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1.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0257549, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793615

ABSTRACT

Particulate generation occurs during exercise-induced exhalation, and research on this topic is scarce. Moreover, infection-control measures are inadequately implemented to avoid particulate generation. A laminar airflow ventilation system (LFVS) was developed to remove respiratory droplets released during treadmill exercise. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the number of aerosols during training on a treadmill and exercise intensity and to elucidate the effect of the LFVS on aerosol removal during anaerobic exercise. In this single-center observational study, the exercise tests were performed on a treadmill at Running Science Lab in Japan on 20 healthy subjects (age: 29±12 years, men: 80%). The subjects had a broad spectrum of aerobic capacities and fitness levels, including athletes, and had no comorbidities. All of them received no medication. The exercise intensity was increased by 1-km/h increments until the heart rate reached 85% of the expected maximum rate and then maintained for 10 min. The first 10 subjects were analyzed to examine whether exercise increased the concentration of airborne particulates in the exhaled air. For the remaining 10 subjects, the LFVS was activated during constant-load exercise to compare the number of respiratory droplets before and after LFVS use. During exercise, a steady amount of particulates before the lactate threshold (LT) was followed by a significant and gradual increase in respiratory droplets after the LT, particularly during anaerobic exercise. Furthermore, respiratory droplets ≥0.3 µm significantly decreased after using LFVS (2120800±759700 vs. 560 ± 170, p<0.001). The amount of respiratory droplets significantly increased after LT. The LFVS enabled a significant decrease in respiratory droplets during anaerobic exercise in healthy subjects. This study's findings will aid in exercising safely during this pandemic.


Subject(s)
Air Conditioning/methods , COVID-19/prevention & control , Exercise/physiology , Particulate Matter/chemistry , Adult , Aerosols/chemistry , Air Filters , Anaerobic Threshold/physiology , COVID-19/metabolism , Exercise Test/methods , Exhalation/physiology , Female , Heart Rate/physiology , Humans , Japan , Lactic Acid/metabolism , Male , Oxygen Consumption/physiology , Respiration , Respiratory System/physiopathology , Running/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Ventilation/methods
2.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0265807, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1759962

ABSTRACT

Lifestyle physical activity following spinal cord injury (SCI) is critical for functional independence, mental wellness, and social participation, yet nearly 50% of individuals with SCI report no regular exercise. The objective of this study was to better understand factors leading to this participation gap by capturing the physical activity perspectives of individuals living with SCI. We completed small group interviews with nine individuals living with SCI across the United States. Iterative thematic analysis systematically revealed meaningful core concepts related to physical activity engagement with SCI. Emergent themes revealed challenges to lifestyle physical activity behavior including gaps in physical activity education, isolation during psychological adjustment, and knowledge limitations in community exercise settings. A secondary theme related to the COVID-19 pandemic emerged, highlighting additional environmental constraints affecting participation. Our findings suggest that most physical activity education is delivered during inpatient rehabilitation and is related to physical function. Lifetime physical activity strategies are achieved through self-education and peer networking. Personal motivators for physical activity include secondary condition prevention, while social and emotional barriers prevent regular adherence. These findings can inform the development and delivery of physical activity programs to maximize physical activity engagement in individuals living with chronic SCI.


Subject(s)
Spinal Cord Injuries/rehabilitation , Adult , Aged , Attitude to Health , Emotional Adjustment , Exercise/physiology , Exercise/psychology , Female , Humans , Interviews as Topic , Male , Middle Aged , Spinal Cord Injuries/psychology , Spinal Cord Injuries/therapy
3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(4)2022 02 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1706609

ABSTRACT

The harmful effects of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can reach the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and endothelial function. Therefore, the detrimental multiorgan effects of COVID-19 could be induced by deregulations in ANS that may persist after the acute SARS-CoV-2 infection. Additionally, investigating the differences in ANS response in overweight/obese, and physically inactive participants who had COVID-19 compared to those who did not have the disease is necessary. The aim of the study was to analyze the autonomic function of young adults after mild-to-moderate infection with SARS-CoV-2 and to assess whether body mass index (BMI) and levels of physical activity modulates autonomic function in participants with and without COVID-19. Patients previously infected with SARS-CoV-2 and healthy controls were recruited for this cross-sectional observational study. A general anamnesis was taken, and BMI and physical activity levels were assessed. The ANS was evaluated through heart rate variability. A total of 57 subjects were evaluated. Sympathetic nervous system activity in the post-COVID-19 group was increased (stress index; p = 0.0273). They also presented lower values of parasympathetic activity (p < 0.05). Overweight/obese subjects in the post-COVID-19 group presented significantly lower parasympathetic activity and reduced global variability compared to non-obese in control group (p < 0.05). Physically inactive subjects in the post-COVID-19 group presented significantly higher sympathetic activity than active subjects in the control group. Parasympathetic activity was significantly increased in physically active subjects in the control group compared to the physically inactive post-COVID-19 group (p < 0.05). COVID-19 promotes changes in the ANS of young adults, and these changes are modulated by overweight/obesity and physical activity levels.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Autonomic Nervous System/physiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Exercise/physiology , Heart Rate/physiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
4.
Front Immunol ; 12: 761382, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1638133

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has led to several pioneering scientific discoveries resulting in no effective solutions with the exception of vaccination. Moderate exercise is a significant non-pharmacological strategy, to reduce the infection-related burden of COVID-19, especially in patients who are obese, elderly, and with additional comorbidities. The imbalance of T helper type 1 (Th1) or T helper type 2 (Th2) cells has been well documented among populations who have suffered as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, and who are at maximum risk of infection and mortality. Moderate and low intensity exercise can benefit persons at risk from the disease and survivors by favorable modulation in Th1/Th2 ratios. Moreover, in COVID-19 patients, mild to moderate intensity aerobic exercise also increases immune system function but high intensity aerobic exercise may have adverse effects on immune responses. In addition, sustained hypoxia in COVID-19 patients has been reported to cause organ failure and cell death. Hypoxic conditions have also been highlighted to be triggered in COVID-19-susceptible individuals and COVID-19 survivors. This suggests that hypoxia inducible factor (HIF 1α) might be an important focus for researchers investigating effective strategies to minimize the effects of the pandemic. Intermittent hypoxic preconditioning (IHP) is a method of exposing subjects to short bouts of moderate hypoxia interspersed with brief periods of normal oxygen concentrations (recovery). This methodology inhibits the production of pro-inflammatory factors, activates HIF-1α to activate target genes, and subsequently leads to a higher production of red blood cells and hemoglobin. This increases angiogenesis and increases oxygen transport capacity. These factors can help alleviate virus induced cardiopulmonary hemodynamic disorders and endothelial dysfunction. Therefore, during the COVID-19 pandemic we propose that populations should engage in low to moderate exercise individually designed, prescribed and specific, that utilizes IHP including pranayama (yoga), swimming and high-altitude hiking exercise. This would be beneficial in affecting HIF-1α to combat the disease and its severity. Therefore, the promotion of certain exercises should be considered by all sections of the population. However, exercise recommendations and prescription for COVID-19 patients should be structured to match individual levels of capability and adaptability.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Exercise/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Th1 Cells/immunology , Th2 Cells/immunology , Aging , COVID-19/pathology , Comorbidity , Humans , Immunocompromised Host/immunology , Immunomodulation/immunology , Pandemics , Th1-Th2 Balance
8.
Appl Physiol Nutr Metab ; 46(7): 753-762, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1571437

ABSTRACT

We sought to determine the impact of wearing cloth or surgical masks on the cardiopulmonary responses to moderate-intensity exercise. Twelve subjects (n = 5 females) completed three, 8-min cycling trials while breathing through a non-rebreathing valve (laboratory control), cloth, or surgical mask. Heart rate (HR), oxyhemoglobin saturation (SpO2), breathing frequency, mouth pressure, partial pressure of end-tidal carbon dioxide (PetCO2) and oxygen (PetO2), dyspnea were measured throughout exercise. A subset of n = 6 subjects completed an additional exercise bout without a mask (ecological control). There were no differences in breathing frequency, HR or SpO2 across conditions (all p > 0.05). Compared with the laboratory control (4.7 ± 0.9 cmH2O [mean ± SD]), mouth pressure swings were smaller with the surgical mask (0.9 ± 0.7; p < 0.0001), but similar with the cloth mask (3.6 ± 4.8 cmH2O; p = 0.66). Wearing a cloth mask decreased PetO2 (-3.5 ± 3.7 mm Hg) and increased PetCO2 (+2.0 ± 1.3 mm Hg) relative to the ecological control (both p < 0.05). There were no differences in end-tidal gases between mask conditions and laboratory control (both p > 0.05). Dyspnea was similar between the control conditions and the surgical mask (p > 0.05) but was greater with the cloth mask compared with laboratory (+0.9 ± 1.2) and ecological (+1.5 ± 1.3) control conditions (both p < 0.05). Wearing a mask during short-term moderate-intensity exercise may increase dyspnea but has minimal impact on the cardiopulmonary response. Novelty: Wearing surgical or cloth masks during exercise has no impact on breathing frequency, tidal volume, oxygenation, and heart rate However, there are some changes in inspired and expired gas fractions that are physiologically irrelevant. In young healthy individuals, wearing surgical or cloth masks during submaximal exercise has few physiological consequences.


Subject(s)
Exercise/physiology , Heart Rate , Masks , Oxyhemoglobins/metabolism , Respiratory Rate , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , Carbon Dioxide/physiology , Dyspnea/physiopathology , Equipment Design , Exercise Test , Face , Female , Humans , Male , Mouth/physiology , Oxygen/physiology , Partial Pressure , Pressure , Skin Temperature , Tidal Volume , Young Adult
9.
J Sci Med Sport ; 25(3): 235-241, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525863

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To examine the effects of COVID-19 related 'lockdown restrictions' on Australian's (5-75 years) physical activity recommendation achievement and active recreation participation. DESIGN: Cross-sectional online survey with self and proxy-report items (where the participant was a parent). METHODS: Adults (n = 1360) and adolescents (n = 1292) reported the frequency they performed 30- or 60-min of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), muscle-strengthening exercises, and participation in 11 active recreation behaviours in February 2020 (pre-COVID-19) and in April/May (during lockdown restrictions). Parents also proxy-reported activity for their child (n = 147, 5-12 years). Mixed effects logistic regressions or a logistic regression (with robust sandwich estimation for variance) assessed recall differences pre- and during lockdown, and interaction by sex. RESULTS: Compared to February, in April/May children were less likely to meet MVPA recommendations (OR = 0.27, 95%CI = 0.12-0.64); adolescents males, but not females, were less likely to meet MVPA (OR = 0.71, 95%CI 0.43, 1.17) and both recommendations (OR = 0.12, 95%CI = 0.02, 0.79); and adults were more likely to meet MVPA (OR = 1.26, 95%CI = 1.01, 1.57) but less likely to meet muscle-strengthening exercise recommendations (OR = 0.76, 9%CI = 0.65, 0.89). Across age groups more participants reported walking, muscle strengthening exercises at home, and yoga/Pilates/stretching at home, and fewer performed informal sport practice and play, and recreational activities. CONCLUSIONS: Lockdown restrictions had different effects on physical activity and active recreation among age groups and by sex. Physical activity promotion strategies that target children and adolescents, at home physical activity options, active neighbourhoods, and (re)engagement in informal sport and recreational activities post-COVID-19 are critical for (re)engaging Australians in health-enhancing behaviours.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sports , Adolescent , Adult , Australia , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Exercise/physiology , Humans , Male , Recreation , SARS-CoV-2
11.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0257549, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511814

ABSTRACT

Particulate generation occurs during exercise-induced exhalation, and research on this topic is scarce. Moreover, infection-control measures are inadequately implemented to avoid particulate generation. A laminar airflow ventilation system (LFVS) was developed to remove respiratory droplets released during treadmill exercise. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the number of aerosols during training on a treadmill and exercise intensity and to elucidate the effect of the LFVS on aerosol removal during anaerobic exercise. In this single-center observational study, the exercise tests were performed on a treadmill at Running Science Lab in Japan on 20 healthy subjects (age: 29±12 years, men: 80%). The subjects had a broad spectrum of aerobic capacities and fitness levels, including athletes, and had no comorbidities. All of them received no medication. The exercise intensity was increased by 1-km/h increments until the heart rate reached 85% of the expected maximum rate and then maintained for 10 min. The first 10 subjects were analyzed to examine whether exercise increased the concentration of airborne particulates in the exhaled air. For the remaining 10 subjects, the LFVS was activated during constant-load exercise to compare the number of respiratory droplets before and after LFVS use. During exercise, a steady amount of particulates before the lactate threshold (LT) was followed by a significant and gradual increase in respiratory droplets after the LT, particularly during anaerobic exercise. Furthermore, respiratory droplets ≥0.3 µm significantly decreased after using LFVS (2120800±759700 vs. 560 ± 170, p<0.001). The amount of respiratory droplets significantly increased after LT. The LFVS enabled a significant decrease in respiratory droplets during anaerobic exercise in healthy subjects. This study's findings will aid in exercising safely during this pandemic.


Subject(s)
Air Conditioning/methods , COVID-19/prevention & control , Exercise/physiology , Particulate Matter/chemistry , Adult , Aerosols/chemistry , Air Filters , Anaerobic Threshold/physiology , COVID-19/metabolism , Exercise Test/methods , Exhalation/physiology , Female , Heart Rate/physiology , Humans , Japan , Lactic Acid/metabolism , Male , Oxygen Consumption/physiology , Respiration , Respiratory System/physiopathology , Running/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Ventilation/methods
12.
Physiol Rep ; 9(20): e15075, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1485552

ABSTRACT

Exercise has substantial health benefits, but the effects of exercise on immune status and susceptibility to respiratory infections are less clear. Furthermore, there is limited research examining the effects of prolonged exercise on local respiratory immunity and antiviral activity. To assess the upper respiratory tract in response to exercise, we collected nasal lavage fluid (NALF) from human subjects (1) at rest, (2) after 45 min of moderate-intensity exercise, and (3) after 180 min of moderate-intensity exercise. To assess immune responses of the lower respiratory tract, we utilized a murine model to examine the effect of exercise duration on bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid immune cell content and lung gene expression. NALF cell counts did not change after 45 min of exercise, whereas 180 min significantly increased total cells and leukocytes in NALF. Importantly, fold change in NALF leukocytes correlated with the post-exercise fatigue rating in the 180-min exercise condition. The acellular portion of NALF contained strong antiviral activity against Influenza A in both resting and exercise paradigms. In mice undergoing moderate-intensity exercise, BAL total cells and neutrophils decreased in response to 45 or 90 min of exercise. In lung lobes, increased expression of heat shock proteins suggested that cellular stress occurred in response to exercise. However, a broad upregulation of inflammatory genes was not observed, even at 180 min of exercise. This work demonstrates that exercise duration differentially alters the cellularity of respiratory tract fluids, antiviral activity, and gene expression. These changes in local mucosal immunity may influence resistance to respiratory viruses, including influenza or possibly other pathogens in which nasal mucosa plays a protective role, such as rhinovirus or SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Exercise/physiology , Influenza A virus/immunology , Leukocytes/immunology , Lung/immunology , Nasal Lavage Fluid/immunology , Neutrophils/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Animals , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/cytology , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/immunology , Female , Gene Expression , Humans , Leukocytes/metabolism , Lung/cytology , Lung/metabolism , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Nasal Lavage/methods , Nasal Lavage Fluid/cytology , Nasal Mucosa/cytology , Nasal Mucosa/immunology , Nasal Mucosa/metabolism , Neutrophils/metabolism , Time Factors , Young Adult
13.
Ital J Pediatr ; 47(1): 209, 2021 Oct 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477443

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The social consequences of COVID-19 pandemic are universally known. In particular, the pediatric population is dealing with a radical lifestyle change. For some risk categories, such as overweight or obese children, the impact of home confinement has been greater than for others. The increased sedentary life, the wrong diet and social distancing have stopped the chance of losing weight. The aims of this study were to analyse the impact of COVID-19 lockdown on the behavior changes in a obese pediatric population and to explore the correlation between the new lifestyle and the level of parental instruction. METHODS: Data show features of 40 obese and overweight pediatric patients of our Clinic in Messina (Italy). We evaluated weight, height, BMI and other biochemical parameters: total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, triglyceride, transaminases, glycemia and insulinemia. After the lockdown, we contacted all patients in order to get some information about diet, physical activity and sedentary lifestyle changes in correlation to the level of their parents' instruction. Additionally, we also evaluated 20 children twice from a clinical and laboratory perspective. RESULTS: The study showed an increase of daily meals during COVID-19 lockdown (3.2 ± 0.4 vs 5 ± 1, P < 0.001). In particular, children whose parents have primary school diploma ate a greater significant number of meals during the lockdown, compared to those who have parents with secondary school diploma (P = 0.0019). In addition, the 95% of patients did low physical activity during the lockdown and the 97.5% spent more time in sedentary activity. Even if BMI's values don't show significant differences, they have increased after the lockdown. We didn't find any correlation between biochemical parameters before and after the lockdown. CONCLUSION: The lockdown has had bad consequences on good style of life's maintenance in overweight and obese children. The absence of a significant correlation between the worsening of biochemical parameters and the lockdown doesn't allow to exclude any long-term consequences. It's safe to assume that, if the hours spent in sedentary activity and the number of meals don't diminish, there will probably repercussion on the biochemical parameters.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Exercise/physiology , Life Style , Overweight/epidemiology , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Quarantine/methods , Adolescent , Body Mass Index , Child , Child, Preschool , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Pandemics , Pediatric Obesity/physiopathology , Pediatric Obesity/psychology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
15.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257852, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1435625

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We have recently reported reduced physical activity (PA) in people with cystic fibrosis (pwCF) with and without lung transplantation (LTX) during a 6-week stringent lockdown in Switzerland. This follow-up study explores the impact of coronavirus-2019 disease (COVID-19) related pandemic restrictions on individuals' therapy regimens and health-related aspects in pwCF. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional web-based national survey in Spring 2021. The survey included questions on daily PA, airway clearance and inhalation therapy, questions on COVID-19-compatible symptoms, diagnostic tests and vaccination status, and enquired health-related aspects covering the pandemic period between March 2020 to April 2021. RESULTS: 193 individuals with CF (53% female; 25% LTX recipients) participated. Among pwCF, 10 reported COVID-19 (n = 2 LTX recipients), two subjects were hospitalized, no invasive ventilation required, no deaths. The clinical course was generally mild. Overall, 46% reported less PA during the pandemic, mostly due to closed fitness facilities (85%), lack of motivation (34%), and changes in daily structures (21%). In contrast, 32/193 (17%) pwCF were able to increase their PA levels: 12 (38%) and 11 (34%) reported undertaking home-based training and outdoor activities more frequently; 6 (19%) reported an increase in routine PA, and another 3 (9%) started new activities. Among pwCF without LTX, 5% and 4% reported to undertake less airway clearance and inhalation therapy, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our study reveals unfavorable consequences of COVID-19 pandemic restrictions on PA of pwCF with unknown long-term consequences for their overall physical fitness and lung health. Strategies to overcome this undesirable situation are needed; increased uptake of telehealth PA programs and virtual exercise classes to promote PA participation might be one promising approach along with vaccination of pwCF and their close contacts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Cystic Fibrosis/physiopathology , Exercise/physiology , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Lung Transplantation/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Motivation/physiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Switzerland , Young Adult
16.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0247414, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388900

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Facemasks are recommended to reduce the spread of SARS-CoV-2, but concern about inadequate gas exchange is an often cited reason for non-compliance. RESEARCH QUESTION: Among adult volunteers, do either cloth masks or surgical masks impair oxygenation or ventilation either at rest or during physical activity? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: With IRB approval and informed consent, we measured heart rate (HR), transcutaneous carbon dioxide (CO2) tension and oxygen levels (SpO2) at the conclusion of six 10-minute phases: sitting quietly and walking briskly without a mask, sitting quietly and walking briskly while wearing a cloth mask, and sitting quietly and walking briskly while wearing a surgical mask. Brisk walking required at least a 10bpm increase in heart rate. Occurrences of hypoxemia (decrease in SpO2 of ≥3% from baseline to a value of ≤94%) and hypercarbia (increase in CO2 tension of ≥5 mmHg from baseline to a value of ≥46 mmHg) in individual subjects were collected. Wilcoxon signed-rank was used for pairwise comparisons among values for the whole cohort (e.g. walking without a mask versus walking with a cloth mask). RESULTS: Among 50 adult volunteers (median age 33 years; 32% with a co-morbidity), there were no episodes of hypoxemia or hypercarbia (0%; 95% confidence interval 0-1.9%). In paired comparisons, there were no statistically significant differences in either CO2 or SpO2 between baseline measurements without a mask and those while wearing either kind of mask mask, both at rest and after walking briskly for ten minutes. INTERPRETATION: The risk of pathologic gas exchange impairment with cloth masks and surgical masks is near-zero in the general adult population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Masks , Oxygen/metabolism , Pulmonary Ventilation/physiology , Adult , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/transmission , Carbon Dioxide/metabolism , Exercise/physiology , Female , Heart Rate/physiology , Humans , Hypoxia/etiology , Hypoxia/metabolism , Male , Masks/adverse effects , N95 Respirators/adverse effects , Rest/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Walking/physiology
17.
Isr J Health Policy Res ; 10(1): 52, 2021 09 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388827

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed at exploring the relationships between physical activity, weight control, and psycho-social aspects of the COVID-19 lockdown, which have characterized the Israeli population's behavior during the COVID-19 global crisis. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey research. METHODS: Participants included 1855 men and women aged 18 and above, from different regions in the country and representing different sectors. They were recruited through the social media in a "snowball" sampling, and filled out a self-administered six-part survey: Demographic background, the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), the positive and negative affect scales (PANAS), the Conor and Davidson resilience scale, a questionnaire for measuring depressive symptoms, and questions regarding weight change based on the Israeli National Health and Nutrition (MABAT) survey. RESULTS: Routine physical activity (PA) was reported by 76.3% of the participants before the lockdown, 19.3% stopped exercising during this period, and 9.3% began exercising during the lockdown. The participants who were physically active during the lockdown period reported a higher level of resilience and positive feelings, and a lower level of depression, compared with those who were not physically active. People who were physically active during the lockdown maintained their weight compared with those who were inactive. Concerning weight change, 44.8% of the respondents maintained their weight, and a higher percentage of people reported weight gain than those who reported weight loss. CONCLUSIONS: Continuous PA before and during the COVID-19 lockdown were associated with higher resilience and positive emotions, and depressive symptoms, in people aged 18 and above. Although a causal link cannot be established, in light of the results of the present study, encouraging physical activity may contribute to improving mental health and a sense of self-efficacy, as well as to maintaining weight during a crisis.


Subject(s)
Body Weight/physiology , COVID-19 , Exercise/physiology , Mental Health , Adolescent , Adult , Affect , Aged , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Cross-Sectional Studies , Emotions , Female , Humans , Israel , Male , Middle Aged , Resilience, Psychological , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
19.
J Parkinsons Dis ; 11(4): 1579-1583, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1359153

ABSTRACT

Whilst some studies investigated the impact of viral infection or reduced access to medication during the COVID-19 pandemic in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), data on the effects of pandemic restrictions are still scarce. We retrospectively analyzed motor symptoms of longitudinally followed PD patients (n = 264) and compared motor disease progression before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Additionally, we performed a trend analysis of the yearly evolution of motor symptoms in 755 patients from 2016 until 2021. We observed a worsening of motor symptoms and a significantly increased motor disease progression during pandemic-related restrictions as compared to before the COVID-19 outbreak.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disease Progression , Exercise/physiology , Physical Distancing , Symptom Flare Up , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Middle Aged , Parkinson Disease , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index
20.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0256063, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1354765

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic incited unprecedented restrictions on the behavior of society. The aims of this study were to quantify changes to sleep/wake behavior and exercise behavior, as well as changes in physiological markers of health during COVID-19 physical distancing. A retrospective analysis of 5,436 US-based subscribers to the WHOOP platform (mean age = 40.25 ± 11.33; 1,536 females, 3,900 males) was conducted covering the period from January 1st, 2020 through May 15th, 2020. This time period was separated into a 68-day baseline period and a 67-day physical distancing period. To provide context and allow for potential confounders (e.g., change of season), data were also extracted from the corresponding time periods in 2019. As compared to baseline, during physical distancing, all subjects fell asleep earlier (-0.15 hours), woke up later (0.29 hours), obtained more sleep (+0.21 hours) and reduced social jet lag (-0.13 hours). Contrasting sleep behavior was seen in 2019, with subjects falling asleep and waking up at a similar time (-0.01 hours; -0.03 hours), obtaining less sleep (-0.14 hours) and maintaining social jet lag (+0.06 hours) in corresponding periods. Individuals exercised more intensely during physical distancing by increasing the time spent in high heart rate zones. In 2020, resting heart rate decreased (-0.90 beats per minute) and heart rate variability increased (+0.98 milliseconds) during physical distancing when compared to baseline. However, similar changes were seen in 2019 for RHR (-0.51 beats per minute) and HRV (+2.97 milliseconds), suggesting the variation may not be related to the introduction of physical distancing mandates. The findings suggest that individuals improved health related behavior (i.e., increased exercise intensity and longer sleep duration) during physical distancing restrictions. While positive changes were seen to cardiovascular indicators of health, it is unclear whether these changes were a direct consequence of behavior change.


Subject(s)
Exercise/physiology , Health Behavior , Physical Distancing , Sleep/physiology , Wearable Electronic Devices , Adult , COVID-19 , Female , Health Promotion , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies
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