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1.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0257549, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793615

ABSTRACT

Particulate generation occurs during exercise-induced exhalation, and research on this topic is scarce. Moreover, infection-control measures are inadequately implemented to avoid particulate generation. A laminar airflow ventilation system (LFVS) was developed to remove respiratory droplets released during treadmill exercise. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the number of aerosols during training on a treadmill and exercise intensity and to elucidate the effect of the LFVS on aerosol removal during anaerobic exercise. In this single-center observational study, the exercise tests were performed on a treadmill at Running Science Lab in Japan on 20 healthy subjects (age: 29±12 years, men: 80%). The subjects had a broad spectrum of aerobic capacities and fitness levels, including athletes, and had no comorbidities. All of them received no medication. The exercise intensity was increased by 1-km/h increments until the heart rate reached 85% of the expected maximum rate and then maintained for 10 min. The first 10 subjects were analyzed to examine whether exercise increased the concentration of airborne particulates in the exhaled air. For the remaining 10 subjects, the LFVS was activated during constant-load exercise to compare the number of respiratory droplets before and after LFVS use. During exercise, a steady amount of particulates before the lactate threshold (LT) was followed by a significant and gradual increase in respiratory droplets after the LT, particularly during anaerobic exercise. Furthermore, respiratory droplets ≥0.3 µm significantly decreased after using LFVS (2120800±759700 vs. 560 ± 170, p<0.001). The amount of respiratory droplets significantly increased after LT. The LFVS enabled a significant decrease in respiratory droplets during anaerobic exercise in healthy subjects. This study's findings will aid in exercising safely during this pandemic.


Subject(s)
Air Conditioning/methods , COVID-19/prevention & control , Exercise/physiology , Particulate Matter/chemistry , Adult , Aerosols/chemistry , Air Filters , Anaerobic Threshold/physiology , COVID-19/metabolism , Exercise Test/methods , Exhalation/physiology , Female , Heart Rate/physiology , Humans , Japan , Lactic Acid/metabolism , Male , Oxygen Consumption/physiology , Respiration , Respiratory System/physiopathology , Running/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Ventilation/methods
2.
JAMA ; 327(13): 1284-1285, 2022 Apr 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1787593
3.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 9(1)2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1784849

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Incremental step tests (IST) can be used to assess exercise capacity in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The development of a new step test based on the characteristics of the incremental shuttle walk test (ISWT) is an important study to explore. We aimed to develop a new IST based on the ISWT in people with COPD, and assess its validity (construct validity) and reliability, according to Consensus-based Standards for the selection of health status Measurement Instruments (COSMIN) recommendations. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in participants recruited from hospitals/clinics. During the recruitment, the participants who presented a 6-minute walk test (6MWT) report in the previous month were also identified and the respective data was collected. Subsequently, participants attended two sessions at their homes. IST was conducted on the first visit, along with the 1 min sit-to-stand (1MSTS) test. IST was repeated on a second visit, performed 5-7 days after the first one. Spearman's correlations were used for construct validity, by comparing the IST with the 6MWT and the 1MSTS. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC2,1), SE of measurement (SEM) and minimal detectable change at 95% CI (MDC95) were used for reliability. The learning effect was explored with the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. RESULTS: 50 participants (70.8±7.5 years) were enrolled. IST was significant and moderate correlated with the 6MWT (ρ=0.50, p=0.020), and with the 1MSTS (ρ=0.46, p=0.001). IST presented an ICC2,1=0.96, SEM=10.1 (16.6%) and MDC95=27.9 (45.8%) for the number of steps. There was a statistically significant difference between the two attempts of the IST (p=0.030). CONCLUSION: Despite the significant and moderate correlations with the 6MWT and 1MSTS, the inability to full compliance with the COSMIN recommendations does not yet allow the IST to be considered valid in people with COPD. On the other hand, the IST is a reliable test based on its high ICC, but a learning effect and an 'indeterminate' measurement error were shown. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04715659.


Subject(s)
Exercise Test , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/diagnosis , Reproducibility of Results , Walk Test
4.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 9(1)2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1769924

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: 'Long COVID'-associated dyspnoea may persist for months after SARS-CoV-2 infection. Among the causes of persistent dyspnoea, dysfunctional breathing (DB), defined as an erratic or inappropriate ventilation at rest or exercise, has been observed, but little is known about its occurrence and pathophysiology among individuals with 'long COVID'. We aimed to describe the occurrence and identify clinical predictors of DB among patients following SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) was performed in 51 SARS-CoV-2 patients (median age, 64 years (IQR, 15)); male, 66.7%) living with 'long COVID' and persistent dyspnoea. CPET was classified into three dominant patterns: respiratory limitation with gas exchange abnormalities (RL); normal CPET or O2 delivery/utilisation impairment (D); and DB. Non-parametric and χ2 tests were applied to analyse the association between CPET dominant patterns and demographics, pulmonary function tests and SARS-CoV-2 severity. RESULTS: Among 51 patients, DB mostly without hyperventilation was found in 29.4% (n=15), RL in 54.9% (n=28) and D in 15.7% (n=8). When compared with RL individuals, patients with DB were younger, had significantly less severe initial infection, a better transfer capacity for carbon monoxide (median 85% (IQR, 28)), higher oxygen consumption (22.9 mL/min/kg (IQR, 5.5)), a better ventilatory efficiency slope (31.6 (IQR, 12.8)), and a higher SpO2 (95% (IQR, 3)). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that DB without hyperventilation could be an important pathophysiological mechanism of disabling dyspnoea in younger outpatients following SARS-CoV-2 infection, which appears to be a feature of COVID-19 not described in other viral diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Dyspnea/diagnosis , Dyspnea/etiology , Exercise Test , Exercise Tolerance/physiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Respiration , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(3)2022 Mar 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760769

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: The prevalence of chronic diseases increases with age, and in octogenarian elderly, a cardiorespiratory test with gas analysis is more effective in determining the risk of mortality than applying the conventional risk factors. Materials and Methods: 25 untrained non-frail octogenarian subjects (four men) performed a submaximal test with gas analysis, which was stopped after the second ventilatory threshold (VT2) was reached. The variables analyzed were oxygen consumption at the first threshold (VO2 VT1); ventilatory class (VE/VCO2); oxygen uptake efficiency slope (OUES); cardiorespiratory optimal point (COP); oxygen pulse difference between VT2 and VT1 (diff. VO2/HR VT2-VT1). Results: the variables were classified categorically based on cut-off points present in the literature, where the variable with the highest percentage of altered cases was dif. VO2/HR VT2-VT1 at 48%; followed by VO2 VT1 at 40%, OUES at 36%, COP at 32%, and VE/VCO2 at 24%. Chi-square analysis between the measured parameters defined that normal and altered variables were related to each other, except for the variable VE/VCO2 and OUES. Conclusions: it was found that the main altered variable was the oxygen pulse and the least altered variable was VCO2/VCO2; there was only a statistically significant difference in a pair of OUES vs. VE/VCO2 variables.


Subject(s)
Exercise Test , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Chronic Disease , Humans , Male , Oxygen Consumption , Risk Factors
6.
Respir Res ; 23(1): 68, 2022 Mar 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1759751

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patient hospitalized for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pulmonary infection can have sequelae such as impaired exercise capacity. We aimed to determine the frequency of long-term exercise capacity limitation in survivors of severe COVID-19 pulmonary infection and the factors associated with this limitation. METHODS: Patients with severe COVID-19 pulmonary infection were enrolled 3 months after hospital discharge in COVulnerability, a prospective cohort. They underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing, pulmonary function test, echocardiography, and skeletal muscle mass evaluation. RESULTS: Among 105 patients included, 35% had a reduced exercise capacity (VO2peak < 80% of predicted). Compared to patients with a normal exercise capacity, patients with reduced exercise capacity were more often men (89.2% vs. 67.6%, p = 0.015), with diabetes (45.9% vs. 17.6%, p = 0.002) and renal dysfunction (21.6% vs. 17.6%, p = 0.006), but did not differ in terms of initial acute disease severity. An altered exercise capacity was associated with an impaired respiratory function as assessed by a decrease in forced vital capacity (p < 0.0001), FEV1 (p < 0.0001), total lung capacity (p < 0.0001) and DLCO (p = 0.015). Moreover, we uncovered a decrease of muscular mass index and grip test in the reduced exercise capacity group (p = 0.001 and p = 0.047 respectively), whilst 38.9% of patients with low exercise capacity had a sarcopenia, compared to 10.9% in those with normal exercise capacity (p = 0.001). Myocardial function was normal with similar systolic and diastolic parameters between groups whilst reduced exercise capacity was associated with a slightly shorter pulmonary acceleration time, despite no pulmonary hypertension. CONCLUSION: Three months after a severe COVID-19 pulmonary infection, more than one third of patients had an impairment of exercise capacity which was associated with a reduced pulmonary function, a reduced skeletal muscle mass and function but without any significant impairment in cardiac function.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Exercise Tolerance/physiology , Pneumonia/physiopathology , Aged , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cohort Studies , Echocardiography/methods , Echocardiography/statistics & numerical data , Exercise Test/methods , Exercise Test/statistics & numerical data , Exercise Tolerance/immunology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , France , Humans , Lung/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia/etiology , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Function Tests/methods , Respiratory Function Tests/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/physiopathology
7.
Can Respir J ; 2022: 2466789, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1723957

ABSTRACT

Background: Following COVID-19, patients often present with ongoing symptoms comparable to chronic fatigue and subjective deterioration of exercise capacity (EC), which has been recently described as postacute COVID-19 syndrome. Objective: To objectify the reduced EC after COVID-19 and to evaluate for pathologic limitations. Methods: Thirty patients with subjective limitation of EC performed cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET). If objectively limited in EC or deteriorated in oxygen pulse, we offered cardiac stress magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and a follow-up CPET. Results: Eighteen male and 12 female patients were included. Limited relative EC was detected in 11/30 (36.7%) patients. Limitation correlated with reduced body weight-indexed peak oxygen (O2) uptake (peakV̇O2/kg) (mean 74.7 (±7.1) % vs. 103.6 (±14.9) %, p < 0.001). Reduced peakV̇O2/kg was found in 18/30 (60.0%) patients with limited EC. Patients with reduced EC widely presented an impaired maximum O2 pulse (75.7% (±5.6) vs. 106.8% (±13.9), p < 0.001). Abnormal gas exchange was absent in all limited EC patients. Moreover, no patient showed signs of reduced pulmonary perfusion. Using cardiac MRI, diminished biventricular ejection fraction was ruled out in 16 patients as a possible cause for reduced O2 pulse. Despite noncontrolled training exercises, follow-up CPET did not reveal any exercise improvements. Conclusions: Deterioration of EC was not associated with ventilatory or pulmonary vascular limitation. Exercise limitation was related to both reduced O2 pulse and peakV̇O2/kg, which, however, did not correlate with the initial severity of COVID-19. We hypothesize that impaired microcirculation or limited peripheral O2 utilization might be causative for prolonged deterioration of EC following acute COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Exercise Test , Exercise Tolerance , Female , Humans , Lung , Male , Oxygen Consumption , SARS-CoV-2
8.
JACC Heart Fail ; 10(3): 215, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1703894
9.
JACC Heart Fail ; 10(3): 214-215, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1703139
10.
Physiol Rep ; 10(4): e15197, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1699962

