Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 24
Filter
1.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(11)2022 Jun 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1884133

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 causes cardiovascular and lung problems that can be aggravated by confinement, but the practice of physical activity (PA) could lessen these effects. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association of maximum oxygen consumption (V˙O2max) with vaccination and PCR tests in apparently healthy Chilean adults. An observational and cross-sectional study was performed, in which 557 people from south-central Chile participated, who answered an online questionnaire on the control of COVID-19, demographic data, lifestyles, and diagnosis of non-communicable diseases. V˙O2max was estimated with an abbreviated method. With respect to the unvaccinated, those who received the first (OR:0.52 [CI:0.29;0.95], p = 0.019) and second vaccine (OR:0.33 [CI:0.18;0.59], p = 0.0001) were less likely to have an increased V˙O2max. The first vaccine was inversely associated with V˙O2max (mL/kg/min) (ß:-1.68 [CI:-3.06; -0.3], p = 0.017), adjusted for BMI (ß:-1.37 [CI:-2.71; -0.03], p = 0.044) and by demographic variables (ß:-1.82 [CI:-3.18; -0.46], p = 0.009); similarly occur for the second vaccine (ß: between -2.54 and -3.44, p < 0.001) on models with and without adjustment. Having taken a PCR test was not significantly associated with V˙O2max (mL/kg/min). It is concluded that vaccination significantly decreased V˙O2max, although it did not indicate cause and effect. There is little evidence of this interaction, although the results suggest an association, since V˙ O2max could prevent and attenuate the contagion symptoms and effects.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Exercise Test , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Chile/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Exercise Test/methods , Humans , Life Style , Morbidity , Oxygen Consumption , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Vaccination
2.
Open Heart ; 9(1)2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879141

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility, efficacy and safety of performing exercise stress echocardiography (ESE) for the assessment of myocardial ischaemia during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS AND RESULTS: Baseline data were collected prospectively on 740 consecutive patients (mean age 61.4 years, 56.8% males), referred for a stress echocardiogram (SE), who underwent ESE between July 2020 (immediate post lockdown) and January 2021 according to national safety guidelines, in addition to patients wearing masks during ESE. Retrospective analysis was performed on follow-up data for outcomes. Propensity score matching was used to compare workload achieved during ESE pre-COVID-19, in 768 consecutive patients who underwent ESE between May 2014 and May 2015. Of the 725 (97.9%) diagnostic tests obtained, 69 (9.3%) demonstrated significant inducible ischaemia (≥3 segments) with no serious adverse events. Of the 61 patients who underwent coronary angiography, 51 (83%) demonstrated flow-limiting coronary artery disease. During a mean follow-up period of 4.6 months, one first-cardiac event was recorded.Compliance with mask-wearing throughout ESE was seen in 98.7% of patients. Of the 17 healthcare professionals performing ESE, none contracted COVID-19 during this period. SE service performance increased to 96.8% of prepandemic levels (100%) from 26.6% at the start of July 2020 to the end of December 2020.Propensity-matched data showed no significant difference in exercise workload between patients undergoing ESE during and prepandemic. CONCLUSION: Performing ESE during the COVID-19 pandemic, with safety measures in place, is feasible, efficacious and safe. It impacted on the time patients were waiting to undergo a diagnostic test and yielded appropriate outcomes.Service evaluation authorisation of research capability numberSE20/059.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronary Artery Disease , Communicable Disease Control , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Coronary Artery Disease/therapy , Echocardiography, Stress/methods , Exercise Test/methods , Feasibility Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Retrospective Studies
3.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 11(9): e024207, 2022 May 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1807754

