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1.
Front Immunol ; 13: 824378, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785335

ABSTRACT

The scale of the COVID-19 pandemic forced urgent measures for the development of new therapeutics. One of these strategies is the use of convalescent plasma (CP) as a conventional source for passive immunity. Recently, there has been interest in CP-derived exosomes. In this report, we present a structural, biochemical, and biological characterization of our proprietary product, convalescent human immune plasma-derived exosome (ChipEXO), following the guidelines set forth by the Turkish Ministry of Health and the Turkish Red Crescent, the Good Manufacturing Practice, the International Society for Extracellular Vesicles, and the Gene Ontology Consortium. The data support the safety and efficacy of this product against SARS-CoV-2 infections in preclinical models.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Exosomes , Antibodies, Viral , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Cell Signal ; 94: 110325, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1767965

ABSTRACT

Efforts to discover antiviral drugs and diagnostic platforms have intensified to an unprecedented level since the outbreak of COVID-19. Nano-sized endosomal vesicles called exosomes have gained considerable attention from researchers due to their role in intracellular communication to regulate the biological activity of target cells through cargo proteins, nucleic acids, and lipids. According to recent studies, exosomes play a vital role in viral diseases including covid-19, with their interaction with the host immune system opening the door to effective antiviral treatments. Utilizing the intrinsic nature of exosomes, it is imperative to elucidate how exosomes exert their effect on the immune system or boost viral infectivity. Exosome biogenesis machinery is hijacked by viruses to initiate replication, spread infection, and evade the immune response. Exosomes, however, also participate in protective mechanisms by triggering the innate immune system. Besides that, exosomes released from the cells can carry a robust amount of information about the diseased state, serving as a potential biomarker for detecting viral diseases. This review describes how exosomes increase virus infectivity, act as immunomodulators, and function as a potential drug delivery carrier and diagnostic biomarker for diseases caused by HIV, Hepatitis, Ebola, and Epstein-Barr viruses. Furthermore, the review analyzes various applications of exosomes within the context of COVID-19, including its management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Exosomes , Virus Diseases , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Biomarkers/metabolism , COVID-19/diagnosis , Endosomes/metabolism , Exosomes/metabolism , Humans , Virus Diseases/diagnosis , Virus Diseases/metabolism
3.
Ann Neurol ; 91(6): 772-781, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1739117

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: As SARS-CoV-2 is known to invade neural cell mitochondria, a plasma system for quantifying central nervous system proteins in living humans was used to investigate neuropathogenic mechanisms of long-COVID-19. METHODS: SARS-CoV-2 proteins and mitochondrial proteins (MPs) in enriched plasma neuron-derived extracellular vesicles (NDEVs) and astrocyte-derived EVs (ADEVs) were quantified in resolved acute COVID-19 without post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 (PASC), PASC without neuropsychiatric manifestations (NP), PASC with NP and healthy controls. RESULTS: NDEV and ADEV mean levels of SARS-CoV-2 S1 and nucleocapsid (N) proteins were higher in all PASC sub-groups than controls, but only N levels were higher in PASC with than without NP. Exosome marker CD81-normalized NDEV mean levels of subunit 6 of MP respiratory chain complex I and subunit 10 of complex III, and neuroprotective MPs Humanin and mitochondrial open-reading frame of the 12S rRNA-c (MOTS-c) all were decreased significantly in PASC with NP but not in PASC without NP relative to controls. NDEV levels of MPs voltage-dependent anion-selective channel protein 1 (VDAC1) and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 1 (NMDAR1) were decreased in PASC without and with NP, whereas those of calcium channel MPs mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU), sodium/calcium exchanger (NCLX) and leucine zipper EF-hand containing transmembrane 1 protein (LETM1) were decreased only in PASC with NP. ADEV levels of MCU and NCLX only were increased in PASC without and with NP. INTERPRETATION: Abnormal NDEV and ADEV levels of SARS-CoV-2 N and S1 protein and MPs correlate with NP and may be biomarkers for long-COVID prognostics and therapeutic trials. ANN NEUROL 2022;91:772-781.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Exosomes , Biomarkers , COVID-19/complications , Disease Progression , Exosomes/metabolism , Humans , Membrane Proteins , Mitochondrial Proteins , SARS-CoV-2
4.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 14(4): 4882-4891, 2022 Feb 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1649372

