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1.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 34(7): 1635-1644, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1920347

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite the relevance of telephone-based cognitive screening tests in clinical practice and research, no specific test assessing executive functioning is available. The present study aimed at standardizing and providing evidence of clinical usability for the Italian telephone-based Frontal Assessment Battery (t-FAB). METHODS: The t-FAB (ranging 0-12), comprising two subtests, has two versions: one requiring motor responses (t-FAB-M) and the other verbal responses (t-FAB-V). Three hundred and forty-six Italian healthy adults (HPs; 143 males; age range = 18-96 years; education range = 4-23 years) and 40 participants with neurological diseases were recruited. To HPs, the t-FAB was administered along with a set of telephone-based tests: MMSE, verbal fluency (VF), backward digit span (BDS). The in-person version of the FAB was administered to both HPs and clinical groups. Factorial structure, construct validity, inter-rater and test-retest reliability, t-FAB-M vs. t-FAB-V equivalence and diagnostic accuracy were assessed. Norms were derived via Equivalent Scores. RESULTS: In HPs, t-FAB measures yielded high inter-rater/test-retest reliability (ICC = .78-.94), were internally related (p ≤ .005) and underpinned by a single component, converging with the telephone-based MMSE, VF, BDS (p ≤ .0013). The two t-FAB versions were statistically equivalent in clinical groups (ps of both equivalence bounds < .001). Education predicted all t-FAB scores (p < .001), whereas age only the t-FAB-M score (p ≤ .004). t-FAB scores converge with the in-person FAB in HPs and clinical groups (rs = .43-.78). Both t-FAB versions were accurate in discriminating HPs from the clinical cohort (AUC = .73-.76). DISCUSSION: The t-FAB is a normed, valid, reliable and clinically usable telephone-based cognitive screening test to adopt in both clinical and research practice.


Subject(s)
Executive Function , Nervous System Diseases , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Humans , Male , Nervous System Diseases/diagnosis , Neuropsychological Tests , Reference Standards , Reproducibility of Results , Telephone
2.
Cortex ; 152: 77-97, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1797023

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 has a wide range of clinical manifestations. Neurological manifestations in COVID-19 patients were demonstrated during the pandemic, including cognitive impairment. This study aimed to determine any relationship between COVID-19 and cognitive complaints, such as dementia, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), or subjective cognitive decline (SCD). METHODS: We performed a systematic review of MEDLINE via Ebsco, Cochrane EMBASE, SCOPUS, and LILACS electronic databases of observational studies with COVID-19 patients confirmed by serology or PCR who developed new cognitive impairment or deteriorated from previous cognitive impairment after infection. This review protocol was recorded on PROSPERO with registration number CRD 42021241590. RESULTS: A total of 3.520 articles were retrieved and read. Twenty-two studies were selected for our review. A wide range of cognitive assessment tools (n = 25) was used. The most described affected domains in these studies were executive functions, attention, and episodic memory. Thirteen studies showed a pattern of cognitive impairment in processing speed, inattention, or executive dysfunction assessed through working memory. CONCLUSION: This review highlights the high frequency of cognitive impairment after COVID-19 infection. However, we were unable to differentiate whether the cognitive impairment found corresponded to mild cognitive impairment or dementia through data from selected studies, and this issue serves as one objective of future studies to be addressed on this topic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognitive Dysfunction , Dementia , COVID-19/complications , Cognition , Executive Function , Humans
3.
Front Public Health ; 9: 736424, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775879

ABSTRACT

Aims: Little information exists on the associations of cardiovascular health, a new metric proposed by the American Heart Association, and executive function, particularly in children. We aimed to explore this topic. Methods: We studied 3,798 children aged 6-12 years from 5 schools in Guangzhou, China. The executive function of children was evaluated using parent reports of the Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Function, which included 2 composite indexes and 8 subscale scores. We calculated the number of ideal cardiovascular health (range: 0-7) based on smoking, body mass index, physical activity (PA), diet, blood pressure, cholesterol, and glucose. A generalized linear mixed model was used to assess the association of the number of ideal cardiovascular health metrics and executive function. Results: Compared with children exhibiting 1-3 ideal cardiovascular health metrics, decreases of 1.37-2.63 points (indicating better performance) in metacognition index and its 5 subscale indexes (initiate, working memory, plan/organize, organization of materials, and monitor) were observed in children who attained 5 or 6-7 ideal metrics (all p for trend <0.001). Ideal diet and ideal PA were independently associated with lower indexes of behavioral regulation and metacognition. Conclusions: The number of ideal cardiovascular health was positively associated with performance of executive function in children.


Subject(s)
Executive Function , Child , China/epidemiology , Humans , Schools , United States
4.
J Psychiatr Res ; 150: 40-46, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1757597

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Recent evidence suggests that patients suffering post-acute COVID syndrome frequently report cognitive complaints, but their characteristics and pathophysiology are unknown. This study aims to determine the characteristics of cognitive dysfunction in patients reporting cognitive complaints after COVID-19 and to evaluate the correlation between cognitive function and anxiety, depression, sleep, and olfactory function. METHODS: Cross-sectional study involving 50 patients with COVID-19 reporting cognitive complaints 9.12 ± 3.46 months after the acute infection. Patients were evaluated with a comprehensive neuropsychological protocol, and scales of fatigue, depression, anxiety, sleep and an olfactory test. Normative data and an age- and education matched healthy control group were used for comparison. RESULTS: COVID-19 patients showed a diminished performance on several tests evaluating attention and executive function, with alterations in processing speed, divided attention, selective attention, visual vigilance, intrinsic alertness, working memory, and inhibition; episodic memory; and visuospatial processing. Cognitive performance was correlated with olfactory dysfunction, and sleep quality and anxiety to a lesser extent, but not depression. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with COVID-19 reporting cognitive symptoms showed a reduced cognitive performance, especially in the attention-concentration and executive functioning, episodic memory, and visuospatial processing domains. Future studies are necessary to disentangle the specific mechanisms associated with COVID-19 cognitive dysfunction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognitive Dysfunction , COVID-19/complications , Cognition/physiology , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Cognitive Dysfunction/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Executive Function/physiology , Humans , Neuropsychological Tests
5.
Alzheimers Dement ; 18(5): 1047-1066, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1748787

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the cognitive effects of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in adults with no prior history of cognitive impairment. METHODS: Searches in Medline/Web of Science/Embase from January 1, 2020, to December 13, 2021, were performed following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines.  A meta-analysis of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) total score comparing recovered COVID-19 and healthy controls was performed. RESULTS: Oof 6202 articles, 27 studies with 2049 individuals were included (mean age = 56.05 years, evaluation time ranged from the acute phase to 7 months post-infection). Impairment in executive functions, attention, and memory were found in post-COVID-19 patients.  The meta-analysis was performed with a subgroup of 290 individuals and showed a difference in MoCA score between post-COVID-19 patients versus controls (mean difference = -0.94, 95% confidence interval [CI] -1.59, -0.29; P = .0049). DISCUSSION: Patients recovered from COVID-19 have lower general cognition compared to healthy controls up to 7 months post-infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognitive Dysfunction , Adult , Cognition , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Executive Function , Humans , Infant
6.
J Clin Exp Neuropsychol ; 43(10): 980-990, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1747019