ABSTRACT

Background Ongoing exercise intolerance of unclear cause following COVID-19 infection is well recognized but poorly understood. We investigated exercise capacity in patients previously hospitalized with COVID-19 with and without self-reported exercise intolerance using magnetic resonance-augmented cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Methods and Results Sixty subjects were enrolled in this single-center prospective observational case-control study, split into 3 equally sized groups: 2 groups of age-, sex-, and comorbidity-matched previously hospitalized patients following COVID-19 without clearly identifiable postviral complications and with either self-reported reduced (COVIDreduced) or fully recovered (COVIDnormal) exercise capacity; a group of age- and sex-matched healthy controls. The COVIDreducedgroup had the lowest peak workload (79W [Interquartile range (IQR), 65-100] versus controls 104W [IQR, 86-148]; P=0.01) and shortest exercise duration (13.3±2.8 minutes versus controls 16.6±3.5 minutes; P=0.008), with no differences in these parameters between COVIDnormal patients and controls. The COVIDreduced group had: (1) the lowest peak indexed oxygen uptake (14.9 mL/minper kg [IQR, 13.1-16.2]) versus controls (22.3 mL/min per kg [IQR, 16.9-27.6]; P=0.003) and COVIDnormal patients (19.1 mL/min per kg [IQR, 15.4-23.7]; P=0.04); (2) the lowest peak indexed cardiac output (4.7±1.2 L/min per m2) versus controls (6.0±1.2 L/min per m2; P=0.004) and COVIDnormal patients (5.7±1.5 L/min per m2; P=0.02), associated with lower indexed stroke volume (SVi:COVIDreduced 39±10 mL/min per m2 versus COVIDnormal 43±7 mL/min per m2 versus controls 48±10 mL/min per m2; P=0.02). There were no differences in peak tissue oxygen extraction or biventricular ejection fractions between groups. There were no associations between COVID-19 illness severity and peak magnetic resonance-augmented cardiopulmonary exercise testing metrics. Peak indexed oxygen uptake, indexed cardiac output, and indexed stroke volume all correlated with duration from discharge to magnetic resonance-augmented cardiopulmonary exercise testing (P<0.05). Conclusions Magnetic resonance-augmented cardiopulmonary exercise testing suggests failure to augment stroke volume as a potential mechanism of exercise intolerance in previously hospitalized patients with COVID-19. This is unrelated to disease severity and, reassuringly, improves with time from acute illness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Failure , Case-Control Studies , Exercise Test/methods , Exercise Tolerance , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Oxygen , Oxygen Consumption , Stroke Volume
4.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0257549, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793615

ABSTRACT

Particulate generation occurs during exercise-induced exhalation, and research on this topic is scarce. Moreover, infection-control measures are inadequately implemented to avoid particulate generation. A laminar airflow ventilation system (LFVS) was developed to remove respiratory droplets released during treadmill exercise. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the number of aerosols during training on a treadmill and exercise intensity and to elucidate the effect of the LFVS on aerosol removal during anaerobic exercise. In this single-center observational study, the exercise tests were performed on a treadmill at Running Science Lab in Japan on 20 healthy subjects (age: 29±12 years, men: 80%). The subjects had a broad spectrum of aerobic capacities and fitness levels, including athletes, and had no comorbidities. All of them received no medication. The exercise intensity was increased by 1-km/h increments until the heart rate reached 85% of the expected maximum rate and then maintained for 10 min. The first 10 subjects were analyzed to examine whether exercise increased the concentration of airborne particulates in the exhaled air. For the remaining 10 subjects, the LFVS was activated during constant-load exercise to compare the number of respiratory droplets before and after LFVS use. During exercise, a steady amount of particulates before the lactate threshold (LT) was followed by a significant and gradual increase in respiratory droplets after the LT, particularly during anaerobic exercise. Furthermore, respiratory droplets ≥0.3 µm significantly decreased after using LFVS (2120800±759700 vs. 560 ± 170, p<0.001). The amount of respiratory droplets significantly increased after LT. The LFVS enabled a significant decrease in respiratory droplets during anaerobic exercise in healthy subjects. This study's findings will aid in exercising safely during this pandemic.


Subject(s)
Air Conditioning/methods , COVID-19/prevention & control , Exercise/physiology , Particulate Matter/chemistry , Adult , Aerosols/chemistry , Air Filters , Anaerobic Threshold/physiology , COVID-19/metabolism , Exercise Test/methods , Exhalation/physiology , Female , Heart Rate/physiology , Humans , Japan , Lactic Acid/metabolism , Male , Oxygen Consumption/physiology , Respiration , Respiratory System/physiopathology , Running/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Ventilation/methods
5.
Respir Res ; 23(1): 68, 2022 Mar 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1759751

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patient hospitalized for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pulmonary infection can have sequelae such as impaired exercise capacity. We aimed to determine the frequency of long-term exercise capacity limitation in survivors of severe COVID-19 pulmonary infection and the factors associated with this limitation. METHODS: Patients with severe COVID-19 pulmonary infection were enrolled 3 months after hospital discharge in COVulnerability, a prospective cohort. They underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing, pulmonary function test, echocardiography, and skeletal muscle mass evaluation. RESULTS: Among 105 patients included, 35% had a reduced exercise capacity (VO2peak < 80% of predicted). Compared to patients with a normal exercise capacity, patients with reduced exercise capacity were more often men (89.2% vs. 67.6%, p = 0.015), with diabetes (45.9% vs. 17.6%, p = 0.002) and renal dysfunction (21.6% vs. 17.6%, p = 0.006), but did not differ in terms of initial acute disease severity. An altered exercise capacity was associated with an impaired respiratory function as assessed by a decrease in forced vital capacity (p < 0.0001), FEV1 (p < 0.0001), total lung capacity (p < 0.0001) and DLCO (p = 0.015). Moreover, we uncovered a decrease of muscular mass index and grip test in the reduced exercise capacity group (p = 0.001 and p = 0.047 respectively), whilst 38.9% of patients with low exercise capacity had a sarcopenia, compared to 10.9% in those with normal exercise capacity (p = 0.001). Myocardial function was normal with similar systolic and diastolic parameters between groups whilst reduced exercise capacity was associated with a slightly shorter pulmonary acceleration time, despite no pulmonary hypertension. CONCLUSION: Three months after a severe COVID-19 pulmonary infection, more than one third of patients had an impairment of exercise capacity which was associated with a reduced pulmonary function, a reduced skeletal muscle mass and function but without any significant impairment in cardiac function.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Exercise Tolerance/physiology , Pneumonia/physiopathology , Aged , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cohort Studies , Echocardiography/methods , Echocardiography/statistics & numerical data , Exercise Test/methods , Exercise Test/statistics & numerical data , Exercise Tolerance/immunology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , France , Humans , Lung/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia/etiology , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Function Tests/methods , Respiratory Function Tests/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/physiopathology
6.
Chest ; 161(1): 54-63, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1598167

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Some patients with COVID-19 who have recovered from the acute infection after experiencing only mild symptoms continue to exhibit persistent exertional limitation that often is unexplained by conventional investigative studies. RESEARCH QUESTION: What is the pathophysiologic mechanism of exercise intolerance that underlies the post-COVID-19 long-haul syndrome in patients without cardiopulmonary disease? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: This study examined the systemic and pulmonary hemodynamics, ventilation, and gas exchange in 10 patients who recovered from COVID-19 and were without cardiopulmonary disease during invasive cardiopulmonary exercise testing (iCPET) and compared the results with those from 10 age- and sex-matched control participants. These data then were used to define potential reasons for exertional limitation in the cohort of patients who had recovered from COVID-19. RESULTS: The patients who had recovered from COVID-19 exhibited markedly reduced peak exercise aerobic capacity (oxygen consumption [VO2]) compared with control participants (70 ± 11% predicted vs 131 ± 45% predicted; P < .0001). This reduction in peak VO2 was associated with impaired systemic oxygen extraction (ie, narrow arterial-mixed venous oxygen content difference to arterial oxygen content ratio) compared with control participants (0.49 ± 0.1 vs 0.78 ± 0.1; P < .0001), despite a preserved peak cardiac index (7.8 ± 3.1 L/min vs 8.4±2.3 L/min; P > .05). Additionally, patients who had recovered from COVID-19 demonstrated greater ventilatory inefficiency (ie, abnormal ventilatory efficiency [VE/VCO2] slope: 35 ± 5 vs 27 ± 5; P = .01) compared with control participants without an increase in dead space ventilation. INTERPRETATION: Patients who have recovered from COVID-19 without cardiopulmonary disease demonstrate a marked reduction in peak VO2 from a peripheral rather than a central cardiac limit, along with an exaggerated hyperventilatory response during exercise.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Exercise Test/methods , Exercise Tolerance , COVID-19/physiopathology , Connecticut , Female , Hemodynamics/physiology , Humans , Male , Massachusetts , Middle Aged , Oxygen Consumption/physiology , Respiratory Function Tests , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke Volume/physiology
7.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0257549, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511814

ABSTRACT

Particulate generation occurs during exercise-induced exhalation, and research on this topic is scarce. Moreover, infection-control measures are inadequately implemented to avoid particulate generation. A laminar airflow ventilation system (LFVS) was developed to remove respiratory droplets released during treadmill exercise. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the number of aerosols during training on a treadmill and exercise intensity and to elucidate the effect of the LFVS on aerosol removal during anaerobic exercise. In this single-center observational study, the exercise tests were performed on a treadmill at Running Science Lab in Japan on 20 healthy subjects (age: 29±12 years, men: 80%). The subjects had a broad spectrum of aerobic capacities and fitness levels, including athletes, and had no comorbidities. All of them received no medication. The exercise intensity was increased by 1-km/h increments until the heart rate reached 85% of the expected maximum rate and then maintained for 10 min. The first 10 subjects were analyzed to examine whether exercise increased the concentration of airborne particulates in the exhaled air. For the remaining 10 subjects, the LFVS was activated during constant-load exercise to compare the number of respiratory droplets before and after LFVS use. During exercise, a steady amount of particulates before the lactate threshold (LT) was followed by a significant and gradual increase in respiratory droplets after the LT, particularly during anaerobic exercise. Furthermore, respiratory droplets ≥0.3 µm significantly decreased after using LFVS (2120800±759700 vs. 560 ± 170, p<0.001). The amount of respiratory droplets significantly increased after LT. The LFVS enabled a significant decrease in respiratory droplets during anaerobic exercise in healthy subjects. This study's findings will aid in exercising safely during this pandemic.


Subject(s)
Air Conditioning/methods , COVID-19/prevention & control , Exercise/physiology , Particulate Matter/chemistry , Adult , Aerosols/chemistry , Air Filters , Anaerobic Threshold/physiology , COVID-19/metabolism , Exercise Test/methods , Exhalation/physiology , Female , Heart Rate/physiology , Humans , Japan , Lactic Acid/metabolism , Male , Oxygen Consumption/physiology , Respiration , Respiratory System/physiopathology , Running/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Ventilation/methods
8.
Eur J Cardiovasc Nurs ; 21(2): 174-177, 2022 03 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1331547

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Exercise intolerance is widely known to be a major cardinal symptom in patients with heart failure (HF), but due to the recent coronavirus disease 2019 epidemic, it is still difficult to directly measure exercise tolerance in many hospitals and facilities. The 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey physical functioning (SF-36PF) pertain to lower extremity functioning and walking. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether SF-36PF is a useful predictor of exercise intolerance and to provide its optimal cut-off value for patients with HF. METHODS AND RESULTS: SF-36PF and 6-min walking distance (6MWD) were evaluated in 372 consecutive patients with HF. Exercise intolerance was defined at 6MWD cut-offs of 200, 300, and 400 m. The addition of SF-36PF to the pre-existing determinants of exercise tolerance significantly improved the area under the curve scores (0.85 vs. 0.89, P = 0.011 for 6MWD <200 m; 0.90 vs. 0.93, P = 0.001 for 6MWD <300 m; 0.88 vs. 0.90, P = 0.021 for 6MWD <400 m) for the predictive effect on exercise intolerance. The cut-off values of SF-36PF for predicting exercise intolerance defined by 6MWD <200, 300, and 400 m were 45, 50, and 70, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: SF-36PF is a useful tool as an alternative index to predict exercise intolerance in patients with HF.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Failure , Exercise Test/methods , Exercise Tolerance , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Walking
9.
BMC Med ; 19(1): 163, 2021 07 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1309910

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Few studies had described the health consequences of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) especially in those with severe infections after discharge from hospital. Moreover, no research had reported the health consequences in health care workers (HCWs) with COVID-19 after discharge. We aimed to investigate the health consequences in HCWs with severe COVID-19 after discharge from hospital in Hubei Province, China. METHODS: We conducted an ambidirectional cohort study in "Rehabilitation Care Project for Medical Staff Infected with COVID-19" in China. The participants were asked to complete three physical examinations (including the tests of functional fitness, antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 and immunological indicators) at 153.4 (143.3, 164.8), 244.3 (232.4, 259.1), and 329.4 (319.4, 339.3) days after discharge, respectively. Mann-Whitney U test, Kruskal-Wallis test, t test, one-way ANOVA, χ2, and Fisher's exact test were used to assess the variance between two or more groups where appropriate. RESULTS: Of 333 HCWs with severe COVID-19, the HCWs' median age was 36.0 (31.0, 43.0) years, 257 (77%) were female, and 191 (57%) were nurses. Our research found that 70.4% (114/162), 48.9% (67/137), and 29.6% (37/125) of the HCWs with severe COVID-19 were considered to have not recovered their functional fitness in the first, second, and third functional fitness tests, respectively. The HCWs showed improvement in muscle strength, flexibility, and agility/dynamic balance after discharge in follow-up visits. The seropositivity of IgM (17.0% vs. 6.6%) and median titres of IgM (3.0 vs. 1.4) and IgG (60.3 vs. 45.3) in the third physical examination was higher than that in the first physical examination. In the third physical examination, there still were 42.1% and 45.9% of the HCWs had elevated levels of IL-6 and TNF-α, and 11.9% and 6.3% of the HCWs had decreased relative numbers of CD3+ T cells and CD4+ T cells. CONCLUSION: The HCWs with severe COVID-19 showed improvement in functional fitness within 1 year after discharge, active intervention should be applied to help their recovery if necessary. It is of vital significance to continue monitoring the functional fitness, antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 and immunological indicators after 1 year of discharge from hospital in HCWs with severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Serological Testing , COVID-19 , Exercise Test , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/rehabilitation , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19 Serological Testing/statistics & numerical data , China/epidemiology , Exercise Test/methods , Exercise Test/statistics & numerical data , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Functional Status , Humans , Interleukin-6/blood , Male , Patient Discharge/statistics & numerical data , Severity of Illness Index , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood
10.
J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle ; 12(4): 1056-1063, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1260553

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is limited information about the impact of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) on the muscular dysfunction, despite the generalized weakness and fatigue that patients report after overcoming the acute phase of the infection. This study aimed to detect impaired muscle efficiency by evaluating delta efficiency (DE) in patients with COVID-19 compared with subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), ischaemic heart disease (IHD), and control group (CG). METHODS: A total of 60 participants were assigned to four experimental groups: COVID-19, COPD, IHD, and CG (n = 15 each group). Incremental exercise tests in a cycle ergometer were performed to obtain peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak). DE was obtained from the end of the first workload to the power output where the respiratory exchange ratio was 1. RESULTS: A lower DE was detected in patients with COVID-19 and COPD compared with those in CG (P ≤ 0.033). However, no significant differences were observed among the experimental groups with diseases (P > 0.05). Lower VO2 peak, peak ventilation, peak power output, and total exercise time were observed in the groups with diseases than in the CG (P < 0.05). A higher VO2 , ventilation, and power output were detected in the CG compared with those in the groups with diseases at the first and second ventilatory threshold (P < 0.05). A higher power output was detected in the IHD group compared with those in the COVID-19 and COPD groups (P < 0.05) at the first and second ventilatory thresholds and when the respiratory exchange ratio was 1. A significant correlation (P < 0.001) was found between the VO2 peak and DE and between the peak power output and DE (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with COVID-19 showed marked mechanical inefficiency similar to that observed in COPD and IHD patients. Patients with COVID-19 and COPD showed a significant decrease in power output compared to IHD during pedalling despite having similar response in VO2 at each intensity. Resistance training should be considered during the early phase of rehabilitation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Exercise Test/methods , Exercise/physiology , Lung/physiopathology , Oxygen Consumption/physiology , COVID-19/virology , Heart Diseases/physiopathology , Humans , Ischemia/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/physiopathology , Resistance Training/methods , Respiratory Function Tests/methods , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
11.
Prog Cardiovasc Dis ; 67: 35-39, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1219678

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has presented a global public health emergency. Although predominantly a pandemic of acute respiratory disease, corona virus infectious disease-19 (COVID-19) results in multi-organ damage that impairs cardiopulmonary (CP) function and reduces cardiorespiratory fitness. Superimposed on the CP consequences of COVID-19 is a marked reduction in physical activity that exacerbates CP disease (CPD) risk. CP exercise testing (CPET) is routinely used in clinical practice to diagnose CPD and assess prognosis; assess cardiovascular safety for rehabilitation; and delineate the physiological contributors to exercise intolerance and exertional fatigue. As such, CPET plays an important role in clinical assessments of convalescent COVID-19 patients as well as research aimed at understanding the long-term health effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, due to the ventilatory expired gas analysis involved with CPET, the procedure is considered an aerosol generating procedure. Therefore, extra precautions should be taken by health care providers and exercise physiologists performing these tests. This paper provides recommendations for CPET testing during the COVID-19 pandemic. These recommendations include indications for CPET; pre-screening assessments; precautions required for testing; and suggested decontamination protocols. These safety recommendations are aimed at preventing SARS-CoV-2 transmission during CPET.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Exercise Test , COVID-19/immunology , Exercise Test/methods , Exercise Test/standards , Humans , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Sterilization/methods
12.
Chest ; 160(4): 1377-1387, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1213079

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Characterization of aerosol generation during exercise can inform the development of safety recommendations in the face of COVID-19. RESEARCH QUESTION: Does exercise at various intensities produce aerosols in significant quantities? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: In this experimental study, subjects were eight healthy volunteers (six men, two women) who were 20 to 63 years old. The 20-minute test protocol of 5 minutes rest, four 3-minute stages of exercise at 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of age-predicted heart rate reserve, and 3 minutes active recovery was performed in a clean, controlled environment. Aerosols were measured by four particle counters that were place to surround the subject. RESULTS: Age averaged 41 ± 14 years. Peak heart rate was 173 ± 17 beat/min (97% predicted); peak maximal oxygen uptake was 33.9 ± 7.5 mL/kg/min; and peak respiratory exchange ratio was 1.22 ± 0.10. Maximal ventilation averaged 120 ± 23 L/min, while cumulative ventilation reached 990 ± 192 L. Concentrations increased exponentially from start to 20 minutes (geometric mean ± geometric SD particles/liter): Fluke >0.3 µm = 66 ± 1.8 → 1605 ± 3.8; 0.3-1.0 µm = 35 ± 2.2 → 1095 ± 4.6; Fluke 1.0-5.0 µm = 21 ± 2.0 → 358 ± 2.3; P-Trak anterior = 637 ± 2.3 → 5148 ± 3.0; P-Trak side = 708 ± 2.7 → 6844 ± 2.7; P-Track back = 519 ± 3.1 → 5853 ± 2.8. All increases were significant at a probability value of <.05. Exercise at or above 50% of predicted heart rate reserve showed statistically significant increases in aerosol concentration. INTERPRETATION: Our data suggest exercise testing is an aerosol-generating procedure and, by extension, other activities that involve exercise intensities at or above 50% of predicted heart rate reserve. Results can guide recommendations for safety of exercise testing and other indoor exercise activities.


