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1.
Biomolecules ; 13(5)2023 04 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20233944

ABSTRACT

Neutrophils are the most abundant leukocyte in circulation and are the first line of defense after an infection or injury. Neutrophils have a broad spectrum of functions, including phagocytosis of microorganisms, the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, oxidative burst, and the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps. Traditionally, neutrophils were thought to be most important for acute inflammatory responses, with a short half-life and a more static response to infections and injury. However, this view has changed in recent years showing neutrophil heterogeneity and dynamics, indicating a much more regulated and flexible response. Here we will discuss the role of neutrophils in aging and neurological disorders; specifically, we focus on recent data indicating the impact of neutrophils in chronic inflammatory processes and their contribution to neurological diseases. Lastly, we aim to conclude that reactive neutrophils directly contribute to increased vascular inflammation and age-related diseases.


Subject(s)
Extracellular Traps , Nervous System Diseases , Humans , Neutrophils , Cytokines , Phagocytosis , Inflammation
2.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1170603, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237245

ABSTRACT

Neutrophil Extracellular Traps (NETs) are a key form of pro-inflammatory cell death of neutrophils characterized by the extrusion of extracellular webs of DNA containing bactericidal killing enzymes. NETosis is heavily implicated as a key driver of host damage in autoimmune diseases where injurious release of proinflammatory enzymes damage surrounding tissue and releases 70 known autoantigens. Recent evidence shows that both neutrophils and NETosis have a role to play in carcinogenesis, both indirectly through triggering DNA damage through inflammation, and directly contributing to a pro-tumorigenic tumor microenvironment. In this mini-review, we summarize the current knowledge of the various mechanisms of interaction and influence between neutrophils, with particular attention to NETosis, and cancer cells. We will also highlight the potential avenues thus far explored where we can intercept these processes, with the aim of identifying promising prospective targets in cancer treatment to be explored in further studies.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases , Extracellular Traps , Humans , Neutrophils , Inflammation/metabolism , Cell Death
3.
J Vis Exp ; (195)2023 05 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237207

ABSTRACT

Certain stimuli, such as microorganisms, cause neutrophils to release neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), which are basically web-like structures composed of DNA with granule proteins, such as myeloperoxidase (MPO) and neutrophil elastase (NE), and cytoplasmic and cytoskeletal proteins. Although interest in NETs has increased recently, no sensitive, reliable assay method is available for measuring NETs in clinical settings. This article describes a modified sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to quantitatively measure two components of circulating NETs, MPO-DNA and NE-DNA complexes, which are specific components of NETs and are released into the extracellular space as breakdown products of NETs. The assay uses specific monoclonal antibodies for MPO or NE as the capture antibodies and a DNA-specific detection antibody. MPO or NE binds to one site of the capture antibody during the initial incubation of samples containing MPO-DNA or NE-DNA complexes. This assay shows good linearity and high inter-assay and intra-assay precision. We used it in 16 patients with COVID-19 with accompanying acute respiratory distress syndrome and found that the plasma concentrations of MPO-DNA and NE-DNA were significantly higher than in the plasma obtained from healthy controls. This detection assay is a reliable, highly sensitive, and useful method for investigating the characteristics of NETs in human plasma and culture supernatants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracellular Traps , Humans , Extracellular Traps/metabolism , Leukocyte Elastase/metabolism , Peroxidase , Neutrophils , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , DNA/metabolism
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(10)2023 May 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20240810

ABSTRACT

Neutrophils are the key players in the innate immune system, being weaponized with numerous strategies to eliminate pathogens. The production of extracellular traps is one of the effector mechanisms operated by neutrophils in a process called NETosis. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are complex webs of extracellular DNA studded with histones and cytoplasmic granular proteins. Since their first description in 2004, NETs have been widely investigated in different infectious processes. Bacteria, viruses, and fungi have been shown to induce the generation of NETs. Knowledge is only beginning to emerge about the participation of DNA webs in the host's battle against parasitic infections. Referring to helminthic infections, we ought to look beyond the scope of confining the roles of NETs solely to parasitic ensnarement or immobilization. Hence, this review provides detailed insights into the less-explored activities of NETs against invading helminths. In addition, most of the studies that have addressed the implications of NETs in protozoan infections have chiefly focused on their protective side, either through trapping or killing. Challenging this belief, we propose several limitations regarding protozoan-NETs interaction. One of many is the duality in the functional responses of NETs, in which both the positive and pathological aspects seem to be closely intertwined.


Subject(s)
Extracellular Traps , Parasitic Diseases , Humans , Neutrophils , Histones , DNA , Parasitic Diseases/pathology
5.
Nat Commun ; 14(1): 2610, 2023 05 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2316557

ABSTRACT

Severe COVID-19 is characterized by an increase in the number and changes in the function of innate immune cells including neutrophils. However, it is not known how the metabolome of immune cells changes in patients with COVID-19. To address these questions, we analyzed the metabolome of neutrophils from patients with severe or mild COVID-19 and healthy controls. We identified widespread dysregulation of neutrophil metabolism with disease progression including in amino acid, redox, and central carbon metabolism. Metabolic changes in neutrophils from patients with severe COVID-19 were consistent with reduced activity of the glycolytic enzyme GAPDH. Inhibition of GAPDH blocked glycolysis and promoted pentose phosphate pathway activity but blunted the neutrophil respiratory burst. Inhibition of GAPDH was sufficient to cause neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation which required neutrophil elastase activity. GAPDH inhibition increased neutrophil pH, and blocking this increase prevented cell death and NET formation. These findings indicate that neutrophils in severe COVID-19 have an aberrant metabolism which can contribute to their dysfunction. Our work also shows that NET formation, a pathogenic feature of many inflammatory diseases, is actively suppressed in neutrophils by a cell-intrinsic mechanism controlled by GAPDH.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracellular Traps , Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (Phosphorylating) , Humans , COVID-19/metabolism , Extracellular Traps/metabolism , Metabolome , Metabolomics , Neutrophils , Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (Phosphorylating)/metabolism
6.
Bull Exp Biol Med ; 174(6): 806-809, 2023 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2315974

ABSTRACT

We studied the neutrophils and monocytes obtained from 37 patients with various inflammatory diseases such as psoriasis, acute infectious process in the abdominal cavity (acute appendicitis/abscess of the abdominal cavity, and acute cholecystitis), acute pancreatitis, and post-COVID syndrome after mild COVID infection. The number and the morphological structure of neutrophil extracellular traps (NET) as well as the effect of IgG on NET were examined. NET were visualized and counted by fluorescence microscopy with fluorescent dye SYBR Green. All the studied types of inflammation were accompanied by spontaneous formation of NET. After application of IgG, the number of NET doubled, their size increased, and transformation of net-like traps into the cloud forms was observed. The clouds form structure of the network is not capable of capturing pathogens with subsequent retraction, the products of its enzymatic degradation can be the factors of secondary alteration. The study results demonstrate a previously unknown mechanism of infection resistance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracellular Traps , Pancreatitis , Humans , Extracellular Traps/metabolism , Acute Disease , Pancreatitis/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Neutrophils/metabolism , Immunoglobulin G/metabolism
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(5)2023 Mar 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2289605

ABSTRACT

Neutrophils are important effector cells of the innate immune response that fight pathogens by phagocytosis and degranulation. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are released into the extracellular space to defend against invading pathogens. Although NETs play a defensive role against pathogens, excessive NETs can contribute to the pathogenesis of airway diseases. NETs are known to be directly cytotoxic to the lung epithelium and endothelium, highly involved in acute lung injury, and implicated in disease severity and exacerbation. This review describes the role of NET formation in airway diseases, including chronic rhinosinusitis, and suggests that targeting NETs could be a therapeutic strategy for airway diseases.


Subject(s)
Extracellular Traps , Respiration Disorders , Humans , Respiration Disorders/pathology , Neutrophils , Immunity, Innate , Chronic Disease
9.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1122510, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2297853

ABSTRACT

Background: A strong association between elevated neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) levels and poor clinical outcomes in patients with coronavirus infection 2019 (COVID-19) has been reported. However, while acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication of COVID-19, the role of NETs in COVID-19-associated AKI is unclear. We investigated the association between elevated NETs and AKI and the prognostic role of NETs in COVID-19 patients. Methods: Two representative markers of NETs, circulating nucleosomes and myeloperoxidase-DNA, were measured in 115 hospitalized patients. Serum levels of interleukin [IL]-6, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 [MCP-1], plasma von Willebrand factor (vWF) and urinary biomarkers of renal tubular damage (ß2-microglobulin [ß2M] and kidney injury molecule 1 [KIM-1]) were measured. Results: AKI was found in 43 patients (37.4%), and pre-existing chronic kidney disease (CKD) was a strong risk factor for AKI. Higher circulating NET levels were a significant predictor of increased risk of initial ICU admission, in-hospital mortality (adjusted HR 3.21, 95% CI 1.08-9.19) and AKI (OR 3.67, 95% CI 1.30-10.41), independent of age, diabetes, pre-existing CKD and IL-6 levels. There were strong correlations between circulating nucleosome levels and urinary KIM-1/creatinine (r=0.368, p=0.001) and ß2M (r=0.218, p=0.049) levels. NETs were also strongly closely associated with serum vWF (r = 0.356, p<0.001), but not with IL-6 or MCP-1 levels. Conclusions: Elevated NETs were closely associated with AKI, which was a strong predictor of mortality. The close association between NETs and vWF may suggest a role for NETs in COVID-19-associated vasculopathy leading to AKI.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Extracellular Traps , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Humans , von Willebrand Factor , Interleukin-6 , COVID-19/complications , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/urine
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(7)2023 Apr 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2295699

ABSTRACT

The role of NETs and platelet activation in COVID-19 is scarcely known. We aimed to evaluate the role of NETs (citrullinated histone H3 [CitH3], cell-free DNA [cfDNA]) and platelet activation markers (soluble CD40 ligand [CD40L] and P-selectin) in estimating the hazard of different clinical trajectories in patients with COVID-19. We performed a prospective study of 204 patients, categorized as outpatient, hospitalized and ICU-admitted. A multistate model was designed to estimate probabilities of clinical transitions across varying states, such as emergency department (ED) visit, discharge (outpatient), ward admission, ICU admission and death. Levels of cfDNA, CitH3 and P-selectin were associated with the severity of presentation and analytical parameters. The model showed an increased risk of higher levels of CitH3 and P-selectin for ED-to-ICU transitions (Hazard Ratio [HR]: 1.35 and 1.31, respectively), as well as an elevated risk of higher levels of P-selectin for ward-to-death transitions (HR: 1.09). Elevated levels of CitH3 (HR: 0.90), cfDNA (HR: 0.84) and P-selectin (HR: 0.91) decreased the probability of ward-to-discharge transitions. A similar trend existed for elevated levels of P-selectin and ICU-to-ward transitions (HR 0.40); In conclusion, increased NET and P-selectin levels are associated with more severe episodes and can prove useful in estimating different clinical trajectories.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cell-Free Nucleic Acids , Extracellular Traps , Humans , P-Selectin , Prospective Studies , Histones , Platelet Activation
11.
J Clin Invest ; 133(12)2023 06 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2303782

ABSTRACT

Patients with severe COVID-19 develop acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) that may progress to cytokine storm syndrome, organ dysfunction, and death. Considering that complement component 5a (C5a), through its cellular receptor C5aR1, has potent proinflammatory actions and plays immunopathological roles in inflammatory diseases, we investigated whether the C5a/C5aR1 pathway could be involved in COVID-19 pathophysiology. C5a/C5aR1 signaling increased locally in the lung, especially in neutrophils of critically ill patients with COVID-19 compared with patients with influenza infection, as well as in the lung tissue of K18-hACE2 Tg mice (Tg mice) infected with SARS-CoV-2. Genetic and pharmacological inhibition of C5aR1 signaling ameliorated lung immunopathology in Tg-infected mice. Mechanistically, we found that C5aR1 signaling drives neutrophil extracellular traps-dependent (NETs-dependent) immunopathology. These data confirm the immunopathological role of C5a/C5aR1 signaling in COVID-19 and indicate that antagonists of C5aR1 could be useful for COVID-19 treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracellular Traps , Humans , Animals , Mice , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/pathology , Extracellular Traps/metabolism , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Complement C5a/genetics , Complement C5a/metabolism
12.
Nat Rev Rheumatol ; 19(2): 61, 2023 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2301235
13.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 42(9): 1103-1112, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2285811

ABSTRACT

The activating interplay of thrombosis and inflammation (thromboinflammation) has been established as a major underlying pathway, driving not only cardiovascular disease but also autoimmune disease and most recently, COVID-19. Throughout the years, innate immune cells have emerged as important modulators of this process. As the most abundant white blood cell in humans, neutrophils are well-positioned to propel thromboinflammation. This includes their ability to trigger an organized cell death pathway with the release of decondensed chromatin structures called neutrophil extracellular traps. Decorated with histones and cytoplasmic and granular proteins, neutrophil extracellular traps exert cytotoxic, immunogenic, and prothrombotic effects accelerating disease progression. Distinct steps leading to extracellular DNA release (NETosis) require the activities of PAD4 (protein arginine deiminase 4) catalyzing citrullination of histones and are supported by neutrophil inflammasome. By linking the immunologic function of neutrophils with the procoagulant and proinflammatory activities of monocytes and platelets, PAD4 activity holds important implications for understanding the processes that fuel thromboinflammation. We will also discuss mechanisms whereby vascular occlusion in thromboinflammation depends on the interaction of neutrophil extracellular traps with ultra-large VWF (von Willebrand Factor) and speculate on the importance of PAD4 in neutrophil inflammasome assembly and neutrophil extracellular traps in thromboinflammatory diseases including atherosclerosis and COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Atherosclerosis , COVID-19 , Extracellular Traps , Thrombosis , Atherosclerosis/metabolism , Extracellular Traps/metabolism , Histones/metabolism , Humans , Inflammasomes/metabolism , Inflammation/metabolism , Neutrophils/metabolism , Thromboinflammation , Thrombosis/etiology , Thrombosis/metabolism , von Willebrand Factor/metabolism
14.
Nat Rev Rheumatol ; 18(10): 552, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2274990
15.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 161: 114530, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2288953

ABSTRACT

Acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are life-threatening symptoms in Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. Xuanfei Baidu Decoction (XFBD) is a recommend first-line traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula therapeutic strategy for COVID-19 patients. Prior studies demonstrated the pharmacological roles and mechanisms of XFBD and its derived effective components against inflammation and infections through multiple model systems, which provided the biological explanations for its clinical use. Our previous work revealed that XFBD inhibited macrophages and neutrophils infiltration via PD-1/IL17A signaling pathway. However, the subsequent biological processes are not well elucidated. Here, we proposed a hypothesis that XFBD can regulate the neutrophils-mediated immune responses, including neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) formation and the generation of platelet-neutrophil aggregates (PNAs) after XFBD administration in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI mice. The mechanism behind it was also firstly explained, that is XFBD regulated NETs formation via CXCL2/CXCR2 axis. Altogether, our findings demonstrated the sequential immune responses of XFBD after inhibiting neutrophils infiltration, as well as shedding light on exploiting the therapy of XFBD targeting neutrophils to ameliorate ALI during the clinical course.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , COVID-19 , Extracellular Traps , Animals , Mice , COVID-19/metabolism , Acute Lung Injury/metabolism , Neutrophils , Signal Transduction
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(6)2023 Mar 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2288759

ABSTRACT

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) threatens the survival of critically ill patients, the mechanisms of which are still unclear. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) released by activated neutrophils play a critical role in inflammatory injury. We investigated the role of NETs and the underlying mechanism involved in acute lung injury (ALI). We found a higher expression of NETs and cyclic GMP-AMP synthase-stimulator of interferon genes (cGAS-STING) in the airways, which was reduced by Deoxyribonuclease I (DNase I) in ALI. The administration of the STING inhibitor H-151 also significantly relieved inflammatory lung injury, but failed to affect the high expression of NETs in ALI. We isolated murine neutrophils from bone marrow and acquired human neutrophils by inducing HL-60 to differentiate. After the PMA interventions, exogenous NETs were obtained from such extracted neutrophils. Exogenous NETs intervention in vitro and in vivo resulted in airway injury, and such inflammatory lung injury was reversed upon degrading NETs with or inhibiting cGAS-STING with H-151 as well as siRNA STING. In conclusion, cGAS-STING participates in regulating NETs-mediated inflammatory pulmonary injury, which is expected to be a new therapeutic target for ARDS/ALI.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , Extracellular Traps , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Humans , Mice , Animals , Extracellular Traps/metabolism , Acute Lung Injury/metabolism , Neutrophils/metabolism , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/metabolism , Nucleotidyltransferases/genetics , Nucleotidyltransferases/metabolism
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(4)2023 Feb 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2286002

ABSTRACT

During inflammatory responses, neutrophils enter the sites of attack where they execute various defense mechanisms. They (I) phagocytose microorganisms, (II) degranulate to release cytokines, (III) recruit various immune cells by cell-type specific chemokines, (IV) secrete anti-microbials including lactoferrin, lysozyme, defensins and reactive oxygen species, and (V) release DNA as neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). The latter originates from mitochondria as well as from decondensed nuclei. This is easily detected in cultured cells by staining of DNA with specific dyes. However, in tissues sections the very high fluorescence signals emitted from the condensed nuclear DNA hamper the detection of the widespread, extranuclear DNA of the NETs. In contrast, when we employ anti-DNA-IgM antibodies, they are unable to penetrate deep into the tightly packed DNA of the nucleus, and we observe a robust signal for the extended DNA patches of the NETs. To validate anti-DNA-IgM, we additionally stained the sections for the NET-markers histone H2B, myeloperoxidase, citrullinated histone H3, and neutrophil elastase. Altogether, we have described a fast one-step procedure for the detection of NETs in tissue sections, which provides new perspectives to characterize neutrophil-associated immune reactions in disease.