ABSTRACT

Reduced exercise capacity and several limiting symptoms during exercise have been reported following severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. From clinical observations, we hypothesized that an abnormal breathing pattern (BrP) during exercise may be common in these patients and related to reduced exercise capacity. We aimed to (a) evaluate a method to classify the BrP as normal/abnormal or borderline in terms of inter-rater agreement; (b) determine the occurrence of an abnormal BrP in patients with post-COVID; and (c) compare characteristics of post-COVID patients with normal and abnormal BrP. In a retrospective, cross-sectional study of patients referred for CPET due to post-COVID April 2020-April 2021, we selected subjects without a history of intensive care and with available medical records. Three raters independently categorized patients' BrP as normal, abnormal, or borderline, using four traditional CPET plots (respiratory exchange ratio, tidal volume over ventilation, ventilatory equivalent for oxygen, and ventilation over time). Out of 20 patients (11 male), 10 were categorized as having a normal, 7 an abnormal, and three a borderline BrP. Inter-rater agreement was good (Fleiss' kappa: 0.66 [0.66-0.67]). Subjects with an abnormal BrP had lower peak ventilation, lower exercise capacity, similar ventilatory efficiency and a similar level of dyspnea at peak exercise, as did subjects with a normal BrP. Patients' BrP was possible to classify with good agreement between observers. A third of patients had an abnormal BrP, associated with lower exercise capacity, which could possibly explain exercise related symptoms in some patients with post-COVID syndrome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Dyspnea/etiology , Exercise Tolerance/physiology , Respiration , Adult , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dyspnea/physiopathology , Exercise Test , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Respiratory Function Tests , Retrospective Studies
11.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 28: 10760296211073922, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1666573

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COMPASS trial demonstrated that in patients with peripheral arterial disease, the combination of rivaroxaban and aspirin compared with aspirin reduces the risk of major adverse limb events, but it is not known whether this combination can also improve symptoms in patients with intermittent claudication. The primary objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of the combination on claudication distance. STUDY DESIGN: Eighty-eight patients with intermittent claudication will be randomized to receive rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily plus aspirin 100 mg once daily or aspirin 100 mg once daily for 24 weeks. The primary outcome is the change in claudication distance from the baseline to 24 weeks, measured by 6 min walking test and treadmill test. The primary safety outcome is the incidence of major bleeding and clinically relevant non-major bleeding according to the International Society on Thrombosis and Hemostasis criteria. SUMMARY: The COMPASS CLAUDICATION trial will provide high-quality evidence regarding the effect of the combination of rivaroxaban and aspirin on claudication distance in patients with peripheral arterial disease.


Subject(s)
Aspirin/therapeutic use , Intermittent Claudication/drug therapy , Peripheral Arterial Disease/drug therapy , Double-Blind Method , Drug Therapy, Combination , Exercise Test , Factor Xa Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Intermittent Claudication/diagnosis , Intermittent Claudication/etiology , Male , Peripheral Arterial Disease/complications , Peripheral Arterial Disease/diagnosis , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Prospective Studies , Rivaroxaban/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome
12.
Arch Cardiol Mex ; 91(Supl): 12-17, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1605474

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: COVID-19 pandemic is associated with high incidence and fatality, however, non-communicable diseases remain a global public health problem with even greater morbidity and mortality. At present, there is a lag in diagnosis and treatment of patients with heart disease, particularly the performance of exercise testing (ET), due to the fear of aerosol generation and viral dissemination. Although some centers carry out the tests with the use of masks, the information is still superficial and preliminary. The objective of the study was to describe the ergometric performance observed when performing exercise tests during the COVID-19 (PANDEMIC-G) pandemic and to highlight the differences with those results carried out in another time, when there was no COVID-19 (NO PANDEMIC). METHOD: A cross-sectional study was carried out. PANDEMIC-G patients underwent ET between March 2020 and December 2020, once a biological triage was done and all of them wore N95 masks. They were compared to NO PANDEMIC patients that performed an ET between March 2019 and December 2019. Demographic and ergometric variables were presented and analyzed according to their type. All p < 0.05 were considered stochastically significant. RESULTS: A total of 361 ET were studied: 209 (58%) belonged to NO PANDEMIC and 152 (42%) to PANDEMIC-G. The number of ET stopped by dyspnea was greater in PANDEMIC-G (117) than in NO PANDEMIC (8). Exercise tolerance did not show significant changes. Systolic blood pressure, double product, and myocardial oxygen utilization were higher in PANDEMIC-G ET (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: In the COVID-era, fewer stress tests were performed, which were suspended more frequently due to dyspnea. Higher values of systolic blood pressure and myocardial oxygen utilization were observed in PANDEMIC-G as well.


OBJETIVO: La pandemia de COVID-19 se asocia con una alta incidencia y letalidad; sin embargo, las enfermedades no transmisibles siguen siendo un problema de salud pública mundial con una morbilidad y mortalidad aún mayores. Actualmente, existe un retraso en el diagnóstico y tratamiento de los pacientes con enfermedades cardíacas, particularmente en la realización de la prueba de esfuerzo (PE), debido al temor a la generación de aerosoles y la diseminación viral. Aunque algunos centros realizan las pruebas con el uso de tapabocas, la información aún es superficial y preliminar. El objetivo del estudio fue describir el desempeño ergométrico observado al realizar pruebas de ejercicio durante la pandemia COVID-19 (PANDEMIC-G) y remarcar las diferencias con las pruebas realizadas antes de ella (NO PANDEMIC). Método: Se realizó un estudio transversal. Los pacientes con PANDEMIC-G se sometieron a PE entre marzo y diciembre de 2020, una vez que se realizó un triaje biológico y todos usaron tapabocas N95. Fueron comparados con pacientes NO PANDEMIC, que realizaron una PE entre marzo y diciembre de 2019. Las variables se presentaron y analizaron según su tipo. Todos los valores de p inferiores a 0.05 se consideraron estocásticamente significativos. RESULTADOS: Se estudiaron un total de 361 PE, donde 209 (58%) pertenecían a NO PANDEMIC y 152 (42%) a PANDEMIC-G. El número de PE detenidas por disnea fue mayor en PANDEMIC-G (n = 117) que en NO PANDEMIC (n = 8). La tolerancia al ejercicio no mostró cambios significativos. La presión arterial sistólica, el producto doble y la utilización de oxígeno del miocardio fueron mayores en las PE en el PANDEMIC-G (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONES: En la era COVID se realizaron menos pruebas de esfuerzo, que se suspendieron con mayor frecuencia por disnea. También se observaron valores más altos de presión arterial sistólica y utilización de oxígeno del miocardio en PANDEMIC-G.


Subject(s)
Exercise Test , Masks , COVID-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dyspnea/etiology , Exercise Test/adverse effects , Humans , Masks/adverse effects , Oxygen , Pandemics
13.
Br J Sports Med ; 56(2): 107-113, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1604636

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To (1) determine if wearing a cloth face mask significantly affected exercise performance and associated physiological responses, and (2) describe perceptual measures of effort and participants' experiences while wearing a face mask during a maximal treadmill test. METHODS: Randomised controlled trial of healthy adults aged 18-29 years. Participants completed two (with and without a cloth face mask) maximal cardiopulmonary exercise tests (CPETs) on a treadmill following the Bruce protocol. Blood pressure, heart rate, oxygen saturation, exertion and shortness of breath were measured. Descriptive data and physical activity history were collected pretrial; perceptions of wearing face masks and experiential data were gathered immediately following the masked trial. RESULTS: The final sample included 31 adults (age=23.2±3.1 years; 14 women/17 men). Data indicated that wearing a cloth face mask led to a significant reduction in exercise time (-01:39±01:19 min/sec, p<0.001), maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) (-818±552 mL/min, p<0.001), minute ventilation (-45.2±20.3 L/min), maximal heart rate (-8.4±17.0 beats per minute, p<0.01) and increased dyspnoea (1.7±2.9, p<0.001). Our data also suggest that differences in SpO2 and rating of perceived exertion existed between the different stages of the CPET as participant's exercise intensity increased. No significant differences were found between conditions after the 7-minute recovery period. CONCLUSION: Cloth face masks led to a 14% reduction in exercise time and 29% decrease in VO2max, attributed to perceived discomfort associated with mask-wearing. Compared with no mask, participants reported feeling increasingly short of breath and claustrophobic at higher exercise intensities while wearing a cloth face mask. Coaches, trainers and athletes should consider modifying the frequency, intensity, time and type of exercise when wearing a cloth face mask.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Running , Adolescent , Adult , Exercise Test , Female , Heart Rate , Humans , Male , Masks , Young Adult
14.
Chest ; 161(1): 54-63, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1598167

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Some patients with COVID-19 who have recovered from the acute infection after experiencing only mild symptoms continue to exhibit persistent exertional limitation that often is unexplained by conventional investigative studies. RESEARCH QUESTION: What is the pathophysiologic mechanism of exercise intolerance that underlies the post-COVID-19 long-haul syndrome in patients without cardiopulmonary disease? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: This study examined the systemic and pulmonary hemodynamics, ventilation, and gas exchange in 10 patients who recovered from COVID-19 and were without cardiopulmonary disease during invasive cardiopulmonary exercise testing (iCPET) and compared the results with those from 10 age- and sex-matched control participants. These data then were used to define potential reasons for exertional limitation in the cohort of patients who had recovered from COVID-19. RESULTS: The patients who had recovered from COVID-19 exhibited markedly reduced peak exercise aerobic capacity (oxygen consumption [VO2]) compared with control participants (70 ± 11% predicted vs 131 ± 45% predicted; P < .0001). This reduction in peak VO2 was associated with impaired systemic oxygen extraction (ie, narrow arterial-mixed venous oxygen content difference to arterial oxygen content ratio) compared with control participants (0.49 ± 0.1 vs 0.78 ± 0.1; P < .0001), despite a preserved peak cardiac index (7.8 ± 3.1 L/min vs 8.4±2.3 L/min; P > .05). Additionally, patients who had recovered from COVID-19 demonstrated greater ventilatory inefficiency (ie, abnormal ventilatory efficiency [VE/VCO2] slope: 35 ± 5 vs 27 ± 5; P = .01) compared with control participants without an increase in dead space ventilation. INTERPRETATION: Patients who have recovered from COVID-19 without cardiopulmonary disease demonstrate a marked reduction in peak VO2 from a peripheral rather than a central cardiac limit, along with an exaggerated hyperventilatory response during exercise.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Exercise Test/methods , Exercise Tolerance , COVID-19/physiopathology , Connecticut , Female , Hemodynamics/physiology , Humans , Male , Massachusetts , Middle Aged , Oxygen Consumption/physiology , Respiratory Function Tests , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke Volume/physiology
15.
Appl Physiol Nutr Metab ; 46(7): 753-762, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1571437

ABSTRACT

We sought to determine the impact of wearing cloth or surgical masks on the cardiopulmonary responses to moderate-intensity exercise. Twelve subjects (n = 5 females) completed three, 8-min cycling trials while breathing through a non-rebreathing valve (laboratory control), cloth, or surgical mask. Heart rate (HR), oxyhemoglobin saturation (SpO2), breathing frequency, mouth pressure, partial pressure of end-tidal carbon dioxide (PetCO2) and oxygen (PetO2), dyspnea were measured throughout exercise. A subset of n = 6 subjects completed an additional exercise bout without a mask (ecological control). There were no differences in breathing frequency, HR or SpO2 across conditions (all p > 0.05). Compared with the laboratory control (4.7 ± 0.9 cmH2O [mean ± SD]), mouth pressure swings were smaller with the surgical mask (0.9 ± 0.7; p < 0.0001), but similar with the cloth mask (3.6 ± 4.8 cmH2O; p = 0.66). Wearing a cloth mask decreased PetO2 (-3.5 ± 3.7 mm Hg) and increased PetCO2 (+2.0 ± 1.3 mm Hg) relative to the ecological control (both p < 0.05). There were no differences in end-tidal gases between mask conditions and laboratory control (both p > 0.05). Dyspnea was similar between the control conditions and the surgical mask (p > 0.05) but was greater with the cloth mask compared with laboratory (+0.9 ± 1.2) and ecological (+1.5 ± 1.3) control conditions (both p < 0.05). Wearing a mask during short-term moderate-intensity exercise may increase dyspnea but has minimal impact on the cardiopulmonary response. Novelty: Wearing surgical or cloth masks during exercise has no impact on breathing frequency, tidal volume, oxygenation, and heart rate However, there are some changes in inspired and expired gas fractions that are physiologically irrelevant. In young healthy individuals, wearing surgical or cloth masks during submaximal exercise has few physiological consequences.


Subject(s)
Exercise/physiology , Heart Rate , Masks , Oxyhemoglobins/metabolism , Respiratory Rate , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , Carbon Dioxide/physiology , Dyspnea/physiopathology , Equipment Design , Exercise Test , Face , Female , Humans , Male , Mouth/physiology , Oxygen/physiology , Partial Pressure , Pressure , Skin Temperature , Tidal Volume , Young Adult
16.
Heart Rhythm ; 19(4): 613-620, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1560871

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Individuals who contract coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can suffer with persistent and debilitating symptoms long after the initial acute illness. Heart rate (HR) profiles determined during cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) and delivered as part of a post-COVID recovery service may provide insight into the presence and impact of dysautonomia on functional ability. OBJECTIVE: Using an active, working-age, post-COVID-19 population, the purpose of this study was to (1) determine and characterize any association between subjective symptoms and dysautonomia; and (2) identify objective exercise capacity differences between patients classified "with" and those "without" dysautonomia. METHODS: Patients referred to a post-COVID-19 service underwent comprehensive clinical assessment, including self-reported symptoms, CPET, and secondary care investigations when indicated. Resting HR >75 bpm, HR increase with exercise <89 bpm, and HR recovery <25 bpm 1 minute after exercise were used to define dysautonomia. Anonymized data were analyzed and associations with symptoms, and CPET outcomes were determined. RESULTS: Fifty-one of the 205 patients (25%) reviewed as part of this service evaluation had dysautonomia. There were no associations between symptoms or perceived functional limitation and dysautonomia (P >.05). Patients with dysautonomia demonstrated objective functional limitations with significantly reduced work rate (219 ± 37 W vs 253 ± 52 W; P <.001) and peak oxygen consumption (V̇o2: 30.6 ± 5.5 mL/kg/min vs 35.8 ± 7.6 mL/kg/min; P <.001); and a steeper (less efficient) V̇e/V̇co2 slope (29.9 ± 4.9 vs 27.7 ± 4.7; P = .005). CONCLUSION: Dysautonomia is associated with objective functional limitations but is not associated with subjective symptoms or limitation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Failure , Primary Dysautonomias , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Exercise , Exercise Test , Humans , Oxygen Consumption/physiology , Primary Dysautonomias/diagnosis , Primary Dysautonomias/etiology
17.
Int J Cardiol ; 340: 113-118, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561875

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Long-term effects of Coronavirus Disease of 2019 (COVID-19) are of utmost relevance. We aimed to determine: 1) the functional capacity of COVID-19 survivors by cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET); 2) the characteristics associated with cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) performance; 3) the safety and tolerability of CPET. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled consecutive patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 from Azienda Sanitaria Locale 3, Genoa. Three months after hospital discharge a complete clinical evaluation, trans-thoracic echocardiography, CPET, pulmonary function tests, and dominant leg extension (DLE) maximal strength measurement were performed. RESULTS: From the 225 patients discharged alive from March to November 2020, we excluded 12 incomplete/missing cases and 13 unable to perform CPET, leading to a final cohort of 200. Median percent-predicted peak oxygen uptake (%pVO2) was 88% (78.3-103.1). Ninety-nine (49.5%) patients had %pVO2 below, whereas 101 (50.5%) above the 85% predicted value. Among the 99 patients with reduced %pVO2, 61 (61%) had a normal anaerobic threshold: of these, 9(14.8%) had respiratory, 21(34.4%) cardiac, and 31(50.8%) non-cardiopulmonary reasons for exercise limitation. Inerestingly, 80% of patients experienced at least one disabling symtpom, not related to %pVO2 or functional capacity. Multivariate linear regression showed percent-predicted forced expiratory volume in one-second(ß = 5.29,p = 0.023), percent-predicted diffusing capacity of lungs for carbon monoxide(ß = 6.31,p = 0.001), and DLE maximal strength(ß = 14.09,p = 0.008) to be independently associated with pVO2. No adverse event was reported during or after CPET, and no involved health professional developed COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: At three months after discharge, about 1/3rd of COVID-19 survivors show functional limitations, mainly explained by muscular impairment, calling for future research to identify patients at higher risk of long-term effects that may benefit from careful surveillance and targeted rehabilitation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Exercise Test , Echocardiography , Exercise Tolerance , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Oxygen Consumption , SARS-CoV-2
18.
JACC Heart Fail ; 9(12): 927-937, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1527732

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The authors used cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) to define unexplained dyspnea in patients with post-acute sequelae of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection (PASC). We assessed participants for criteria to diagnose myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS). BACKGROUND: Approximately 20% of patients who recover from coronavirus disease (COVID) remain symptomatic. This syndrome is named PASC. Its etiology is unclear. Dyspnea is a frequent symptom. METHODS: The authors performed CPET and symptom assessment for ME/CFS in 41 patients with PASC 8.9 ± 3.3 months after COVID. All patients had normal pulmonary function tests, chest X-ray, and chest computed tomography scans. Peak oxygen consumption (peak VO2), slope of minute ventilation to CO2 production (VE/VCO2 slope), and end tidal pressure of CO2 (PetCO2) were measured. Ventilatory patterns were reviewed with dysfunctional breathing defined as rapid erratic breathing. RESULTS: Eighteen men and 23 women (average age: 45 ± 13 years) were studied. Left ventricular ejection fraction was 59% ± 9%. Peak VO2 averaged 20.3 ± 7 mL/kg/min (77% ± 21% predicted VO2). VE/VCO2 slope was 30 ± 7. PetCO2 at rest was 33.5 ± 4.5 mm Hg. Twenty-four patients (58.5%) had a peak VO2 <80% predicted. All patients with peak VO2 <80% had a circulatory limitation to exercise. Fifteen of 17 patients with normal peak VO2 had ventilatory abnormalities including peak respiratory rate >55 (n = 3) or dysfunctional breathing (n = 12). For the whole cohort, 88% of patients (n = 36) had ventilatory abnormalities with dysfunctional breathing (n = 26), increased VE/VCO2 (n = 17), and/or hypocapnia PetCO2 <35 (n = 25). Nineteen patients (46%) met criteria for ME/CFS. CONCLUSIONS: Circulatory impairment, abnormal ventilatory pattern, and ME/CFS are common in patients with PASC. The dysfunctional breathing, resting hypocapnia, and ME/CFS may contribute to symptoms. CPET is a valuable tool to assess these patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Failure , Adult , Dyspnea/diagnosis , Dyspnea/etiology , Exercise Test , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen Consumption , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke Volume , Ventricular Function, Left
19.
Lancet Planet Health ; 5(11): e758-e759, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1508253
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