ABSTRACT

Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is seriously threatening human health. Following SARS-CoV-2 infection, immune cell infiltration creates an inflammatory and oxidative microenvironment, which can cause pneumonia, severe acute respiratory syndrome, kidney failure, and even death. Clinically, a safe and effective treatment strategy remains to be established. Herein, a nano-bait strategy for inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 infection by redirecting viral attack while simultaneously relieving inflammation is developed. Specifically, the nano-bait was based on the exosome-sheathed polydopamine (PDA@Exosome) nanoparticles, which were generated by exocytosis of the PDA nanoparticles from H293T cells. In this approach, PDA@Exosome inherits from the source cells of H293T cells a surface display of ACE2 through pre-engineered expression. The resulting PDA@Exosome can compete with ACE2-expressing epithelial cells for S protein binding, in either the pre-exposure or post-exposure route. Moreover, relying on the ability of PDA to intercept and deactivate radical species, the PDA@Exosome can significantly attenuate the level of inflammatory cytokines by mediating oxidative stress, a major cause of organ injury. Due to its high trapping, multiple antioxidant ability, and good biocompatibility, the HACE2-exosome based nano-bait is a promising robust antiviral nanotherapeutics for the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cytokines/genetics , Epithelial Cells/drug effects , Epithelial Cells/virology , Exosomes/drug effects , Exosomes/genetics , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Virus Internalization/drug effects
5.
Biotechnol Lett ; 44(2): 159-177, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1633325

ABSTRACT

It only took 8 months for the pneumonia caused by a previously unknown coronavirus to turn into a global pandemic of unprecedentedly far-reaching implications. Failure of the already discovered treatment measures opened up a new opportunity to evaluate the potentials of mesenchymal stem cells and their extracellular vesicles (EVs), exosomes in particular. Eventually, the initial success experienced after the use of MSCs in treating the new pneumonia by Lnge and his team backed up the idea of MSC-based therapies and pushed them closer to becoming a reality. However, MSC-related concerns regarding safety such as abnormal differentiation, spontaneous malignant and the formation of ectopic tissues have triggered the replacement of MSCs by their secreted exosomes. The issue has been further strengthened by the fact that the exosomes leave similar treatment impacts when compared to their parental cells. In recent years, much attention has been paid to the use of MSC-derived exosomes in the treatment of a variety of diseases. With a primary focus on COVID-19 and its current treatment methods, the present review looks into the potentials of MSCs and MSC-derived exosomes in battling the ongoing pandemic. Finally, the research will draw an analogy between exosomes and their parental cells, when it comes to the progresses and challenges in using exosomes as a large-scale treatment method.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Exosomes , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Cell Differentiation , Humans
6.
J Diabetes Res ; 2021: 4632745, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1556856

ABSTRACT

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a common pregnancy complication which is normally diagnosed in the second trimester of gestation. With an increasing incidence, GDM poses a significant threat to maternal and offspring health. Therefore, we need a deeper understanding of GDM pathophysiology and novel investigation on the diagnosis and treatment for GDM. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of endogenic small noncoding RNAs with a length of approximately 19-24 nucleotides, have been reported to exert their function in gene expression by binding to proteins or being enclosed in membranous vesicles, such as exosomes. Studies have investigated the roles of miRNAs in the pathophysiological mechanism of GDM and their potential as noninvasive biological candidates for the management of GDM, including diagnosis and treatment. This review is aimed at summarizing the pathophysiological significance of miRNAs in GDM development and their potential function in GDM clinical diagnosis and therapeutic approach. In this review, we summarized an integrated expressional profile and the pathophysiological significance of placental exosomes and associated miRNAs, as well as other plasma miRNAs such as exo-AT. Furthermore, we also discussed the practical application of exosomes in GDM postpartum outcomes and the potential function of several miRNAs as therapeutic target in the GDM pathological pathway, thus providing a novel clinical insight of these biological signatures into GDM therapeutic approach.


Subject(s)
Diabetes, Gestational/drug therapy , MicroRNAs/pharmacology , Adult , Diabetes, Gestational/genetics , Exosomes/metabolism , Female , Gene Expression/genetics , Gene Expression/physiology , Humans , MicroRNAs/metabolism , MicroRNAs/therapeutic use , Pregnancy
7.
Placenta ; 117: 161-168, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1557002

ABSTRACT

The emergence of COVID-19 has created a major health crisis across the globe. Invasion of SARS-CoV-2 into the lungs causes acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) that result in the damage of lung alveolar epithelial cells. Currently, there is no standard treatment available to treat the disease and the resultant lung scarring is irreversible even after recovery. This has prompted researchers across the globe to focus on developing new therapeutics and vaccines for the treatment and prevention of COVID-19. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have emerged as an efficient drug screening platform and MSC-derived organoids has found applications in disease modeling and drug discovery. Perinatal tissue derived MSC based cell therapies have been explored in the treatment of various disease conditions including ARDS because of their enhanced regenerative and immunomodulatory properties. The multi-utility properties of MSCs have been described in this review wherein we discuss the potential use of MSC-derived lung organoids in screening of novel therapeutic compounds for COVID-19 and also in disease modeling to better understand the pathogenesis of the disease. This article also summarizes the rationale behind the development of MSC-based cell- and cell-free therapies and vaccines for COVID-19 with a focus on the current progress in this area. With the pandemic raging, an important necessity is to develop novel treatment strategies which will not only alleviate the disease symptoms but also avoid any off-target effects which could further increase post infection sequelae. Naturally occurring mesenchymal stem cells could be the magic bullet which fulfil these criteria.


Subject(s)
Amnion/cytology , COVID-19/therapy , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Placenta/cytology , SARS-CoV-2 , Umbilical Cord/cytology , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy , Exosomes/transplantation , Female , Humans , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/ultrastructure , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Wharton Jelly/cytology
8.
Life Sci Alliance ; 5(3)2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1552086

ABSTRACT

Murine neural stem cells (NSCs) were recently shown to release piRNA-containing exosomes/microvesicles (Ex/Mv) for exerting antiviral immunity, but it remains unknown if these Ex/Mv could target SARS-CoV-2 and whether the PIWI-piRNA system is important for these antiviral actions. Here, using in vitro infection models, we show that hypothalamic NSCs (htNSCs) Ex/Mv provided an innate immunity protection against SARS-CoV-2. Importantly, enhanced antiviral actions were achieved by using induced Ex/Mv that were derived from induced htNSCs through twice being exposed to several RNA fragments of SARS-CoV-2 genome, a process that was designed not to involve protein translation of these RNA fragments. The increased antiviral effects of these induced Ex/Mv were associated with increased expression of piRNA species some of which could predictably target SARS-CoV-2 genome. Knockout of piRNA-interacting protein PIWIL2 in htNSCs led to reductions in both innate and induced antiviral effects of Ex/Mv in targeting SARS-CoV-2. Taken together, this study demonstrates a case suggesting Ex/Mv from certain cell types have innate and adaptive immunity against SARS-CoV-2, and the PIWI-piRNA system is important for these antiviral actions.


Subject(s)
Argonaute Proteins/metabolism , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/metabolism , Cell-Derived Microparticles/metabolism , Exosomes , RNA, Small Interfering/metabolism , RNA/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , A549 Cells , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Genome, Viral , Humans , Hypothalamus/metabolism , Immune System , Immunity, Innate , In Vitro Techniques , Mice
9.
Cells ; 10(12)2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1551568

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is a global challenge, demanding researchers address different approaches in relation to prevention, diagnostics and therapeutics. Amongst the many tactics of tackling these therapeutic challenges, small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) or exosomes are emerging as a new frontier in the field of ameliorating viral infections. Exosomes are part of extracellular vesicles (EVs)-spherical biological structures with a lipid bilayer of a diameter of up to 5000 nm, which are released into the intercellular space by most types of eukaryotic cells, both in physiological and pathological states. EVs share structural similarities to viruses, such as small size, common mechanisms of biogenesis and mechanisms for cell entry. The role of EVs in promoting the viral spread by evading the immune response of the host, which is exhibited by retroviruses, indicates the potential for further investigation and possible manipulation of these processes when tackling the spread and treatment of COVID-19. The following paper introduces the topic of the use of exosomes in the treatment of viral infections, and presents the future prospects for the use of these EVs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Extracellular Vesicles/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Exosomes/metabolism , Humans , Models, Biological , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
10.
Mol Med Rep ; 25(1)2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1534301

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID­19) is a global pandemic that can have a long­lasting impact on public health if not properly managed. Ongoing vaccine development trials involve classical molecular strategies based on inactivated or attenuated viruses, single peptides or viral vectors. However, there are multiple issues, such as the risk of reversion to virulence, inability to provide long­lasting protection and limited protective immunity. To overcome the aforementioned drawbacks of currently available COVID­19 vaccines, an alternative strategy is required to produce safe and efficacious vaccines that impart long­term immunity. Exosomes (key intercellular communicators characterized by low immunogenicity, high biocompatibility and innate cargo­loading capacity) offer a novel approach for effective COVID­19 vaccine development. An engineered exosome­based vaccine displaying the four primary structural proteins of SARS­CoV­2 (spike, membrane, nucleocapside and envelope proteins) induces humoral and cell mediated immunity and triggers long­lasting immunity. The present review investigated the prospective use of exosomes in the development of COVID­19 vaccines; moreover, exosome­based vaccines may be key to control the COVID­19 pandemic by providing enhanced protection compared with existing vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , Exosomes , Biocompatible Materials , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Exosomes/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Cells ; 10(11)2021 11 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526805

ABSTRACT

The advancement of precision medicine critically depends on the robustness and specificity of the carriers used for the targeted delivery of effector molecules in the human body. Numerous nanocarriers have been explored in vivo, to ensure the precise delivery of molecular cargos via tissue-specific targeting, including the endocrine part of the pancreas, thyroid, and adrenal glands. However, even after reaching the target organ, the cargo-carrying vehicle needs to enter the cell and then escape lysosomal destruction. Most artificial nanocarriers suffer from intrinsic limitations that prevent them from completing the specific delivery of the cargo. In this respect, extracellular vesicles (EVs) seem to be the natural tool for payload delivery due to their versatility and low toxicity. However, EV-mediated delivery is not selective and is usually short-ranged. By inserting the viral membrane fusion proteins into exosomes, it is possible to increase the efficiency of membrane recognition and also ease the process of membrane fusion. This review describes the molecular details of the viral-assisted interaction between the target cell and EVs. We also discuss the question of the usability of viral fusion proteins in developing extracellular vesicle-based nanocarriers with a higher efficacy of payload delivery. Finally, this review specifically highlights the role of Gag and RNA binding proteins in RNA sorting into EVs.


Subject(s)
Exosomes/metabolism , RNA Transport , Viral Fusion Proteins/metabolism , Viral Matrix Proteins/metabolism , Animals , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Membrane Fusion
12.
Cell Commun Signal ; 19(1): 110, 2021 11 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526644

ABSTRACT

Despite the considerable efforts in screening and diagnostic protocols, prostate cancer still represents the second leading cause of cancer-related death in men. Many patients with localized disease and low risk of recurrence have a favourable outcome. In a substantial proportion of patients, however, the disease progresses and becomes aggressive. The mechanisms that promote prostate cancer progression remain still debated. Many findings point to the role of cross-communication between prostate tumor cells and their surrounding microenvironment during the disease progression. Such a connection fosters survival, proliferation, angiogenesis, metastatic spreading and drug-resistance of prostate cancer. Recent years have seen a profound interest in understanding the way by which prostate cancer cells communicate with the surrounding cells in the microenvironment. In this regard, direct cell-to-cell contacts and soluble factors have been identified. Increasing evidence indicates that PC cells communicate with the surrounding cells through the release of extracellular vesicles, mainly the exosomes. By directly acting in stromal or prostate cancer epithelial cells, exosomes represent a critical intercellular communication system. By querying the public database ( https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov ) for the past 10 years, we have found more than four hundred papers. Among them, we have extrapolated the most relevant about the role of exosomes in prostate cancer malignancy and progression. Emerging data concerning the use of these vesicles in diagnostic management and therapeutic guidance of PC patients are also presented. Video Abstract.


