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1.
Am J Dermatopathol ; 43(12): 962-964, 2021 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450452

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: One of the most common patterns of presentations that have been described in COVID-19 patients includes the erythematous/papular/morbilliform eruptions. However, actually, the diffuse exanthems containing macules and papules were not specific to COVID-19, and even histopathology does not show any specific signs that could help to differentiate COVID-19 skin lesions from non-COVID-19 causes such as drugs or other viral infections. We present the case of a COVID-19-positive woman with a morbilliform rash, whose skin biopsy showed the presence of some peculiar cytopathic epidermal changes that could represent a possible distinctive histopathological feature related to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection The presence of viral particles in the keratinocytes with additional positivity of endothelial cells and eccrine glands by immunohistochemistry using an anti-SARS-CoV-2 Spike S1 antibodies supports a causal relation of the lesions with SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Exanthema/pathology , Exanthema/virology , Adult , Female , Humans , Keratinocytes/pathology , Keratinocytes/virology , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 09 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438744

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a multisystem disease caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), that primarily causes respiratory symptoms. However, an increasing number of cutaneous manifestations associated with this disease have been reported. The aim of this study is to analyze the scientific literature on cutaneous manifestations associated with SARS-CoV-2 by means of a narrative literature review until June 2021. The search was conducted in the following electronic databases: Medline (PubMed), SciELO, and Cochrane Library Plus. The most common cutaneous manifestations in patients with COVID-19 are vesicular eruptions, petechial/purpuric rashes, acral lesions, liveoid lesions, urticarial rash, and maculopapular-erythematous rash. These manifestations may be the first presenting symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 infection, as is the case with acral lesions, vesicular eruptions, and urticaria. In relation to severity, the presence of liveoid lesions may be associated with a more severe course of the disease. Treatment used for dermatological lesions includes therapy with anticoagulants, corticosteroids, and antihistamines. Knowledge of the dermatologic manifestations associated with SARS-CoV-2 contributes to the diagnosis of COVID-19 in patients with skin lesions associated with respiratory symptoms or in asymptomatic patients. In addition, understanding the dermatologic lesions associated with COVID-19 could be useful to establish a personalized care plan.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Skin Diseases/pathology , Skin/pathology , COVID-19/metabolism , Exanthema/pathology , Exanthema/therapy , Exanthema/virology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Skin/virology , Skin Diseases/therapy , Skin Diseases/virology , Skin Physiological Phenomena , Urticaria/pathology , Urticaria/therapy , Urticaria/virology
3.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(9)2021 Sep 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1394076

ABSTRACT

A 70-year-old man was admitted to our COVID-19 ward with thoracalgia, productive mucus cough, fatigue and erythematous-violaceous macules on the inner side of feet and interdigital regions. The patient was started on oxygen and dexamethasone. On the day of discharge, he maintained the skin changes despite the resolution of COVID-19 symptoms. A 57-year-old woman initially presented with diffuse urticarial rash on the cervical and chest region. Oral cetirizine was started, and pruritus improved. Thirty days after the discharge, the patient maintained the rash, but without pruritus. A 49-year-old man was admitted with thoracalgia, shortness of breath, dry cough and urticarial rash on the cervical and chest region. The patient was treated with cetirizine. The pruritus improved, and 5 days after discharge, the urticarial areas completely disappeared.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Exanthema , Urticaria , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Exanthema/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Urticaria/virology
6.
Clin Dermatol ; 39(1): 12-22, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1300687

ABSTRACT

A wide range of cutaneous signs are attributed to COVID-19 infection. This retrospective study assesses the presence and impact of dermatologic manifestations related to the spread of COVID-19 in Lombardy, the geographic district with the first outbreak in Italy. A cohort of 345 patients with laboratory confirmed COVID-19 was collected from February 1, 2020 to May 31, 2020. Cutaneous signs and dermatologic diagnoses were recorded on admission, and during the course of the disease. Of the 345 patients included in the study, 52 (15%) had new-onset dermatologic conditions related to COVID-19. We observed seven major cutaneous clinical patterns, merged under 3 main groups: Exanthems, vascular lesions, and other cutaneous manifestations. Each subset was detailed with prevalence, age, duration, prognosis, and histology. Cutaneous findings can lead to suspect COVID-19 infection and identify potentially contagious cases with indolent course.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Skin Diseases/epidemiology , Skin Diseases/virology , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Chilblains/pathology , Chilblains/virology , Child , Erythema Multiforme/virology , Exanthema/virology , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Skin Diseases/pathology , Skin Diseases, Vascular/virology , Urticaria/virology , Young Adult
7.
Clin Dermatol ; 39(1): 149-162, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1300684

ABSTRACT

Skin is one of target organs affected by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, and in response to the current COVID-19 pandemic, a fast body of literature has emerged on related cutaneous manifestations. Current perspective is that the skin is not only a bystander of the general cytokines storm with thrombophilic multiorgan injury, but it is directly affected by the epithelial tropism of the virus, as confirmed by the detection of SARS-CoV-2 in endothelial cells and epithelial cells of epidermis and eccrine glands. In contrast with the abundance of epidemiologic and clinical reports, histopathologic characterization of skin manifestations is limited. Without an adequate clinicopathologic correlation, nosology of clinically similar conditions is confusing, and effective association with COVID-19 remains presumptive. Several patients with different types of skin lesions, including the most specific acral chilblains-like lesions, showed negative results at SARS-CoV-2 nasopharyngeal and serologic sampling. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of what has currently been reported worldwide, with a particular emphasis on microscopic patterns of the skin manifestations in patients exposed to or affected by COVID-19. Substantial breakthroughs may occur in the near future from more skin biopsies, improvement of immunohistochemistry studies, RNA detection of SARS-CoV-2 strain by real-time polymerase chain reaction-based assay, and electron microscopic studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Skin Diseases/pathology , Skin Diseases/virology , Skin/pathology , Chilblains/pathology , Chilblains/virology , Erythema Multiforme/pathology , Erythema Multiforme/virology , Exanthema/pathology , Exanthema/virology , Humans , Necrosis/virology , Purpura/pathology , Purpura/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , Urticaria/pathology , Urticaria/virology
8.
Immun Inflamm Dis ; 9(3): 617-621, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1212748

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease (COVID-19), during its course, may involve several organs, including the skin with a petechial skin rash, urticaria and erythematous rash, or varicella-like eruption, representing an additional effect of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, as commonly observed in other viral diseases. Considering that symptomatic patients with COVID-19 generally undergo multidrug treatments, the occurrence of a possible adverse drug reaction presenting with cutaneous manifestations should be contemplated. Pleomorphic skin eruptions occurred in a 59-year-old Caucasian woman, affected by a stable form of chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection, treated with a combination of hydroxychloroquine sulfate, darunavir, ritonavir, sarilumb, omeprazole, ceftriaxone, high-flow oxygen therapy devices, filgrastim (Zarzio®) as a single injection, and enoxaparin. The patient stopped all treatment but oxygen and enoxaparin were continued and the patient received a high-dose Desametasone with complete remission of dermatological impairment in 10 days. It is very important to differentially diagnose COVID-19 disease-related cutaneous manifestations, where is justified to continue the multidrug antiviral treatment, from those caused by an adverse drug reaction, where it would be necessary to identify the possible culprit drug and to start appropriate antiallergic treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Exanthema , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications , Drug Therapy, Combination/adverse effects , Exanthema/drug therapy , Exanthema/virology , Female , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine , Middle Aged
9.
J Med Virol ; 93(2): 1184-1187, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196485

ABSTRACT

Emerging reports show that coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may lead to autoimmune and autoinflammatory diseases. However, COVID-19 triggered systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) has never been reported to our knowledge. COVID-19 also has associated cutaneous manifestations. Here we present a case of SLE with antiphospholipid antibody syndrome in a previously healthy patient with COVID-19, who subsequently developped a varicella-like exanthem on the trunk. The disease resulted in death of the patient. The pathophysiological mechanisms resulting in overlapping disorders in our patient remain unknown, adding to the growing mystery of this virus and raising questions about the nature of its link with cutaneous, autoimmune, and autoinflammatory manifestations. Sharing the images of this case may benefit physicians dealing with similar patients during this pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , Exanthema/virology , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/virology , Antibodies, Antiphospholipid/blood , Chickenpox , Fatal Outcome , Female , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/diagnosis , Young Adult
10.
Am J Case Rep ; 22: e929489, 2021 Mar 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1184052

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND The damage caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been extensive. Pregnant women are a group requiring special attention in medicine given the anatomical and physiological changes that occur during pregnancy. Skin rash is commonly associated with pregnancy, with the most common form of an erythematous maculopapular rash being pruritic urticarial papules and plaques of pregnancy. Skin rash is also an increasingly reported initial presentation in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), due to infection with SARS-CoV-2. CASE REPORT A 34-year-old woman with a diamniotic dichorionic twin pregnancy presented with clinical picture characterized by dermatological manifestations, namely an erythematous and papular skin rash associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. A real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (GeneFinder) test was positive for SARS-CoV-2 detection. CONCLUSIONS Ten months after the onset of this pandemic, there is no conclusive evidence indicating that pregnant women represent a sector more or less vulnerable to severe forms of COVID-19 than the general population. This report has highlighted the importance of performing a reliable diagnostic test for SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients who present with a skin rash, particularly pregnant women.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Erythema/virology , Exanthema/virology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Adult , COVID-19/complications , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Pregnancy, Twin
11.
Orv Hetil ; 162(16): 602-607, 2021 04 07.
Article in Hungarian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1172895

ABSTRACT

Összefoglaló. Újabb megfigyelések szerint a SARS-CoV-2-fertozést követoen gyermekekben a paediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome (PIMS) elnevezésu, sokkállapottal szövodött Kawasaki-megbetegedéshez hasonlító, többszervi elégtelenségnek megfelelo tünetegyüttes alakulhat ki. A gyermekek többségében ilyenkor a direkt víruskimutatás már sikertelen, azonban a SARS-CoV-2 ellen képzodött antitest igazolhatja a diagnózist. Dolgozatunk célja az egyik elso hazai eset ismertetése. Egy 15 éves fiú került gyermek intenzív osztályos felvételre több napon át észlelt magas láz, kesztyu-, zokniszeru exanthema, conjunctivitis, többszervi elégtelenség, szeptikus sokk tüneteivel, akut gyulladásra utaló laboratóriumi eltérésekkel és diffúz hasi panaszokkal. Felvételét megelozoen néhány héttel SARS-CoV-2-fertozésen esett át. Felvételekor a direkt víruskimutatás sikertelen volt, ám a SARS-CoV-2 elleni antitest vizsgálata pozitív lett. Komplex intenzív terápia mellett állapota stabilizálódott. Az irodalmi ajánlásoknak megfeleloen immunglobulin-, acetilszalicilsav- és szteroidkezelésben részesítettük, melynek hatására állapota maradványtünetek nélkül rendezodött. A növekvo esetszámú gyermekkori SARS-CoV-2-fertozés mellett egyre gyakrabban várható a SARS-CoV-2-fertozést követo, a Kawasaki-betegség tüneteire emlékezteto PIMS kialakulása. Gyermekekben súlyos szeptikus állapot és többszervi elégtelenség esetén gondolni kell a PIMS lehetoségére, mely esetenként intenzív osztályos ellátást és célzott terápiát igényel. Legjobb tudomásunk szerint a leírásra került beteg a Magyarországon diagnosztizált egyik legkorábbi eset. Orv Hetil. 2021; 162(16): 602-607. Summary. Recently following SARS-CoV-2 infection, a new, multisystem disease (paediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome, PIMS) with fever was recognized in children with shock and multiorgan failure. On of the first Hungarian cases will be described. A 15-year-old boy was admitted to the Paediatric Intensive Care Unit with persistent high fever, diffuse abdominal pain, septic shock, multiple organ failure, gloves- and socks-shaped cutan exanthema, conjunctivitis and laboratory signs of inflammation. Some weeks preceding his admission, symptoms of mild SARS-CoV-2 infection were revealed. At admission, the SARS-CoV-2 PCR and antigen tests were negative, however, the presence of IgG antibody was shown. Following complex supportive intensive care along with internationally recommended immunoglobulin, aspirin and steroid treatment, the patient was completely cured without any sequalae. In children after SARS-CoV-2 infection, PIMS could occur mimicking Kawasaki syndrome. At this time, in children virus PCR or antigen tests are usually negative already, but the presence of SARS-CoV-2 antibody could prove the preceding disease. Due to the increasing number of SARS-CoV-2 infections, the occurrence of post-SARS-CoV-2 PIMS in childhood is expected to increase. For paediatric patients, in case of severe septic state and multiple organ failure, PIMS should be also considered, which may require intensive care and targeted therapy. As far as we know, the described case is one of the earliest cases of PIMS in Hungary. Orv Hetil. 2021; 162(16): 602-607.


Subject(s)
Abdominal Pain/etiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , Fever/etiology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Adolescent , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/virology , Conjunctivitis/virology , Exanthema/virology , Hospitalization , Humans , Hungary , Inflammation/virology , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Male , Multiple Organ Failure/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Shock, Septic/virology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/blood , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/virology
13.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(3)2021 Mar 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1153657

ABSTRACT

A 54-year-old woman presented with pruritic rash and hives of 3 days' duration followed by shortness of breath for 1 day. SARS-CoV-2 PCR test for COVID-19 was positive. Cutaneous manifestations of COVID-19 include acral lesions, urticarial rash, erythematous maculopapular rash, vascular rashes and vesicular rash. The cutaneous manifestations are mostly described as self-limiting. Urticarial rashes are not reported as the initial presentation symptom of COVID-19 infection but mostly noted to occur at the same time or after the onset of non-cutaneous symptoms. Management of cutaneous manifestations of COVID-19 affecting quality of life has not been well studied. Antihistamine therapy is the primary recommended therapy. Role of antiviral therapy for severe cases of rash needs to be further assessed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Exanthema/virology , Urticaria/virology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Exanthema/pathology , Exanthema/therapy , Female , Histamine Antagonists/therapeutic use , Humans , Hypertension, Pulmonary/complications , Middle Aged , Obesity/complications , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Skin/pathology , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/complications , Treatment Outcome , Urticaria/pathology , Urticaria/therapy
14.
Rheumatol Int ; 41(6): 1021-1036, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1152001

ABSTRACT

Anti-Melanoma Differentiation-Associated gene 5 (MDA-5) Dermatomyositis (MDA5, DM) is a recently identified subtype of myositis characteristically associated with Rapidly Progressive Interstitial Lung Disease (RP-ILD) and unique cutaneous features. We reviewed PubMed, SCOPUS and Web of Science databases and selected 87 relevant articles after screening 1485 search results, aiming to gain a better understanding of the pathophysiology, clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment approaches of anti-MDA-5 DM described in the literature. The etiopathogenesis is speculatively linked to an unidentified viral trigger on the background of genetic predisposition culminating in an acquired type I interferonopathy. The clinical phenotype is highly varied in different ethnicities, with new clinical features having been recently described, expanding the spectrum of cases that should raise the suspicion of anti-MDA-5 DM. Unfortunately, the diagnosis is frequently missed despite excessive mortality, calling for wider awareness of suspect symptoms. RP ILD is the major determinant of survival, treatment being largely based on observational studies with recent insights into aggressive combined immunosuppression at the outset.


Subject(s)
Dermatomyositis/diagnosis , Dermatomyositis/therapy , COVID-19/diagnosis , Dermatomyositis/epidemiology , Dermatomyositis/virology , Disease Progression , Exanthema/diagnosis , Exanthema/etiology , Exanthema/virology , Female , Humans , Interferon-Induced Helicase, IFIH1 , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/diagnosis , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/etiology , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/virology , Male , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 139(2): 186-189, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1076308

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT CONTEXT: Various skin manifestations have been reported in coronavirus disease. It may be difficult to determine the etiology of these lesions in view of the increased frequency of handwashing during the pandemic, along with occurrences of irritant contact dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis due to disinfectant use; usage of herbal medicine and supplements to strengthen the immune system; and urticarial or maculopapular drug eruptions due to COVID-19 treatment. The variety of associated skin manifestations seen with COVID-19 makes it challenging to identify virus-specific skin manifestations. Petechiae, purpura, acrocyanosis and necrotic and non-necrotic purpura, which can be considered as manifestations of vascular involvement on the skin, have been reported. CASE REPORT: Here, we report a case of eruptive cherry angiomas, which was thought to have developed due to COVID-19, with a papulovesicular rash on distal extremities that progressed over time to reticular purpura. CONCLUSION: The case presented had a papulovesicular rash at the onset, which evolved to retiform purpura, and eruptive cherry angiomas were observed. It should be kept in mind that dermatological signs may vary in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Purpura/virology , Skin/virology , Skin Diseases, Viral/virology , Exanthema/virology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Hemangioma/virology , Skin/drug effects , Skin/pathology , Treatment Outcome , Skin Diseases, Viral/diagnosis , Skin Diseases, Viral/therapy , COVID-19 Testing , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/therapy
16.
J Pediatr Hematol Oncol ; 43(8): e1177-e1180, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1042861

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease-2019 in children has been linked to various clinical presentation, from paucisymptomatic cutaneous eruptions, to multisystemic inflammatory syndrome. We report the case of an 8-year-old boy who presented with persistent fever and pancytopenia, associated to a skin rash. An extensive etiological workup showed a positive serology for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and Epstein-Barr virus. A few weeks later, type B acute lymphocytic leukemia was diagnosed. This case underlines the polymorphic appearance of coronavirus disease-2019 and the need for critical appraisal.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Exanthema/pathology , Precursor B-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Child , Exanthema/virology , Humans , Male , Precursor B-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/virology , Prognosis
17.
Pediatr Dermatol ; 38(2): 455-457, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1013011

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 has been associated with a variety of dermatologic manifestations, often the predominant finding in otherwise asymptomatic or oligosymptomatic patients. Urticarial eruption is one example, but few cases have been reported among pediatric patients. We present a case of acute urticaria in a 6-month-old boy preceding other COVID-19 symptoms. The suspicion of a possible COVID-19-associated cutaneous manifestation prompted timely testing and diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Exanthema , Urticaria , COVID-19/complications , Exanthema/diagnosis , Exanthema/virology , Humans , Infant , Male , Urticaria/diagnosis , Urticaria/virology
18.
J Am Acad Dermatol ; 84(4): 946-952, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-988149

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Limited information exists on mucocutaneous disease and its relation to course of COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: To estimate prevalence of mucocutaneous findings, characterize morphologic patterns, and describe relationship to course in hospitalized adults with COVID-19. METHODS: Prospective cohort study at 2 tertiary hospitals (Northwell Health) between May 11, 2020 and June 15, 2020. RESULTS: Among 296 hospitalized adults with COVID-19, 35 (11.8%) had at least 1 disease-related eruption. Patterns included ulcer (13/35, 37.1%), purpura (9/35, 25.7%), necrosis (5/35, 14.3%), nonspecific erythema (4/35, 11.4%), morbilliform eruption (4/35, 11.4%), pernio-like lesions (4/35, 11.4%), and vesicles (1/35, 2.9%). Patterns also showed anatomic site specificity. A greater proportion of patients with mucocutaneous findings used mechanical ventilation (61% vs 30%), used vasopressors (77% vs 33%), initiated dialysis (31% vs 9%), had thrombosis (17% vs 11%), and had in-hospital mortality (34% vs 12%) compared with those without mucocutaneous findings. Patients with mucocutaneous disease were more likely to use mechanical ventilation (adjusted prevalence ratio, 1.98; 95% confidence interval, 1.37-2.86); P < .001). Differences for other outcomes were attenuated after covariate adjustment and did not reach statistical significance. LIMITATIONS: Skin biopsies were not performed. CONCLUSIONS: Distinct mucocutaneous patterns were identified in hospitalized adults with COVID-19. Mucocutaneous disease may be linked to more severe clinical course.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Skin Diseases/virology , Skin/pathology , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Acute Kidney Injury/virology , Aged , Blister/virology , COVID-19/therapy , Chilblains/virology , Erythema/virology , Exanthema/virology , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mucous Membrane , Necrosis/virology , Prospective Studies , Purpura/virology , Renal Dialysis , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2 , Skin Ulcer/virology , Thrombosis/virology , Vasoconstrictor Agents/therapeutic use
19.
Dermatology ; 237(1): 1-12, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-966735

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) is an ongoing global pandemic caused by the "severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2" (SARS-CoV-2), which was isolated for the first time in Wuhan (China) in December 2019. Common symptoms include fever, cough, fatigue, dyspnea and hypogeusia/hyposmia. Among extrapulmonary signs associated with COVID-19, dermatological manifestations have been increasingly reported in the last few months. SUMMARY: The polymorphic nature of COVID-19-associated cutaneous manifestations led our group to propose a classification, which distinguishes the following six main clinical patterns: (i) urticarial rash, (ii) confluent erythematous/maculopapular/morbilliform rash, (iii) papulovesicular exanthem, (iv) chilblain-like acral pattern, (v) livedo reticularis/racemosa-like pattern, (vi) purpuric "vasculitic" pattern. This review summarizes the current knowledge on COVID-19-associated cutaneous manifestations, focusing on clinical features and therapeutic management of each category and attempting to give an overview of the hypothesized pathophysiological mechanisms of these conditions.


Subject(s)
Acrodermatitis/virology , COVID-19/complications , Exanthema/virology , Urticaria/virology , Acrodermatitis/pathology , Exanthema/pathology , Humans , Livedo Reticularis/pathology , Livedo Reticularis/virology , Patient Acuity , Purpura/pathology , Purpura/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Urticaria/pathology
20.
Am J Emerg Med ; 38(11): 2492.e5-2492.e6, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-962170

ABSTRACT

Early reports of COVID-19 in pediatric populations emphasized a mild course of disease with severe cases disproportionately affecting infant and comorbid pediatric patients. After the peak of the epidemic in New York City, in late April to early May, cases of severe illness associated with COVID-19 were reported among mostly previously healthy children ages 5-19. Many of these cases feature a toxic shock-like syndrome or Kawasaki-like syndrome in the setting of SARS-CoV-2 positive diagnostic testing and the CDC has termed this presentation Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome (MIS-C). It is essential to disseminate information among the medical community regarding severe and atypical presentations of COVID-19 as prior knowledge can help communities with increasing caseloads prepare to quickly identify and treat these patients as they present in the emergency department. We describe a case of MIS-C in a child who presented to our Emergency Department (ED) twice and on the second visit was found to have signs of distributive shock, multi-organ injury and systemic inflammation associated with COVID-19. The case describes two ED visits by an 11- year-old SARS-CoV-2-positive female who initially presented with fever, rash and pharyngitis and returned within 48 hours with evidence of cardiac and renal dysfunction and fluid-refractory hypotension requiring vasopressors and PICU admission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Child , Exanthema/virology , Female , Fever/virology , Humans , Pharyngitis/virology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/virology
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