Subject(s)
Aerosols/analysis , COVID-19/diagnosis , Exercise/physiology , Exhalation/physiology , Lung/metabolism , Respiratory Function Tests/methods , Adult , COVID-19/metabolism , Exercise Test/methods , Female , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
13.
Curr Sports Med Rep ; 20(5): 259-265, 2021 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1206180

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX) is a valuable tool in both clinical practice and research settings. Therefore, it is advantageous for human performance laboratories to continue operating during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. All institutions should adhere to general COVID-19 guidelines provided by the Centers for Disease Control. Because of the testing environment, CPX laboratories must consider additional precautionary safety measures. This article provides recommendations for modifying the CPX protocol to ensure safety for all stakeholders during the pandemic. These modifications are universal across all populations, types of institutions and testing modalities. Preliminary measures include careful review of federal, local, and institutional mandates. The description outlines how to evaluate a testing environment and alter workflow. Guidelines are provided on what specific personal protective equipment should be acquired; as well as necessary actions before, during, and after the CPX test. These precautions will limit the possibility of both clients and staff from contracting or spreading the disease while maintaining testing volume in the laboratory.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Exercise Test/methods , Infection Control/methods , Humans , Personal Protective Equipment
14.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 105: 106407, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1193252

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has changed the conduct of clinical trials. For studies with physical function and physical activity outcomes that require in-person participation, thoughtful approaches in transitioning to the remote research environment are critical. Here, we share our experiences in transitioning from in-person to remote assessments of physical function and activity during the pandemic and highlight key considerations for success. Details on the development of the remote assessment protocol, integration of a two-way video platform, and implementation of remote assessments are addressed. In particular, procedural challenges and considerations in transitioning and conducting remote assessments will be discussed in terms of efforts to maintain participant safety, maximize study efficiency, and sustain trial integrity. Plans for triangulation and analysis are also discussed. Although the role of telehealth platforms and research activities in remote settings are still growing, our experiences suggest that adopting remote assessment strategies are useful and convenient in assessing study outcomes during, and possibly even beyond, the current pandemic. Trial register and number: ClinicalTrials.gov [NCT03728257].


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Exercise/physiology , Lung Transplantation/rehabilitation , Research Design , Actigraphy , Clinical Protocols , Exercise Test/methods , Humans , Pandemics , Patient Safety , Postural Balance/physiology , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , Telemedicine , Videoconferencing
15.
Chron Respir Dis ; 18: 1479973121999205, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1109935

ABSTRACT

We propose the use of the 1-minute sit-to-stand test (1STST) to evaluate the physical capacity and exertional desaturation one month after discharge in a sample of patients who survived COVID-19 pneumonia. This was a cross-sectional study that collected routine data from consecutive patients admitted to the outpatient program in a public hospital in Chile. Patients were asked to complete a 1STST. Data were analyzed according to those with and without a prolonged hospital stay of >10 days. Eighty-three percent of the patients were able to complete the test (N = 50). The median age was 62.7 ± 12.5 years. The average number of repetitions in the 1STST was 20.9 ± 4.8. Thirty-two percent of patients had a decrease in pulse oxygen saturation (SpO2) ≥ 4 points. The prolonged hospital stay subgroup had a significant increase in exertional desaturation (mean difference = 2.6; 95% CI = 1.2 to 3.9; p = 0.001) and dyspnea (mean difference = 1.1; 95% CI = 0.4 to 2.1; p = 0.042) compared to the group of length of stay ≤10 days. In-hospital survivors of COVID-19, the 1STST showed a decrease in physical capacity at one month in those 90% who were able to complete it. The 1STST was able to discriminate between those with and without a prolonged hospital stay and was able to detect exertional desaturation in some patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/rehabilitation , Exercise Test/methods , Exercise Tolerance/physiology , Exercise/physiology , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies
18.
Eur J Clin Invest ; 51(4): e13509, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066671