Subject(s)
Exosomes
14.
Front Biosci (Landmark Ed) ; 26(10): 948-961, 2021 10 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1498509

ABSTRACT

Background: Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an acute respiratory infectious disease caused by severe respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The primary pathogenesis is over-activation of the immune system. SARS-CoV-2 continues to mutate and spread rapidly and no effective treatment options are yet available. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are known to induce anti-inflammatory macrophages, regulatory T cells and dendritic cells. There are a rapidly increasing number of clinical investigations of cell-based therapy approaches for COVID-19. Objective: To summarize the pathogenic mechanism of SARS-CoV-2, and systematically formulated the immunomodulation of COVID-19 by MSCs and their exosomes, as well as research progress. Method: Searching PubMed, clinicaltrials.gov and Chictr.cn for eligible studies to be published or registered by May 2021. Main keywords and search strategies were as follows: ((Mesenchymal stem cells) OR (MSCs)) AND (COVID-19). Results: MSCs regulate the immune system to prevent cytokine release syndrome (CRS) and to promote endogenous repair by releasing various paracrine factors and exosomes. Conclusions: MSC therapy is thus a promising candidate for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Exosomes/transplantation , Immunomodulation/immunology , Lung Injury/therapy , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/metabolism , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Clinical Trials as Topic , Exosomes/immunology , Exosomes/metabolism , Humans , Lung Injury/physiopathology , Lung Injury/virology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/cytology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/immunology , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/methods , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Regeneration/immunology , Regeneration/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1472414

ABSTRACT

Acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are rising in global prevalence and cause significant morbidity for patients. Current treatments are limited to slowing instead of stabilising or reversing disease progression. In this review, we describe mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and their constituents, extracellular vesicles (EVs) as being a novel therapeutic for CKD. MSC-derived EVs (MSC-EVs) are membrane-enclosed particles, including exosomes, which carry genetic information that mimics the phenotype of their cell of origin. MSC-EVs deliver their cargo of mRNA, miRNA, cytokines, and growth factors to target cells as a form of paracrine communication. This genetically reprograms pathophysiological pathways, which are upregulated in renal failure. Since the method of exosome preparation significantly affects the quality and function of MSC-exosomes, this review compares the methodologies for isolating exosomes from MSCs and their role in tissue regeneration. More specifically, it summarises the therapeutic efficacy of MSC-EVs in 60 preclinical animal models of AKI and CKD and the cargo of biomolecules they deliver. MSC-EVs promote tubular proliferation and angiogenesis, and inhibit apoptosis, oxidative stress, inflammation, the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, and fibrosis, to alleviate AKI and CKD. By reprogramming these pathophysiological pathways, MSC-EVs can slow or even reverse the progression of AKI to CKD, and therefore offer potential to transform clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Biological Therapy , Extracellular Vesicles/metabolism , Extracellular Vesicles/transplantation , Kidney Diseases/therapy , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/metabolism , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/metabolism , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Animals , Apoptosis/drug effects , Biological Therapy/methods , Cell Differentiation , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Cell Self Renewal , Chemical Fractionation , Disease Management , Disease Susceptibility , Exosomes/metabolism , Humans , Kidney Diseases/etiology , Kidney Diseases/pathology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/cytology , Protective Agents , Renal Insufficiency/diagnosis , Renal Insufficiency/etiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/diagnosis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/etiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/metabolism , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy
16.
J Immunol ; 207(10): 2405-2410, 2021 11 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1471046

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes severe acute respiratory syndrome. mRNA vaccines directed at the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein resulted in development of Abs and protective immunity. To determine the mechanism, we analyzed the kinetics of induction of circulating exosomes with SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and Ab following vaccination of healthy individuals. Results demonstrated induction of circulating exosomes expressing spike protein on day 14 after vaccination followed by Abs 14 d after the second dose. Exosomes with spike protein, Abs to SARS-CoV-2 spike, and T cells secreting IFN-γ and TNF-α increased following the booster dose. Transmission electron microscopy of exosomes also demonstrated spike protein Ags on their surface. Exosomes with spike protein and Abs decreased in parallel after four months. These results demonstrate an important role of circulating exosomes with spike protein for effective immunization following mRNA-based vaccination. This is further documented by induction of humoral and cellular immune responses in mice immunized with exosomes carrying spike protein.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Exosomes/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , Animals , Blood Circulation , Cells, Cultured , Exosomes/immunology , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Immunization , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Vaccination
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Sep 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463703

ABSTRACT

Exosomes are associated with cancer progression, pregnancy, cardiovascular diseases, central nervous system-related diseases, immune responses and viral pathogenicity. However, study on the role of exosomes in the immune response of teleost fish, especially antiviral immunity, is limited. Herein, serum-derived exosomes from mandarin fish were used to investigate the antiviral effect on the exosomes of teleost fish. Exosomes isolated from mandarin fish serum by ultra-centrifugation were internalized by mandarin fish fry cells and were able to inhibit Infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV) infection. To further investigate the underlying mechanisms of exosomes in inhibiting ISKNV infection, the protein composition of serum-derived exosomes was analyzed by mass spectrometry. It was found that myxovirus resistance 1 (Mx1) was incorporated by exosomes. Furthermore, the mandarin fish Mx1 protein was proven to be transferred into the recipient cells though exosomes. Our results showed that the serum-derived exosomes from mandarin fish could inhibit ISKNV replication, which suggested an underlying mechanism of the exosome antivirus in that it incorporates Mx1 protein and delivery into recipient cells. This study provided evidence for the important antiviral role of exosomes in the immune system of teleost fish.


Subject(s)
DNA Virus Infections , Exosomes , Fish Diseases , Fish Proteins , Fishes , Iridoviridae , Myxovirus Resistance Proteins , Animals , Cell Line , DNA Virus Infections/blood , DNA Virus Infections/immunology , DNA Virus Infections/veterinary , Exosomes/immunology , Exosomes/metabolism , Fish Diseases/blood , Fish Diseases/immunology , Fish Proteins/blood , Fish Proteins/immunology , Fishes/blood , Fishes/immunology , Fishes/virology , Iridoviridae/immunology , Iridoviridae/metabolism , Myxovirus Resistance Proteins/blood , Myxovirus Resistance Proteins/immunology
18.
mBio ; 12(5): e0254221, 2021 10 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462902

ABSTRACT

Damage in COVID-19 results from both the SARS-CoV-2 virus and its triggered overactive host immune responses. Therapeutic agents that focus solely on reducing viral load or hyperinflammation fail to provide satisfying outcomes in all cases. Although viral and cellular factors have been extensively profiled to identify potential anti-COVID-19 targets, new drugs with significant efficacy remain to be developed. Here, we report the potent preclinical efficacy of ALD-R491, a vimentin-targeting small molecule compound, in treating COVID-19 through its host-directed antiviral and anti-inflammatory actions. We found that by altering the physical properties of vimentin filaments, ALD-491 affected general cellular processes as well as specific cellular functions relevant to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Specifically, ALD-R491 reduced endocytosis, endosomal trafficking, and exosomal release, thus impeding the entry and egress of the virus; increased the microcidal capacity of macrophages, thus facilitating the pathogen clearance; and enhanced the activity of regulatory T cells, therefore suppressing the overactive immune responses. In cultured cells, ALD-R491 potently inhibited the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and human ACE2-mediated pseudoviral infection. In aged mice with ongoing, productive SARS-CoV-2 infection, ALD-R491 reduced disease symptoms as well as lung damage. In rats, ALD-R491 also reduced bleomycin-induced lung injury and fibrosis. Our results indicate a unique mechanism and significant therapeutic potential for ALD-R491 against COVID-19. We anticipate that ALD-R491, an oral, fast-acting, and non-cytotoxic agent targeting the cellular protein with multipart actions, will be convenient, safe, and broadly effective, regardless of viral mutations, for patients with early- or late-stage disease, post-COVID-19 complications, and other related diseases. IMPORTANCE With the Delta variant currently fueling a resurgence of new infections in the fully vaccinated population, developing an effective therapeutic drug is especially critical and urgent in fighting COVID-19. In contrast to the many efforts to repurpose existing drugs or address only one aspect of COVID-19, we are developing a novel agent with first-in-class mechanisms of action that address both the viral infection and the overactive immune system in the pathogenesis of the disease. Unlike virus-directed therapeutics that may lose efficacy due to viral mutations, and immunosuppressants that require ideal timing to be effective, this agent, with its unique host-directed antiviral and anti-inflammatory actions, can work against all variants of the virus, be effective during all stages of the disease, and even resolve post-disease damage and complications. Further development of the compound will provide an important tool in the fight against COVID-19 and its complications, as well as future outbreaks of new viruses.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/metabolism , Organic Chemicals/therapeutic use , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Vimentin/metabolism , Animals , Endocytosis/drug effects , Endosomes/drug effects , Endosomes/metabolism , Exosomes/drug effects , Exosomes/metabolism , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Mice , RAW 264.7 Cells
19.
Cells ; 10(10)2021 10 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1458308

ABSTRACT

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been identified as novel mediators of intercellular communication. They work via delivering the sequestered cargo to cells in the close vicinity, as well as distant sites in the body, regulating pathophysiological processes. Cell death and inflammation are biologically crucial processes in both normal physiology and pathology. These processes are indistinguishably linked with their effectors modulating the other process. For instance, during an unresolvable infection, the upregulation of specific immune mediators leads to inflammation causing cell death and tissue damage. EVs have gained considerable interest as mediators of both cell death and inflammation during conditions, such as sepsis. This review summarizes the types of extracellular vesicles known to date and their roles in mediating immune responses leading to cell death and inflammation with specific focus on sepsis and lung inflammation.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , COVID-19/therapy , Cell Death , Extracellular Vesicles/metabolism , Inflammation/metabolism , Lung/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sepsis/immunology , Animals , Biomarkers/metabolism , COVID-19/immunology , Cell Communication , Chemokines , Exosomes , Humans , Lung/immunology , Mice , Sepsis/physiopathology
20.
J Biol Chem ; 297(5): 101266, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1446794

ABSTRACT

Functional delivery of mRNA has high clinical potential. Previous studies established that mRNAs can be delivered to cells in vitro and in vivo via RNA-loaded lipid nanoparticles (LNPs). Here we describe an alternative approach using exosomes, the only biologically normal nanovesicle. In contrast to LNPs, which elicited pronounced cellular toxicity, exosomes had no adverse effects in vitro or in vivo at any dose tested. Moreover, mRNA-loaded exosomes were characterized by efficient mRNA encapsulation (∼90%), high mRNA content, consistent size, and a polydispersity index under 0.2. Using an mRNA encoding the red light-emitting luciferase Antares2, we observed that mRNA-loaded exosomes were superior to mRNA-loaded LNPs at delivering functional mRNA into human cells in vitro. Injection of Antares2 mRNA-loaded exosomes also led to strong light emission following injection into the vitreous fluid of the eye or into the tissue of skeletal muscle in mice. Furthermore, we show that repeated injection of Antares2 mRNA-loaded exosomes drove sustained luciferase expression across six injections spanning at least 10 weeks, without evidence of signal attenuation or adverse injection site responses. Consistent with these findings, we observed that exosomes loaded with mRNAs encoding immunogenic forms of the SARS-CoV-2 Spike and Nucleocapsid proteins induced long-lasting cellular and humoral responses to both. Taken together, these results demonstrate that exosomes can be used to deliver functional mRNA to and into cells in vivo.


Subject(s)
Exosomes/immunology , RNA, Messenger/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Cells, Cultured , Gene Transfer Techniques , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Lipids/chemistry , Nanoparticles/chemistry , RNA, Messenger/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
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