Subject(s)
Extracellular Traps , Neutrophils , Phagocytosis , Histones , DNA , Immunoglobulin M
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(5)2023 Mar 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2256874

ABSTRACT

Although many studies have been exploring the mechanisms driving NETs formation, much less attention has been paid to the degradation and elimination of these structures. The NETs clearance and the effective removal of extracellular DNA, enzymatic proteins (neutrophil elastase, proteinase 3, myeloperoxidase) or histones are necessary to maintain tissue homeostasis, to prevent inflammation and to avoid the presentation of self-antigens. The persistence and overabundance of DNA fibers in the circulation and tissues may have dramatic consequences for a host leading to the development of various systemic and local damage. NETs are cleaved by a concerted action of extracellular and secreted deoxyribonucleases (DNases) followed by intracellular degradation by macrophages. NETs accumulation depends on the ability of DNase I and DNAse II to hydrolyze DNA. Furthermore, the macrophages actively engulf NETs and this event is facilitated by the preprocessing of NETs by DNase I. The purpose of this review is to present and discuss the current knowledge about the mechanisms of NETs degradation and its role in the pathogenesis of thrombosis, autoimmune diseases, cancer and severe infections, as well as to discuss the possibilities for potential therapeutic interventions. Several anti-NETs approaches had therapeutic effects in animal models of cancer and autoimmune diseases; nevertheless, the development of new drugs for patients needs further study for an effective development of clinical compounds that are able to target NETs.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases , Extracellular Traps , Animals , Extracellular Traps/metabolism , Neutrophils/metabolism , Deoxyribonuclease I/metabolism , Autoimmune Diseases/metabolism , DNA/metabolism
19.
Respir Res ; 24(1): 66, 2023 Mar 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2285425

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is characterized by severe acute lung injury, which is associated with neutrophil infiltration and the release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). COVID-19 treatment options are scarce. Previous work has shown an increase in NETs release in the lung and plasma of COVID-19 patients suggesting that drugs that prevent NETs formation or release could be potential therapeutic approaches for COVID-19 treatment. METHODS: Here, we report the efficacy of NET-degrading DNase I treatment in a murine model of COVID-19. SARS-CoV-2-infected K18-hACE2 mice were performed for clinical sickness scores and lung pathology. Moreover, the levels of NETs were assessed and lung injuries were by histopathology and TUNEL assay. Finally, the injury in the heart and kidney was assessed by histopathology and biochemical-specific markers. RESULTS: DNase I decreased detectable levels of NETs, improved clinical disease, and reduced lung, heart, and kidney injuries in SARS-CoV-2-infected K18-hACE2 mice. Furthermore, our findings indicate a potentially deleterious role for NETs lung tissue in vivo and lung epithelial (A549) cells in vitro, which might explain part of the pathophysiology of severe COVID-19. This deleterious effect was diminished by the treatment with DNase I. CONCLUSIONS: Together, our results support the role of NETs in COVID-19 immunopathology and highlight NETs disruption pharmacological approaches as a potential strategy to ameliorate COVID-19 clinical outcomes.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , COVID-19 , Extracellular Traps , Animals , Humans , Mice , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Disease Models, Animal , Neutrophils , Deoxyribonuclease I/pharmacology , Deoxyribonuclease I/therapeutic use
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(1)2022 Dec 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2246753

ABSTRACT

Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are extracellular fibrous networks consisting of depolymerized chromatin DNA skeletons with a variety of antimicrobial proteins. They are secreted by activated neutrophils and play key roles in host defense and immune responses. Gastrointestinal (GI) malignancies are globally known for their high mortality and morbidity. Increasing research suggests that NETs contribute to the progression and metastasis of digestive tract tumors, among them gastric, colon, liver, and pancreatic cancers. This article explores the formation of NETs and reviews the role that NETs play in the gastrointestinal oncologic microenvironment, tumor proliferation and metastasis, tumor-related thrombosis, and surgical stress. At the same time, we analyze the qualitative and quantitative detection methods of NETs in recent years and found that NETs are specific markers of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Then, we explore the possibility of NET inhibitors for the treatment of digestive tract tumor diseases to provide a new, efficient, and safe solution for the future therapy of gastrointestinal tumors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracellular Traps , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms , Thrombosis , Humans , Extracellular Traps/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Neutrophils , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms/metabolism , Thrombosis/metabolism , Tumor Microenvironment
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