adult , Exanthema/etiology , Female , Fever/etiology , Global Health/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Monkeypox/epidemiology , Monkeypox/therapy , Monkeypox virus
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