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Few studies have considered health-related quality of life (HRQOL) as a primary outcome measure in adult survivors of primary brain tumor (PBT), and fewer still have studied the cognitive factors that may influence it. Research suggests that executive functions (EFs) are associated with HRQOL, but there is scant evidence to support this. The present study was conducted to (1) extend prior findings about HRQOL limitations in a sample of stable, long-term adult survivors of PBT, (2) investigate the associations between objective/reported EFs and HRQOL, and (3) identify the EFs that contribute most to HRQOL. METHOD: We recruited 40 survivors of PBT (> 2 years post-treatment) and 40 matched healthy controls. Participants completed an objective EF assessment (inhibition, working memory, shifting, and rule detection) and two self-report questionnaires probing EFs (Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult) and HRQOL (Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form 36). Participants' relatives completed observer-rated versions of these questionnaires. RESULTS: Patients' objective EF performances were relatively intact. However, patients and caregivers reported significantly more problems than healthy controls and their relatives, for both EFs and HRQOL. There were only negligible links between objective EFs and HRQOL, whereas numerous associations were found between reported EFs and HRQOL components. ANCOVA models revealed that specific reported EF processes contributed to both the physical and mental components of HRQOL, regardless of group. CONCLUSIONS: From a clinical point of view, this study demonstrates that even several years after end of treatment, adult PBT survivors experience substantial problems across different HRQOL domains. HRQOL assessment should therefore be part of the long-term follow-up of PBT survivors, and clinicians should consider EF limitations when designing appropriate survivorship care plans. These findings indicate that cognitive interventions targeting EFs could improve HRQOL.


Subject(s)
Brain Neoplasms , Executive Function , Quality of Life , Adult , Brain Neoplasms/complications , Brain Neoplasms/psychology , Case-Control Studies , Executive Function/physiology , Humans , Surveys and Questionnaires , Survivors
7.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(5)2022 Mar 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1732022

ABSTRACT

Physical activity during childhood and adolescence favors brain development and cognitive functioning, particularly the executive functions. This study aimed to assess potential associations between anthropometric parameters, physical activity, physical fitness, and executive functions among elementary school children returning to school after the COVID-19 lockdown in Chile. School-age male and female participants (n = 90; age, 10-12 years) participated in the study. To determine the association between variables, a multivariable linear regression analysis was performed. Higher fat-related anthropometric indexes were associated with lower working memory, cognitive flexibility, planning, and attention (r = -0.55 to -0.22; p = 0.031 to <0.001). In contrast, higher physical activity levels, better sprint performance, higher lower-body muscular power, and greater upper-body muscular strength were associated with better working memory, cognitive flexibility, inhibition, planning, and/or attention (r = 0.19 to -0.54; p = 0.04 to <0.001). Current results consistently suggest the need for adequate levels of physical activity, physical fitness, and anthropometric parameters among the school-age population to promote healthy and adequate executive functions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Executive Function , Adolescent , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Executive Function/physiology , Exercise , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Schools
8.
Brain Behav ; 12(3): e2538, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1701065

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with dementia are more prone to acquire COVID-19 infection. Patients with COVID-19 showed a tendency to develop cognitive impairment. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to study the clinical manifestations of COVID-19 infection among adult Sudanese demented patients and the prevalence of cognitive impairment among adult Sudanese nondemented patients. METHODOLOGY: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study that took place in Sudan, Khartoum state in the period (September to December 2021) in a private neurology/psychiatry clinic. A total of 135 adult Sudanese patients were included in this study and were divided into two groups. The first group consists of 100 patients with a known history of dementia that got infected recently with COVID-19, while the second group consists of 35 patients who developed some sort of cognitive impairment after recovering from COVID-19 infection. Regarding the second group, cognitive functions were assessed by senior consultant neurologist and senior consultant psychiatrist using a well validated neuropsychological measure. RESULTS: Out of 100 patients in the first group, females were 60 and males were 40. Age distribution is between 63 and 98. The common presenting symptoms of COVID-19 among this group were cough and fever (90 patients), diarrhea and vomiting (5 patients), breathlessness (4 patients), coughing of blood (5 patients), convulsions (1 patient), paraplegia (1 patient), and hemiplegia (1 patient). Regarding the second group, age distribution varied from 30 to 80 years. Cognitive functions impairment was noticed as follows: memory recall (22%), memory recognition (23%), memory encoding (24%), processing speed (16%), executive functioning (19%), phonemic fluency (17%), and category fluency (17%). CONCLUSION: Patients with dementia are more susceptible to develop COVID-19 infection. Patients with COVID-19 Infection are at risk of developing some sort of cognitive impairment after recovery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognition Disorders , Cognitive Dysfunction , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , Cognition Disorders/epidemiology , Cognitive Dysfunction/epidemiology , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Executive Function , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neuropsychological Tests
9.
Clin Neuropsychol ; 36(4): 806-828, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1671941

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Long-term cognitive sequelae of COVID-19 have not been extensively studied. This study provides initial results on cognitive outcomes in Post-Acute Sequelae of COVID-19 (PASC).Participants and Methods: This study examined 53 consecutive outpatients diagnosed with COVID-19. Four participants were excluded due to performance validity test failure. All participants had positive COVID-19 tests, reported cognitive concerns, and completed neuropsychological tests to assess performance validity, attention/working memory, processing speed, memory, language, visual-spatial, executive functioning, motor, and emotional functioning. The sample was mostly white (89.8%), female (83.7%), and never hospitalized (69.4%) for COVID-19. RESULTS: Analyses indicated no mean scores in the Impaired range (>2 standard deviations [SD] below normative mean) on objective cognitive testing and a low base rate of Impaired test scores. Higher (>20%) base rates of Borderline performance (1-2 SDs below normative mean) were found on some measures. There was also evidence for frequently elevated mean scores on mood measures which correlated with some cognitive measures and the number of Borderline scores per participants. CONCLUSIONS: The results were noteworthy for infrequent Impaired scores, and significant correlations between cognition and mood/anxiety measures, but not between cognitive performance and premorbid vascular risk factors, psychiatric diagnoses, or COVID-19 disease severity. Results suggest that psychological distress was prominent in PASC and related to objective cognitive performance, but objective cognitive performance was unrelated to cognitive complaints. Other contributing factors may include fatigue/sleep issues. Neurologically based cognitive deficits were not suggested by the results.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognition Disorders , COVID-19/complications , Cognition , Cognition Disorders/diagnosis , Cognition Disorders/etiology , Disease Progression , Executive Function , Female , Humans , Neuropsychological Tests
10.
Brain Behav ; 12(3): e2508, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1669374

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: While much of the scientific focus thus far has been on cognitive sequelae in patients with severe COVID-19, subjective cognitive complaints are being reported across the spectrum of disease severity, with recent studies beginning to corroborate patients' perceived deficits. In response to this, the aims of this study were to (1) explore the frequency of impaired performance across cognitive domains in post-COVID patients with subjective complaints and (2) uncover whether impairment existed within a single domain or across multiple. METHODS: Sixty-three patients with subjective cognitive complaints post-COVID were assessed with a comprehensive protocol consisting of various neuropsychological tests and mood measures. Cognitive test performance was transformed into T scores and classified based on recommended guidelines. After performing a principal component analysis to define cognitive domain factors, distributions of test scores within and across domains were analyzed. RESULTS: Results revealed pervasive impact on attention abilities, both as the singularly affected domain (19% of single-domain impairment) as well as coupled with decreased performance in executive functions, learning, and long-term memory. These salient attentional and associated executive deficits were largely unrelated to clinical factors such as hospitalization, disease duration, biomarkers, or affective measures. DISCUSSION: These findings stress the importance of comprehensive evaluation and intervention to address cognitive sequelae in post-COVID patients of varying disease courses, not just those who were hospitalized or experienced severe symptoms. Future studies should investigate to what extent these cognitive abilities are recuperated over time as well as employ neuroimaging techniques to uncover underlying mechanisms of neural damage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognition Disorders , Cognitive Dysfunction , COVID-19/complications , Cognition/physiology , Cognition Disorders/complications , Cognitive Dysfunction/psychology , Executive Function/physiology , Humans , Neuropsychological Tests
12.
Infancy ; 27(3): 555-581, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662279

ABSTRACT

Early executive functions (EFs) lay the foundations for academic and social outcomes. In this parent-report study of 575 UK-based 8- to 36 month olds (218 followed longitudinally), we investigate how variation in the home environment before and during the 2020 pandemic relates to infants' emerging EFs. Parent-infant enriching activities were positively associated with infant Cognitive Executive Function (CEF) (encompassing inhibitory control, working memory, cognitive flexibility). During the most-restrictive UK lockdown-but not subsequently-socioeconomic status (SES) was positively associated with levels of parent-infant enriching activities. Parents who regard fostering early learning, affection, and attachment as important were more likely to engage in parent-infant enriching activities, yet there was no significant pathway from parental attitudes or SES to CEF via activities. Infant screen use was negatively associated with CEF and Regulation. Screen use fully mediated the effect of SES on CEF, and partially mediated the effect of SES on regulation. Parental attitudes toward early learning, affection, and attachment did not significantly influence screen use. These results indicate that although parental attitudes influence the development of early EFs, interventions targeting attitudes as a means of increasing enriching activities, and thus EF are likely to be less effective than reducing barriers to engaging in enriching activities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Executive Function , Attitude , Communicable Disease Control , Executive Function/physiology , Humans , Infant , Pandemics , Parents , Social Class
13.
BMJ Open ; 11(12): e046544, 2021 12 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1596818

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Mild cognitive impairment is one of the consequences of ageing, causing functional disability, a poor quality of life and an increased socioeconomic expenditure. Evidence shows that patients go through a long preclinical stage in which cognitive deficits appear subtly until they reach the threshold of dementia. Non-pharmacological interventions have been gaining ground as prevention of modifiable factors of cognitive decline such as obesity, diabetes, physical inactivity or social isolation. Along these lines, Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) can be a tool for cognitive stimulation, cognitive training and cognitive rehabilitation. The main objective of the systematic review will be to review and analyse the use of ICTs for the improvement of cognitive functions in healthy older adult population aged 50 and over, for the prevention of cognitive impairment METHODS: A systematic review will be conducted including randomised clinical trials in adults without diseases or accidents associated with cognitive impairment, and whom have used ICTs for the improvement of cognitive functions between 2010 and 2020 in English or Spanish. The articles that report data on cognitive function by domain, for example, memory or executive functions, or by test will be included. The databases Medline (PubMed), CinahlPlus, Scopus, ISI WoS, CENTRAL and IEEE Xplore will be searched. Studies that meet the inclusion criteria will be analysed according to the Cochrane RoB2 tool for risk of bias assessment. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval is not necessary as this is a systematic review. The results will be published in scientific journals, as well as in specialised congresses on the subject of study.


Subject(s)
Cognitive Dysfunction , Quality of Life , Aged , Cognition/physiology , Cognitive Dysfunction/prevention & control , Cognitive Dysfunction/rehabilitation , Communication , Executive Function , Humans , Middle Aged , Systematic Reviews as Topic
14.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(24)2021 12 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580716

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: we aimed to investigate the effects of physical activity on cognitive functions and deficits of healthy population and other needy groups. Secondly, we investigated the relation between healthy habits and psychopathological risks. Finally, we investigated the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on exercise addiction and possible associated disorders. (2) Methods: From April 2021 to October 2021, we conducted a review aimed at identifying the effects of physical exercise on mental health, from cognitive improvements to risk of addiction; we searched for relevant studies on PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, PsycINFO and CINHAL. (3) Results: For the first purpose, results indicated multiple effects such as better precision and response speed in information processing tasks on healthy populations; improvement of executive functions, cognitive flexibility and school performance in children; improvement of attention and executive functions and less hyperactivity and impulsiveness on children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); improvement of executive and global functions on adults; improvement of overall cognitive functioning on patients with schizophrenic spectrum disorder or bipolar disorder. Data also demonstrated that exercise addiction seems to be related to low levels of education, low self-esteem, eating disorders and body dysmorphisms. Eventually, it was found that people with lower traits and intolerance of uncertainty show a strong association between COVID-19 anxiety and compulsive exercise and eating disorder. (4) Conclusions: these findings underline on one side the beneficial effects of physical activity on cognitive function in healthy individuals in a preventive and curative key, while on the other side the importance of an adequate evaluation of psychological distress and personality characteristics associated with exercise addiction.


Subject(s)
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , COVID-19 , Adult , Child , Cognition , Executive Function , Exercise , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
15.
J Frailty Aging ; 11(2): 206-213, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1498010

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite emerging evidence about the association between social frailty and cognitive impairment, little is known about the role of executive function in this interplay, and whether the co-existence of social frailty and cognitive impairment predisposes to adverse health outcomes in healthy community-dwelling older adults. OBJECTIVES: We aim to examine independent associations between social frailty with the MMSE and FAB, and to determine if having both social frailty and cognitive impairment is associated with worse health outcomes than either or neither condition. METHODS: We studied 229 cognitively intact and functionally independent community-dwelling older adults (mean age= 67.2±7.43). Outcome measures comprise physical activity; physical performance and frailty; geriatric syndromes; life space and quality of life. We compared Chinese Mini Mental State Examination (CMMSE) and Chinese Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) scores across the socially non-frail, socially pre-frail and socially frail. Participants were further recategorized into three subgroups (neither, either or both) based on presence of social frailty and cognitive impairment. Cognitive impairment was defined as a score below the educational adjusted cut-offs in either CMMSE or FAB. We performed logistic regression adjusted for significant covariates and mood to examine association with outcomes across the three subgroups. RESULTS: Compared with CMMSE, Chinese FAB scores significantly decreased across the social frailty spectrum (p<0.001), suggesting strong association between executive function with social frailty. We derived three subgroups relative to relationship with socially frailty and executive dysfunction: (i) Neither, N=140(61.1%), (ii) Either, N=79(34.5%), and (iii) Both, N=10(4.4%). Compared with neither or either subgroups, having both social frailty and executive dysfunction was associated with anorexia (OR=4.79, 95% CI= 1.04-22.02), near falls and falls (OR= 5.23, 95% CI= 1.10-24.90), lower life-space mobility (odds ratio, OR=9.80, 95% CI=2.07-46.31) and poorer quality of life (OR= 13.2, 95% CI= 2.38-73.4). CONCLUSION: Our results explicated the association of executive dysfunction with social frailty, and their synergistic relationship independent of mood with geriatric syndromes, decreased life space and poorer quality of life. In light of the current COVID-19 pandemic, the association between social frailty and executive dysfunction merits further study as a possible target for early intervention in relatively healthy older adults.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognitive Dysfunction , Frailty , Aged , Cognitive Dysfunction/epidemiology , Cognitive Dysfunction/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Executive Function , Frail Elderly/psychology , Frailty/diagnosis , Frailty/epidemiology , Frailty/psychology , Geriatric Assessment/methods , Humans , Independent Living/psychology , Pandemics , Quality of Life/psychology , Syndrome
16.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258559, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468181

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Executive functions underlie self-regulation and are thus important for physical activity and adaptation to new situations. The aim was to investigate, if yearlong physical and cognitive training (PTCT) had greater effects on physical activity among older adults than physical training (PT) alone, and if executive functions predicted physical activity at baseline, after six (6m) and twelve months (12m) of the interventions, one-year post-intervention follow-up and an extended follow-up during COVID-19 lockdown. METHODS: Data from a single-blinded, parallel-group randomized controlled trial (PASSWORD-study, ISRCTN52388040) were utilized. Participants were 70-85 years old community-dwelling men and women from Jyväskylä, Finland. PT (n = 159) included supervised resistance, walking and balance training, home-exercises and self-administered moderate activity. PTCT (n = 155) included PT and cognitive training targeting executive functions on a computer program. Physical activity was assessed with a one-item, seven-scale question. Executive functions were assessed with color-word Stroop, Trail Making Test (TMT) B-A and Letter Fluency. Changes in physical activity were modeled with multinomial logistic models and the impact of executive functions on physical activity with latent change score models. RESULTS: No significant group-by-time interaction was observed for physical activity (p>0.1). The subjects were likely to select an activity category higher than baseline throughout the study (pooled data: B = 0.720-1.614, p<0.001-0.046). Higher baseline Stroop predicted higher physical activity through all subsequent time-points (pooled data: B = 0.011-0.013, p = 0.015-0.030). Higher baseline TMT B-A predicted higher physical activity at 6m (pooled data: B = 0.007, p = 0.006) and during COVID-19 (B = 0.005, p = 0.030). In the PT group, higher baseline Letter Fluency predicted higher physical activity at 12m (B = -0.028, p = 0.030) and follow-up (B = -0.042, p = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: Cognitive training did not have additive effects over physical training alone on physical activity, but multicomponent training and higher executive function at baseline may support adaptation to and maintenance of a physically active lifestyle among older adults.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Executive Function , Exercise , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/virology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Single-Blind Method , Trail Making Test , Treatment Outcome
17.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(19)2021 Oct 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1457980

ABSTRACT

Given the seriousness of the existing situation regarding the mental health of children and adolescents relating to the confinement period imposed due to COVID-19, we conducted this study to describe the effects of the confinement on state anxiety and executive functioning dimensions in a period of online educational modality. A sample of 953 children and adolescents was assessed. A sociodemographic questionnaire, the State Anxiety Inventory for Children (STAIC), and the Behavioral Evaluation of Executive Function (BRIEF-2) scale were applied. The analysis of the results indicates that 68.8% of children and adolescents presented medium-high levels of anxiety. Regarding sex, females showed higher levels of anxiety and worse levels of executive functioning. Although the group aged 11 to 18 years showed methodologically higher state anxiety (p = 0.041) than the group aged 6 to 10 years, the difference was not clinically relevant (δ = -0.113). The state anxiety variable was also correlated positively and significantly to the three executive functioning dimensions explored. In conclusion, it seems evident that COVID-19 lockdowns could have psychological and emotional effects on children and adolescents.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Anxiety/epidemiology , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Executive Function , Female , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Disabil Rehabil ; 43(10): 1342-1358, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455011

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Cognitive instrumental activities of daily living are particularly related to executive functions, such as scheduling appointments, monthly payments, managing the household economy, shopping or taking the bus. The aim of this systematic review was to determine the available tests for the assessment of executive functions with ecological validity to predict individuals' functioning. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An electronic search was conducted in MEDLINE, Cochrane Central, PsyCInfo and IEEE Xplore until May 2019, in addition to a manual search. The PRISMA criteria and the Covidence platform were used to select articles and extract data. RESULTS: After applying the search selection criteria, 76 studies were identified. They referred to 110 tools to assess instrumental activities of daily living. Those that have received most attention are related to menu preparation and shopping. Performance-based measures are the most widely used traditional methods. Most tests were aimed at the adult population with acquired brain damage, cognitive impairment or dementia. There was a predominance of tests based on the Multiple Errands Test paradigm. CONCLUSIONS: In recent years, it has increased the number of tools that assess the instrumental activities of daily living based on technologies such as personal or environmental sensors and serious games.IMPLICATIONS FOR REHABILITATIONAssessment of Instrumental Activities of Daily Living through performance-based measures is especially useful for the early detection of dysfunctions or preclinical disability.Difficulties in performing instrumental activities of daily living are closely associated with deficits in executive functions and prospective memory.Activities of Daily Living can be understood as multitasks.The use of virtual reality-based tests was shown to be sensitive to the detection of cognitive deficits in Activities of Daily Living.An advantage of using virtual reality in assessments is that it can help to predict the level of personal autonomy in patients who are in an institutional environment and could be a first approximation to the real environment.


Subject(s)
Activities of Daily Living , Cognitive Dysfunction , Adult , Cognition , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Executive Function , Humans , Neuropsychological Tests
19.
Psychooncology ; 30(8): 1262-1277, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453646

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Breast cancer treatments bring adverse consequences that interfere with everyday functioning. Importantly, some of these treatments are associated with cognitive and language changes. Tamoxifen is a selective estrogen receptor modulator and is a common endocrine therapy treatment for breast cancer. The current review examines the specific domains of cognition and language affected by the use of tamoxifen in women with breast cancer. METHODS: We conducted a systematic search that examined cognitive and/or language functions in chemotherapy-naïve women with breast cancer taking tamoxifen. PubMed, Cochrane CENTRAL, CINAHL Complete, PsycINFO, Scopus, EMBASE, and the Grey Literature Report (greylit.org) were searched. Covidence Systematic Review software (covidence.org) was used to manage the screening process of study titles and abstracts as well as full texts. A total of 17 studies were included in the review. RESULTS: A range of cognitive and language domains were reported. These were grouped into seven broad domains: attention, memory, speed, executive functioning, verbal abilities, visual abilities, and language abilities. Results showed that there is compelling evidence that specific domains of memory and speed are negatively affected by the use of tamoxifen. In addition, there was a pattern of change in domains of executive functions and verbal abilities. CONCLUSIONS: Tamoxifen affects specific cognitive and language domains. Language domains beyond semantics have not been studied and thus conclusions related to these domains, and language in general, could not be made. Studies exploring the effects of tamoxifen on the different domains of language are recommended.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , Tamoxifen , Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , Cognition , Executive Function , Female , Humans , Language , Tamoxifen/adverse effects
20.
Sch Psychol ; 36(5): 293-302, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1442723

ABSTRACT

Emerging evidence suggests the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is adversely affecting adolescents' mental health and health behaviors, particularly among those with preexisting mental health conditions and from lower socioeconomic backgrounds. However, direct tests of changes in health outcomes among vulnerable adolescents from before to during COVID-19 are limited. In addition, little is known about how to buffer adolescents, particularly those who are most vulnerable, against stress-related decrements in health. This randomized controlled trial begins to fill these gaps in the literature by exploring changes in mental health, health behaviors, executive function, emotion regulation, and mindfulness among vulnerable adolescents involved in a mentoring program during the COVID-19 pandemic. It also examined to what extent there were protective benefits of incorporating mindfulness training within a mentoring program for buffering adolescents from negative pandemic health effects. Thirty-five adolescents (Mage = 12.9, 37% female) and 32 parents (Mage = 44.75, 80% female) completed questionnaires at baseline (February 2020) and follow-up (July 2020). There were few significant reductions in health; instead, on average, youth reported improvements in sleep, emotion regulation, executive function, and mindfulness over time. Adolescents randomized to mentoring + mindfulness displayed significantly less posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology and emotional impulsivity at follow-up, compared to the mentoring-as-usual condition. These pilot findings suggest that mentoring with a mindfulness training component may offer an effective strategy for protecting adolescents from deteriorations in health outcomes during COVID-19. Further, there may be unique benefits of mindfulness training for vulnerable youth as a way to adapt to stressful events. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
Adolescent Behavior/physiology , COVID-19 , Emotional Regulation/physiology , Executive Function/physiology , Impulsive Behavior/physiology , Mentoring , Mindfulness , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Outcome Assessment, Health Care
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