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: No data are available about whether Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic have led to changes in clinical profiles or results of exercise testing once the usual activity was reassumed, as well as if wearing a facemask has any impact on the tests. The aim of this study is to evaluate differences in the patients referred to exercise stress testing in the context of COVID-19 pandemic and analyse the feasibility and results of these tests wearing a facemask. METHODS: We included all patients referred for an exercise test from 1 June to 30 September 2020 and compared them with the patients attended within the same period in 2019 before and after propensity score matching. All patients referred in 2020 wore a facemask. RESULTS: A total of 854 patients were included: 398 in the 2020 group and 456 in 2019. No significant differences in baseline characteristics of the patients were observed, with the exception of dyspnoea, which was nearly twice as high in 2020 as compared with 2019. Regarding the results of the tests, no differences were observed, with almost 80% of maximal tests, similar functional capacity and over a 20% of positive exercise tests in both groups. These results remained after propensity score matching. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 pandemic has not changed the clinical profile of patients referred to exercise testing. In addition, performing exercise testing wearing a facemask is feasible, with no influence in functional capacity and clinical results.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Echocardiography, Stress/methods , Electrocardiography , Exercise Test/methods , Masks , Myocardial Ischemia/diagnosis , Aged , Exercise Tolerance , Female , Humans , Male , Metabolic Equivalent , Middle Aged , Myocardial Ischemia/physiopathology , Physical Functional Performance , Propensity Score , Referral and Consultation , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain
19.
Heart Vessels ; 36(8): 1184-1189, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1052972

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to clarify the effects of the interruption of cardiac rehabilitation (CR) and refraining from going outside due to the COVID-19 pandemic on hemodynamic response and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) during exercise including differences by age in phase 2 CR outpatients. Among 76 outpatients participating in consecutive phase 2 CR in both periods from March to April and June to July 2020, which were before and after CR interruption, respectively, at Sanda City Hospital were enrolled. The inclusion criterion was outpatients whose CR was interrupted due to COVID-19. We compared the data of hemodynamic response and RPE during exercise on the last day before interruption and the first day after interruption when aerobic exercise was performed at the same exercise intensity in the < 75 years group and ≥ 75 years group. Fifty-three patients were enrolled in the final analysis. Post-CR interruption, peak heart rate increased significantly (p = 0.009) in the < 75 years group, whereas in the ≥ 75 years group, weight and body mass index decreased significantly (p = 0.009, 0.011, respectively) and Borg scale scores for both dyspnea and lower extremities fatigue worsened significantly (both, p < 0.001). CR interruption and refraining from going outside due to the COVID-19 pandemic affected the hemodynamic response, RPE during exercise and body weight in phase 2 CR outpatients. In particular, patients aged ≥ 75 years appeared to be placed at an increased risk of frailty.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiac Rehabilitation , Cardiovascular Diseases , Frailty , Hemodynamics , Physical Exertion , Aged , Anthropometry/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cardiac Rehabilitation/methods , Cardiac Rehabilitation/statistics & numerical data , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/physiopathology , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Dyspnea/diagnosis , Dyspnea/etiology , Exercise/physiology , Exercise Test/methods , Exercise Test/statistics & numerical data , Female , Frailty/etiology , Frailty/physiopathology , Frailty/prevention & control , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Male , SARS-CoV-2
20.
J Card Fail ; 27(1): 105-108, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-963391

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Exercise testing plays an important role in evaluating heart failure prognosis and selecting patients for advanced therapeutic interventions. However, concern for severe acute respiratory syndrome novel coronavirus-2 transmission during exercise testing has markedly curtailed performance of exercise testing during the novel coronavirus disease-2019 pandemic. METHODS AND RESULTS: To examine the feasibility to conducting exercise testing with an in-line filter, 2 healthy volunteer subjects each completed 2 incremental exercise tests, one with discrete stages of increasing resistance and one with a continuous ramp. Each subject performed 1 test with an electrostatic filter in-line with the system measuring gas exchange and air flow, and 1 test without the filter in place. Oxygen uptake and minute ventilation were highly consistent when evaluated with and without use of an electrostatic filter with a >99.9% viral efficiency. CONCLUSIONS: Deployment of a commercially available in-line electrostatic viral filter during cardiopulmonary exercise testing is feasible and provides consistent data compared with testing without a filter.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Exercise Test/standards , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Respiratory Protective Devices/standards , Exercise Test/methods , Feasibility Studies , Humans , Male , Oxygen Consumption/physiology , Pandemics , Pulmonary Gas Exchange/physiology , Reproducibility of Results
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL