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J Cell Physiol ; 237(11): 4021-4036, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2013564


Extracellular vehicles (EVs) are nanoscale lipid bilayer vesicles that carry biologically active biomolecule cargos like proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids (DNA, RNA) outside of the cell. Blood (serum/plasma), urine, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid are all examples of biofluids from which they may be collected. EVs play a vital role in intracellular communication. The molecular signature of EVs largely depends on the parental cell's status. EVs are classified into two groups, (1) exosomes (originated by endogenous route) and (2) microvesicles (originated from the plasma membrane, also known as ectosomes). The quantity and types of EV cargo vary during normal conditions compared to pathological conditions (chronic inflammatory lung diseases or lung cancer). Consequently, EVs contain novel biomarkers that differ based on the cell type of origin and during lung diseases. Small RNAs (e.g., microRNAs) are transported by EVs, which is one of the most rapidly evolving research areas in the field of EVs biology. EV-mediated cargos transport small RNAs that can result in reprograming the target/recipient cells. Multiple chronic inflammatory lung illnesses, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, pulmonary hypertension, pulmonary fibrosis, cystic fibrosis, acute lung injury, and lung cancer, have been demonstrated to be regulated by EV. In this review, we will consolidate the current knowledge and literature on the novel role of EVs and their small RNAs concerning chronic lung diseases (CLDs). Additionally, we will also provide better insight into the clinical and translational impact of mesenchymal stem cells-derived EVs as novel therapeutic agents in treating CLDs.

Exosomes , Extracellular Vesicles , Lung Diseases , Lung Neoplasms , MicroRNAs , Humans , MicroRNAs/genetics , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Extracellular Vesicles/genetics , Extracellular Vesicles/metabolism , Exosomes/genetics , Exosomes/metabolism , Lung Diseases/genetics , Lung Neoplasms/metabolism
Can J Urol ; 29(4): 11224-11230, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1989837


Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening remains the mainstay for early detection of prostate cancer. Although PSA is a nonspecific prostate cancer biomarker, its specificity for high grade prostate cancer can be enhanced by pre-biopsy liquid biomarkers including the Exosome Dx Prostate IntelliScore (EPI) test. EPI is a stand-alone urine genomic test that measures 3 exosome-derived gene expression signatures without the need for digital rectal examination (DRE) or inclusion of standard of care parameters in the test algorithm. EPI has broad clinical utility as a risk stratification tool for clinically significant high grade prostate cancer in men considering diagnostic prostate biopsy (MRI-targeted and systematic biopsy). During the COVID-19 pandemic, the EPI At-Home Collection Kit was introduced and quickly became an important component of tele-urology. The EPI test has emerged as a prioritization tool for primary care referral to urologists and for prostate biopsy scheduling. EPI provides an objective and actionable genomic risk assessment tool for high grade prostate cancer and is a critical part of the informed decision-making regarding biopsy (targeted, systematic or both) in both urology and primary care practices.

Exosomes , Primary Health Care , Prostatic Neoplasms , Self-Testing , Urology , Biomarkers, Tumor/genetics , Biopsy , COVID-19 , Exosomes/genetics , Exosomes/pathology , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Prostate/pathology , Prostate-Specific Antigen , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Prostatic Neoplasms/genetics , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology