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1.
Mol Med Rep ; 25(1)2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1534301

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID­19) is a global pandemic that can have a long­lasting impact on public health if not properly managed. Ongoing vaccine development trials involve classical molecular strategies based on inactivated or attenuated viruses, single peptides or viral vectors. However, there are multiple issues, such as the risk of reversion to virulence, inability to provide long­lasting protection and limited protective immunity. To overcome the aforementioned drawbacks of currently available COVID­19 vaccines, an alternative strategy is required to produce safe and efficacious vaccines that impart long­term immunity. Exosomes (key intercellular communicators characterized by low immunogenicity, high biocompatibility and innate cargo­loading capacity) offer a novel approach for effective COVID­19 vaccine development. An engineered exosome­based vaccine displaying the four primary structural proteins of SARS­CoV­2 (spike, membrane, nucleocapside and envelope proteins) induces humoral and cell mediated immunity and triggers long­lasting immunity. The present review investigated the prospective use of exosomes in the development of COVID­19 vaccines; moreover, exosome­based vaccines may be key to control the COVID­19 pandemic by providing enhanced protection compared with existing vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , Exosomes , Biocompatible Materials , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Exosomes/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Front Biosci (Landmark Ed) ; 26(10): 948-961, 2021 10 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1498509

ABSTRACT

Background: Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an acute respiratory infectious disease caused by severe respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The primary pathogenesis is over-activation of the immune system. SARS-CoV-2 continues to mutate and spread rapidly and no effective treatment options are yet available. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are known to induce anti-inflammatory macrophages, regulatory T cells and dendritic cells. There are a rapidly increasing number of clinical investigations of cell-based therapy approaches for COVID-19. Objective: To summarize the pathogenic mechanism of SARS-CoV-2, and systematically formulated the immunomodulation of COVID-19 by MSCs and their exosomes, as well as research progress. Method: Searching PubMed, clinicaltrials.gov and Chictr.cn for eligible studies to be published or registered by May 2021. Main keywords and search strategies were as follows: ((Mesenchymal stem cells) OR (MSCs)) AND (COVID-19). Results: MSCs regulate the immune system to prevent cytokine release syndrome (CRS) and to promote endogenous repair by releasing various paracrine factors and exosomes. Conclusions: MSC therapy is thus a promising candidate for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Exosomes/transplantation , Immunomodulation/immunology , Lung Injury/therapy , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/metabolism , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Clinical Trials as Topic , Exosomes/immunology , Exosomes/metabolism , Humans , Lung Injury/physiopathology , Lung Injury/virology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/cytology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/immunology , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/methods , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Regeneration/immunology , Regeneration/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
3.
J Immunol ; 207(10): 2405-2410, 2021 11 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1471046

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes severe acute respiratory syndrome. mRNA vaccines directed at the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein resulted in development of Abs and protective immunity. To determine the mechanism, we analyzed the kinetics of induction of circulating exosomes with SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and Ab following vaccination of healthy individuals. Results demonstrated induction of circulating exosomes expressing spike protein on day 14 after vaccination followed by Abs 14 d after the second dose. Exosomes with spike protein, Abs to SARS-CoV-2 spike, and T cells secreting IFN-γ and TNF-α increased following the booster dose. Transmission electron microscopy of exosomes also demonstrated spike protein Ags on their surface. Exosomes with spike protein and Abs decreased in parallel after four months. These results demonstrate an important role of circulating exosomes with spike protein for effective immunization following mRNA-based vaccination. This is further documented by induction of humoral and cellular immune responses in mice immunized with exosomes carrying spike protein.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Exosomes/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , Animals , Blood Circulation , Cells, Cultured , Exosomes/immunology , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Immunization , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Vaccination
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Sep 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463703

ABSTRACT

Exosomes are associated with cancer progression, pregnancy, cardiovascular diseases, central nervous system-related diseases, immune responses and viral pathogenicity. However, study on the role of exosomes in the immune response of teleost fish, especially antiviral immunity, is limited. Herein, serum-derived exosomes from mandarin fish were used to investigate the antiviral effect on the exosomes of teleost fish. Exosomes isolated from mandarin fish serum by ultra-centrifugation were internalized by mandarin fish fry cells and were able to inhibit Infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV) infection. To further investigate the underlying mechanisms of exosomes in inhibiting ISKNV infection, the protein composition of serum-derived exosomes was analyzed by mass spectrometry. It was found that myxovirus resistance 1 (Mx1) was incorporated by exosomes. Furthermore, the mandarin fish Mx1 protein was proven to be transferred into the recipient cells though exosomes. Our results showed that the serum-derived exosomes from mandarin fish could inhibit ISKNV replication, which suggested an underlying mechanism of the exosome antivirus in that it incorporates Mx1 protein and delivery into recipient cells. This study provided evidence for the important antiviral role of exosomes in the immune system of teleost fish.


Subject(s)
DNA Virus Infections , Exosomes , Fish Diseases , Fish Proteins , Fishes , Iridoviridae , Myxovirus Resistance Proteins , Animals , Cell Line , DNA Virus Infections/blood , DNA Virus Infections/immunology , DNA Virus Infections/veterinary , Exosomes/immunology , Exosomes/metabolism , Fish Diseases/blood , Fish Diseases/immunology , Fish Proteins/blood , Fish Proteins/immunology , Fishes/blood , Fishes/immunology , Fishes/virology , Iridoviridae/immunology , Iridoviridae/metabolism , Myxovirus Resistance Proteins/blood , Myxovirus Resistance Proteins/immunology
5.
J Biol Chem ; 297(5): 101266, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1446794

ABSTRACT

Functional delivery of mRNA has high clinical potential. Previous studies established that mRNAs can be delivered to cells in vitro and in vivo via RNA-loaded lipid nanoparticles (LNPs). Here we describe an alternative approach using exosomes, the only biologically normal nanovesicle. In contrast to LNPs, which elicited pronounced cellular toxicity, exosomes had no adverse effects in vitro or in vivo at any dose tested. Moreover, mRNA-loaded exosomes were characterized by efficient mRNA encapsulation (∼90%), high mRNA content, consistent size, and a polydispersity index under 0.2. Using an mRNA encoding the red light-emitting luciferase Antares2, we observed that mRNA-loaded exosomes were superior to mRNA-loaded LNPs at delivering functional mRNA into human cells in vitro. Injection of Antares2 mRNA-loaded exosomes also led to strong light emission following injection into the vitreous fluid of the eye or into the tissue of skeletal muscle in mice. Furthermore, we show that repeated injection of Antares2 mRNA-loaded exosomes drove sustained luciferase expression across six injections spanning at least 10 weeks, without evidence of signal attenuation or adverse injection site responses. Consistent with these findings, we observed that exosomes loaded with mRNAs encoding immunogenic forms of the SARS-CoV-2 Spike and Nucleocapsid proteins induced long-lasting cellular and humoral responses to both. Taken together, these results demonstrate that exosomes can be used to deliver functional mRNA to and into cells in vivo.


Subject(s)
Exosomes/immunology , RNA, Messenger/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Cells, Cultured , Gene Transfer Techniques , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Lipids/chemistry , Nanoparticles/chemistry , RNA, Messenger/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
6.
Front Immunol ; 12: 711565, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1335926

ABSTRACT

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are released by most cell types as part of an intracellular communication system in crucial processes such as inflammation, cell proliferation, and immune response. However, EVs have also been implicated in the pathogenesis of several diseases, such as cancer and numerous infectious diseases. An important feature of EVs is their ability to deliver a wide range of molecules to nearby targets or over long distances, which allows the mediation of different biological functions. This delivery mechanism can be utilized for the development of therapeutic strategies, such as vaccination. Here, we have highlighted several studies from a historical perspective, with respect to current investigations on EV-based vaccines. For example, vaccines based on exosomes derived from dendritic cells proved to be simpler in terms of management and cost-effectiveness than dendritic cell vaccines. Recent evidence suggests that EVs derived from cancer cells can be leveraged for therapeutics to induce strong anti-tumor immune responses. Moreover, EV-based vaccines have shown exciting and promising results against different types of infectious diseases. We have also summarized the results obtained from completed clinical trials conducted on the usage of exosome-based vaccines in the treatment of cancer, and more recently, coronavirus disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Cancer Vaccines/immunology , Exosomes/immunology , Extracellular Vesicles/immunology , Neoplasms/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Vaccines/immunology , Animals , Clinical Trials as Topic , Humans , Immunity , Immunization
7.
Chem Biol Interact ; 344: 109497, 2021 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1312959

ABSTRACT

Extracellular vesicles like exosomes are important therapeutic tactics for treating COVID -19. By utilizing convalescent plasma derived exosomes (CPExo) from COVID-19 recovered persistence could accelerate the treatment strategies in the current state of affairs. Adequate literature has shown that administering the exosome to the in vivo system could be beneficial and could target the pathogens in an effective and precise manner. In this hypothesis we highlight the CPExo instead of convalescent plasma (CP), perhaps to dispense of exosomes are gratified and it's more effectively acquired immune response conferral through antibodies. COVID-19 convalescent plasma has billions of exosomes and it has aptitudes to carry molecular constituents like proteins, lipids, RNA and DNA, etc. Moreover, exosomes are capable of recognizing antigens with adequate sensitivity and specificity. Many of these derivatives could trigger an immune modulation into the cells and act as an epigenetic inheritor response to target pathogens through RNAs. COIVID-19 resistance activated plasma-derived exosomes are either responsible for the effects of plasma beyond the contained immune antibodies or could be inhibitory. The proposed hypothesis suggests that preselecting the plasma-derived antibodies and RNAs merged exosomes would be an optimized therapeutic tactic for COVID-19 patients. We suggest that, the CPExo has a multi-potential effect for treatment efficacy by acting as immunotherapeutic, drug carrier, and diagnostic target with noncoding genetic materials as a biomarker.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Exosomes/immunology , Plasma/immunology , Adaptive Immunity/immunology , Antibodies/immunology , Antigens/immunology , DNA/immunology , Humans , Immunization, Passive , RNA/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
8.
Chem Biol Interact ; 344: 109497, 2021 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1309180

ABSTRACT

Extracellular vesicles like exosomes are important therapeutic tactics for treating COVID -19. By utilizing convalescent plasma derived exosomes (CPExo) from COVID-19 recovered persistence could accelerate the treatment strategies in the current state of affairs. Adequate literature has shown that administering the exosome to the in vivo system could be beneficial and could target the pathogens in an effective and precise manner. In this hypothesis we highlight the CPExo instead of convalescent plasma (CP), perhaps to dispense of exosomes are gratified and it's more effectively acquired immune response conferral through antibodies. COVID-19 convalescent plasma has billions of exosomes and it has aptitudes to carry molecular constituents like proteins, lipids, RNA and DNA, etc. Moreover, exosomes are capable of recognizing antigens with adequate sensitivity and specificity. Many of these derivatives could trigger an immune modulation into the cells and act as an epigenetic inheritor response to target pathogens through RNAs. COIVID-19 resistance activated plasma-derived exosomes are either responsible for the effects of plasma beyond the contained immune antibodies or could be inhibitory. The proposed hypothesis suggests that preselecting the plasma-derived antibodies and RNAs merged exosomes would be an optimized therapeutic tactic for COVID-19 patients. We suggest that, the CPExo has a multi-potential effect for treatment efficacy by acting as immunotherapeutic, drug carrier, and diagnostic target with noncoding genetic materials as a biomarker.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Exosomes/immunology , Plasma/immunology , Adaptive Immunity/immunology , Antibodies/immunology , Antigens/immunology , DNA/immunology , Humans , Immunization, Passive , RNA/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
9.
Front Immunol ; 12: 659621, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1285289

ABSTRACT

Methods for suppressing the host immune system over the long term and improving transplantation tolerance remain a primary issue in organ transplantation. Cell therapy is an emerging therapeutic strategy for immunomodulation after transplantation. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are adult multipotent stem cells with wide differentiation potential and immunosuppressive properties, which are mostly used in regenerative medicine and immunomodulation. In addition, emerging research suggests that MSC-derived exosomes have the same therapeutic effects as MSCs in many diseases, while avoiding many of the risks associated with cell transplantation. Their unique immunomodulatory properties are particularly important in the immune system-overactive graft environment. In this paper, we review the effects of MSC-derived exosomes in the immune regulation mechanism after organ transplantation and graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) from various perspectives, including immunosuppression, influencing factors, anti-inflammatory properties, mediation of tissue repair and regeneration, and the induction of immune tolerance. At present, the great potential of MSC-derived exosomes in immunotherapy has attracted a great deal of attention. Furthermore, we discuss the latest insights on MSC-derived exosomes in organ transplantation and GvHD, especially its commercial production concepts, which aim to provide new strategies for improving the prognosis of organ transplantation patients.


Subject(s)
Exosomes/immunology , Immunomodulation/immunology , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/immunology , Organ Transplantation/methods , Transplantation Tolerance/immunology , Adult , Exosomes/metabolism , Graft vs Host Disease/immunology , Humans , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/metabolism , Regenerative Medicine/methods
10.
Eur J Pediatr Surg ; 31(4): 326-334, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1279928

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), continues to be a major health concern. In search for novel treatment strategies against COVID-19, exosomes have attracted the attention of scientists and pharmaceutical companies worldwide. Exosomes are small extracellular vesicles, secreted by all types of cells, and considered as key mediators of intercellular communication and stem-cell paracrine signaling. Herein, we reviewed the most recent literature about the role of exosomes as potential agents for treatment, prevention, diagnosis, and pathogenesis of COVID-19. Several studies and ongoing clinical trials have been investigating the anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, and reparative effects of exosomes derived from mesenchymal stem/stromal cells for COVID-19-related acute lung injury. Other studies reported that exosomes play a key role in convalescent plasma therapy for COVID-19, and that they could be of use for the treatment of COVID-19 Kawasaki's-like multisystem inflammatory syndrome and as drug delivery nanocarriers for antiviral therapy. Harnessing some advantageous aspects of exosome biology, such as their endogenous origin, capability of crossing biological barriers, high stability in circulation, and low toxicity and immunogenicity, several companies have been testing exosome-based vaccines against SARS-CoV-2. As they carry cargos that mimic the status of parent cells, exosomes can be isolated from a variety of sources, including plasma, and employed as biomarkers of COVID-19. Lastly, there is growing evidence supporting the role of exosomes in COVID-19 infection, spread, reactivation, and reinfection. The lessons learned using exosomes for COVID-19 will help determine their efficacy and applicability in other clinical conditions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Exosomes/immunology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Drug Carriers , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/cytology
11.
Front Immunol ; 12: 636222, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1177977

ABSTRACT

Dendritic cell (DC)-derived exosomes (DC EXO), natural nanoparticles of endosomal origin, are under intense scrutiny in clinical trials for various inflammatory diseases. DC EXO are eobiotic, meaning they are well-tolerated by the host; moreover, they can be custom-tailored for immune-regulatory or -stimulatory functions, thus presenting attractive opportunities for immune therapy. Previously we documented the efficacy of immunoregulatory DCs EXO (regDCs EXO) as immunotherapy for inflammatory bone disease, in an in-vivo model. We showed a key role for encapsulated TGFß1 in promoting a bone sparing immune response. However, the on- and off-target effects of these therapeutic regDC EXO and how target signaling in acceptor cells is activated is unclear. In the present report, therapeutic regDC EXO were analyzed by high throughput proteomics, with non-therapeutic EXO from immature DCs and mature DCs as controls, to identify shared and distinct proteins and potential off-target proteins, as corroborated by immunoblot. The predominant expression in regDC EXO of immunoregulatory proteins as well as proteins involved in trafficking from the circulation to peripheral tissues, cell surface binding, and transmigration, prompted us to investigate how these DC EXO are biodistributed to major organs after intravenous injection. Live animal imaging showed preferential accumulation of regDCs EXO in the lungs, followed by spleen and liver tissue. In addition, TGFß1 in regDCs EXO sustained downstream signaling in acceptor DCs. Blocking experiments suggested that sustaining TGFß1 signaling require initial interaction of regDCs EXO with TGFß1R followed by internalization of regDCs EXO with TGFß1-TGFß1R complex. Finally, these regDCs EXO that contain immunoregulatory cargo and showed biodistribution to lungs could downregulate the main severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) target receptor, ACE2 on recipient lung parenchymal cells via TGFß1 in-vitro. In conclusion, these results in mice may have important immunotherapeutic implications for lung inflammatory disorders.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Dendritic Cells/immunology , Exosomes/immunology , Proteome/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , Mice , Proteomics , Receptor, Transforming Growth Factor-beta Type I/immunology , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/immunology
12.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 12(1): 72, 2021 01 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1035054

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: One of the most severe complications of the current COVID-19 pandemic is acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). ARDS is caused by increased amounts of pro-inflammatory cytokines, leading to lung damage and loss of lung function. There are currently no effective therapies for combatting ARDS. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been suggested as a potential treatment for ARDS due to their significant immunomodulatory properties. MSC small extracellular vesicles (sEVs), including exosomes, modulate the immune response as effectively as MSCs themselves, with the added advantages of increased safety and tissue penetration. METHODS: We isolated sEVs from MSCs induced to secrete increased levels of neurotrophic and immunomodulatory factors, termed Exo MSC-NTF, and compared their ability to treat ARDS, in a lung injury LPS mouse model, to sEVs isolated from naïve MSCs (Exo MSC). Measurments of lung histopathological changes and neutrophil infiltration, blood oxygen saturation, and bronchoalveolar lavge fluid (BALF) proinflammatory cytokines and coagulation related factors were performed. RESULTS: We found that Exo MSC-NTF was superior to Exo MSC in reducing LPS-induced ARDS markers, including physiological lung damage such as alveolar wall thickness, fibrin presence, and neutrophil accumulation, as well as increasing oxygenation levels. Furthermore, Exo MSC-NTF reversed the imbalance in the host immune response, seen as decreased IFN-γ, IL-6, TNF-α, and RANTES levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. CONCLUSIONS: These positive preclinical results suggest that Exo MSC-NTF may be suitable as a therapy for COVID-19-induced ARDS and are more effective at combatting ARDS physiological, pathological, and biochemical symptoms than sEVs isolated from non-induced MSCs.


Subject(s)
Exosomes/immunology , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Animals , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Humans , Immunomodulation , Lipopolysaccharides/administration & dosage , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/immunology , Mice , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/immunology
13.
Stem Cell Rev Rep ; 17(1): 176-192, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1023354

ABSTRACT

With the outbreak of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the world has been facing an unprecedented challenge. Considering the lack of appropriate therapy for COVID-19, it is crucial to develop effective treatments instead of supportive approaches. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as multipotent stromal cells have been shown to possess treating potency through inhibiting or modulating the pathological events in COVID-19. MSCs and their exosomes participate in immunomodulation by controlling cell-mediated immunity and cytokine release. Furthermore, they repair the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) malfunction, increase alveolar fluid clearance, and reduce the chance of hypercoagulation. Besides the lung, which is the primary target of SARS-CoV-2, the heart, kidney, nervous system, and gastrointestinal tract are also affected by COVID-19. Thus, the efficacy of targeting these organs via different delivery routes of MSCs and their exosomes should be evaluated to ensure safe and effective MSCs administration in COVID-19. This review focuses on the proposed therapeutic mechanisms and delivery routes of MSCs and their exosomes to the damaged organs. It also discusses the possible application of primed and genetically modified MSCs as a promising drug delivery system in COVID-19. Moreover, the recent advances in the clinical trials of MSCs and MSCs-derived exosomes as one of the promising therapeutic approaches in COVID-19 have been reviewed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Immunomodulation/immunology , Lung/immunology , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Exosomes/immunology , Humans , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
14.
J Extracell Vesicles ; 10(1): e12004, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-972342

ABSTRACT

Exosome extracellular vesicles as biologic therapy for COVID-19 are discussed for two areas. The first involves the growing use of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) for the profound clinical cytokine storm and severe pneumonia in COVID-19 patients. Instead, it is recommended to treat alternatively with their MSC-released exosomes. This is because many reports in the literature and our data have shown that the release of exosomes from the in vivo administered MSC is actually responsible for their beneficial effects. Further, the exosomes are superior, simpler and clinically more convenient compared to their parental MSC. Additionally, in the context of COVID-19, the known tendency of MSC to intravascularly aggregate causing lung dysfunction might synergize with the pneumonia aspects, and the tendency of MSC peripheral vascular micro aggregates might synergize with the vascular clots of the COVID-19 disease process, causing significant central or peripheral vascular insufficiency. The second exosome therapeutic area for severe COVID-19 involves use of convalescent plasma for its content of acquired immune antibodies that must consider the role in this therapy of contained nearly trillions of exosomes. Many of these derive from activated immune modulating cells and likely can function to transfer miRNAs that acting epigenetically to also influence the convalescent plasma recipient response to the virus. There is sufficient evidence, like recovery of patients with antibody deficiencies, to postulate that the antibodies actually have little effect and that immune resistance is principally due to T cell mechanisms. Further, COVID-19 convalescent plasma has remarkably weak beneficial effects if compared to what was expected from many prior studies. This may be due to the dysfunctional immune response to the infection and resulting weak Ab that may be impaired further by antagonistic exosomes in the convalescent plasma. At the least, pre selection of plasma for the best antibodies and relevant exosomes would produce the most optimum therapy for very severely affected COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , Exosomes/immunology , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , MicroRNAs
15.
Stem Cell Rev Rep ; 17(1): 163-175, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-608577

ABSTRACT

Novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has attracted much attention around the world due to its rapid transmission among humans and relatively high mortality rate. Studies are increasing to find the best therapeutic approach for the disease and its management. Regenerative medicine offers various cell-tissue therapeutics and related products, such as stem cell therapy, natural killer (NK) cell therapy, Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy, exosomes, and tissue products. Interestingly, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can reduce inflammatory symptoms and protect against cytokine storm, which critically contributes to the COVID-19 progression. Notably, having the potentials to exert cytotoxic effects on infected cells and induce interferon production probably make NK cells a candidate for COVID-19 cell therapy. Besides, exosomes are one of the crucial products of cells that can exert therapeutic effects through the induction of immune responses and neutralizing antibody titers. The paper aims to briefly consider current options for COVID-19 therapy to show that there is no specific cure for COVID-19, and then assess the real opportunities and range of promises regenerative medicine can provide for specific treatment of COVID-19. Graphical Abstract Therapeutic Potential of Regenerative Medicine against COVID19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Exosomes/immunology , Humans , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/immunology , Regenerative Medicine , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
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