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1.
J Vis Exp ; (195)2023 05 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237207

ABSTRACT

Certain stimuli, such as microorganisms, cause neutrophils to release neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), which are basically web-like structures composed of DNA with granule proteins, such as myeloperoxidase (MPO) and neutrophil elastase (NE), and cytoplasmic and cytoskeletal proteins. Although interest in NETs has increased recently, no sensitive, reliable assay method is available for measuring NETs in clinical settings. This article describes a modified sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to quantitatively measure two components of circulating NETs, MPO-DNA and NE-DNA complexes, which are specific components of NETs and are released into the extracellular space as breakdown products of NETs. The assay uses specific monoclonal antibodies for MPO or NE as the capture antibodies and a DNA-specific detection antibody. MPO or NE binds to one site of the capture antibody during the initial incubation of samples containing MPO-DNA or NE-DNA complexes. This assay shows good linearity and high inter-assay and intra-assay precision. We used it in 16 patients with COVID-19 with accompanying acute respiratory distress syndrome and found that the plasma concentrations of MPO-DNA and NE-DNA were significantly higher than in the plasma obtained from healthy controls. This detection assay is a reliable, highly sensitive, and useful method for investigating the characteristics of NETs in human plasma and culture supernatants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracellular Traps , Humans , Extracellular Traps/metabolism , Leukocyte Elastase/metabolism , Peroxidase , Neutrophils , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , DNA/metabolism
2.
Nat Commun ; 14(1): 2610, 2023 05 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2316557

ABSTRACT

Severe COVID-19 is characterized by an increase in the number and changes in the function of innate immune cells including neutrophils. However, it is not known how the metabolome of immune cells changes in patients with COVID-19. To address these questions, we analyzed the metabolome of neutrophils from patients with severe or mild COVID-19 and healthy controls. We identified widespread dysregulation of neutrophil metabolism with disease progression including in amino acid, redox, and central carbon metabolism. Metabolic changes in neutrophils from patients with severe COVID-19 were consistent with reduced activity of the glycolytic enzyme GAPDH. Inhibition of GAPDH blocked glycolysis and promoted pentose phosphate pathway activity but blunted the neutrophil respiratory burst. Inhibition of GAPDH was sufficient to cause neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation which required neutrophil elastase activity. GAPDH inhibition increased neutrophil pH, and blocking this increase prevented cell death and NET formation. These findings indicate that neutrophils in severe COVID-19 have an aberrant metabolism which can contribute to their dysfunction. Our work also shows that NET formation, a pathogenic feature of many inflammatory diseases, is actively suppressed in neutrophils by a cell-intrinsic mechanism controlled by GAPDH.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracellular Traps , Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (Phosphorylating) , Humans , COVID-19/metabolism , Extracellular Traps/metabolism , Metabolome , Metabolomics , Neutrophils , Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (Phosphorylating)/metabolism
3.
Bull Exp Biol Med ; 174(6): 806-809, 2023 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2315974

ABSTRACT

We studied the neutrophils and monocytes obtained from 37 patients with various inflammatory diseases such as psoriasis, acute infectious process in the abdominal cavity (acute appendicitis/abscess of the abdominal cavity, and acute cholecystitis), acute pancreatitis, and post-COVID syndrome after mild COVID infection. The number and the morphological structure of neutrophil extracellular traps (NET) as well as the effect of IgG on NET were examined. NET were visualized and counted by fluorescence microscopy with fluorescent dye SYBR Green. All the studied types of inflammation were accompanied by spontaneous formation of NET. After application of IgG, the number of NET doubled, their size increased, and transformation of net-like traps into the cloud forms was observed. The clouds form structure of the network is not capable of capturing pathogens with subsequent retraction, the products of its enzymatic degradation can be the factors of secondary alteration. The study results demonstrate a previously unknown mechanism of infection resistance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracellular Traps , Pancreatitis , Humans , Extracellular Traps/metabolism , Acute Disease , Pancreatitis/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Neutrophils/metabolism , Immunoglobulin G/metabolism
4.
J Clin Invest ; 133(12)2023 06 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2303782

ABSTRACT

Patients with severe COVID-19 develop acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) that may progress to cytokine storm syndrome, organ dysfunction, and death. Considering that complement component 5a (C5a), through its cellular receptor C5aR1, has potent proinflammatory actions and plays immunopathological roles in inflammatory diseases, we investigated whether the C5a/C5aR1 pathway could be involved in COVID-19 pathophysiology. C5a/C5aR1 signaling increased locally in the lung, especially in neutrophils of critically ill patients with COVID-19 compared with patients with influenza infection, as well as in the lung tissue of K18-hACE2 Tg mice (Tg mice) infected with SARS-CoV-2. Genetic and pharmacological inhibition of C5aR1 signaling ameliorated lung immunopathology in Tg-infected mice. Mechanistically, we found that C5aR1 signaling drives neutrophil extracellular traps-dependent (NETs-dependent) immunopathology. These data confirm the immunopathological role of C5a/C5aR1 signaling in COVID-19 and indicate that antagonists of C5aR1 could be useful for COVID-19 treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracellular Traps , Humans , Animals , Mice , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/pathology , Extracellular Traps/metabolism , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Complement C5a/genetics , Complement C5a/metabolism
5.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 42(9): 1103-1112, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2285811

ABSTRACT

The activating interplay of thrombosis and inflammation (thromboinflammation) has been established as a major underlying pathway, driving not only cardiovascular disease but also autoimmune disease and most recently, COVID-19. Throughout the years, innate immune cells have emerged as important modulators of this process. As the most abundant white blood cell in humans, neutrophils are well-positioned to propel thromboinflammation. This includes their ability to trigger an organized cell death pathway with the release of decondensed chromatin structures called neutrophil extracellular traps. Decorated with histones and cytoplasmic and granular proteins, neutrophil extracellular traps exert cytotoxic, immunogenic, and prothrombotic effects accelerating disease progression. Distinct steps leading to extracellular DNA release (NETosis) require the activities of PAD4 (protein arginine deiminase 4) catalyzing citrullination of histones and are supported by neutrophil inflammasome. By linking the immunologic function of neutrophils with the procoagulant and proinflammatory activities of monocytes and platelets, PAD4 activity holds important implications for understanding the processes that fuel thromboinflammation. We will also discuss mechanisms whereby vascular occlusion in thromboinflammation depends on the interaction of neutrophil extracellular traps with ultra-large VWF (von Willebrand Factor) and speculate on the importance of PAD4 in neutrophil inflammasome assembly and neutrophil extracellular traps in thromboinflammatory diseases including atherosclerosis and COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Atherosclerosis , COVID-19 , Extracellular Traps , Thrombosis , Atherosclerosis/metabolism , Extracellular Traps/metabolism , Histones/metabolism , Humans , Inflammasomes/metabolism , Inflammation/metabolism , Neutrophils/metabolism , Thromboinflammation , Thrombosis/etiology , Thrombosis/metabolism , von Willebrand Factor/metabolism
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(6)2023 Mar 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2288759

ABSTRACT

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) threatens the survival of critically ill patients, the mechanisms of which are still unclear. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) released by activated neutrophils play a critical role in inflammatory injury. We investigated the role of NETs and the underlying mechanism involved in acute lung injury (ALI). We found a higher expression of NETs and cyclic GMP-AMP synthase-stimulator of interferon genes (cGAS-STING) in the airways, which was reduced by Deoxyribonuclease I (DNase I) in ALI. The administration of the STING inhibitor H-151 also significantly relieved inflammatory lung injury, but failed to affect the high expression of NETs in ALI. We isolated murine neutrophils from bone marrow and acquired human neutrophils by inducing HL-60 to differentiate. After the PMA interventions, exogenous NETs were obtained from such extracted neutrophils. Exogenous NETs intervention in vitro and in vivo resulted in airway injury, and such inflammatory lung injury was reversed upon degrading NETs with or inhibiting cGAS-STING with H-151 as well as siRNA STING. In conclusion, cGAS-STING participates in regulating NETs-mediated inflammatory pulmonary injury, which is expected to be a new therapeutic target for ARDS/ALI.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , Extracellular Traps , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Humans , Mice , Animals , Extracellular Traps/metabolism , Acute Lung Injury/metabolism , Neutrophils/metabolism , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/metabolism , Nucleotidyltransferases/genetics , Nucleotidyltransferases/metabolism
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(5)2023 Mar 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2256874

ABSTRACT

Although many studies have been exploring the mechanisms driving NETs formation, much less attention has been paid to the degradation and elimination of these structures. The NETs clearance and the effective removal of extracellular DNA, enzymatic proteins (neutrophil elastase, proteinase 3, myeloperoxidase) or histones are necessary to maintain tissue homeostasis, to prevent inflammation and to avoid the presentation of self-antigens. The persistence and overabundance of DNA fibers in the circulation and tissues may have dramatic consequences for a host leading to the development of various systemic and local damage. NETs are cleaved by a concerted action of extracellular and secreted deoxyribonucleases (DNases) followed by intracellular degradation by macrophages. NETs accumulation depends on the ability of DNase I and DNAse II to hydrolyze DNA. Furthermore, the macrophages actively engulf NETs and this event is facilitated by the preprocessing of NETs by DNase I. The purpose of this review is to present and discuss the current knowledge about the mechanisms of NETs degradation and its role in the pathogenesis of thrombosis, autoimmune diseases, cancer and severe infections, as well as to discuss the possibilities for potential therapeutic interventions. Several anti-NETs approaches had therapeutic effects in animal models of cancer and autoimmune diseases; nevertheless, the development of new drugs for patients needs further study for an effective development of clinical compounds that are able to target NETs.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases , Extracellular Traps , Animals , Extracellular Traps/metabolism , Neutrophils/metabolism , Deoxyribonuclease I/metabolism , Autoimmune Diseases/metabolism , DNA/metabolism
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(1)2022 Dec 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2246753

ABSTRACT

Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are extracellular fibrous networks consisting of depolymerized chromatin DNA skeletons with a variety of antimicrobial proteins. They are secreted by activated neutrophils and play key roles in host defense and immune responses. Gastrointestinal (GI) malignancies are globally known for their high mortality and morbidity. Increasing research suggests that NETs contribute to the progression and metastasis of digestive tract tumors, among them gastric, colon, liver, and pancreatic cancers. This article explores the formation of NETs and reviews the role that NETs play in the gastrointestinal oncologic microenvironment, tumor proliferation and metastasis, tumor-related thrombosis, and surgical stress. At the same time, we analyze the qualitative and quantitative detection methods of NETs in recent years and found that NETs are specific markers of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Then, we explore the possibility of NET inhibitors for the treatment of digestive tract tumor diseases to provide a new, efficient, and safe solution for the future therapy of gastrointestinal tumors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracellular Traps , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms , Thrombosis , Humans , Extracellular Traps/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Neutrophils , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms/metabolism , Thrombosis/metabolism , Tumor Microenvironment
9.
Biomolecules ; 13(1)2022 12 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2235651

ABSTRACT

Excessive neutrophil influx and activation in lungs during infections, such as manifest during the ongoing SARS CoV-2 pandemic, have brought neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) and the concomitant release of granule contents that damage surrounding tissues into sharp focus. Neutrophil proteases, which are known to participate in NET release, also enable the binding of the viral spike protein to cellular receptors and assist in the spread of infection. Blood and tissue fluids normally also contain liver-derived protease inhibitors that balance the activity of proteases. Interestingly, neutrophils themselves also express the protease inhibitor alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT), the product of the SERPINA-1 gene, and store it in neutrophil cytoplasmic granules. The absence of AAT or mutations in the SERPINA-1 gene promotes lung remodeling and fibrosis in diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and increases the risk of allergic responses. Recent observations point to the fact that reduced activity of AAT presents a major susceptibility factor for severe COVID-19. Here, we focus attention on the mechanism of neutrophil elastase (NE) in NET release and its inhibition by AAT as an additional factor that may determine the severity of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracellular Traps , Humans , Neutrophils , COVID-19/metabolism , Peptide Hydrolases/metabolism , Extracellular Traps/metabolism , Lung
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(3)2023 Jan 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2225329

ABSTRACT

Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) and oxidative stress are considered to be beneficial in the innate immune defense against pathogens. However, defective clearance of NETs in the lung of acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-infected patients could lead to severe respiratory syndrome infection, the so-called coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). To elucidate the pathways that are related to NETs within the pathophysiology of COVID-19, we utilized RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) as well as immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry methods. RNA-seq analysis provided evidence for increased oxidative stress and the activation of viral-related signaling pathways in post-mortem lungs of COVID-19 patients compared to control donors. Moreover, an excess of neutrophil infiltration and NET formation were detected in the patients' lungs, where the extracellular DNA was oxidized and co-localized with neutrophil granule protein myeloperoxidase (MPO). Interestingly, staining of the lipid peroxidation marker 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) depicted high colocalization with NETs and was correlated with the neutrophil infiltration of the lung tissues, suggesting that it could serve as a suitable marker for the identification of NETs and the severity of the disease. Moreover, local inhalation therapy to reduce the excess lipid oxidation and NETs in the lungs of severely infected patients might be useful to ameliorate their clinical conditions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracellular Traps , Humans , COVID-19/metabolism , Extracellular Traps/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Lung , Oxidative Stress , Neutrophils/metabolism
11.
Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis ; 34(2): 87-92, 2023 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2222897

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is caused by novel coronavirus-2019 (nCoV-2019), is a highly contagious disease with high mortality and morbidity risk. Infected people may suffer from respiratory infections, which may be more progressive in patients with a defective immune system and underlying medical problems. In this regard, the cells involved in the innate immune system, play a decisive role in disease progression and complication development. Pathogen entrapment is the critical role of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETosis). This process involves the widespread release of fibrous structures by the stimulant-activated neutrophils. These fibrous structures are composed of cytosolic proteins and granular contents brought together by a network of released chromatins. This network can inhibit the spread of pathogens by their entrapment. Moreover, NETosis damage the host by producing toxic agents and triggering thrombosis. Therefore, this phenomenon may act as a double-edged sword. Regarding the rapid expansion of COVID-19, it is crucial to examine the involvement of NETosis in infected patients. This study aims to discuss NETosis participation to show its probable association with increased risk of thrombogenicity and help develop new therapeutic approaches in the battle against this viral disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracellular Traps , Thrombosis , Humans , Extracellular Traps/metabolism , Neutrophils/metabolism , Thrombosis/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Shock ; 57(1): 1-6, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2191212

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The pathomechanisms of hypoxemia and treatment strategies for type H and type L acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-induced coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have not been elucidated. MAIN TEXT: SARS-CoV-2 mainly targets the lungs and blood, leading to ARDS, and systemic thrombosis or bleeding. Angiotensin II-induced coagulopathy, SARS-CoV-2-induced hyperfibrin(ogen)olysis, and pulmonary and/or disseminated intravascular coagulation due to immunothrombosis contribute to COVID-19-associated coagulopathy. Type H ARDS is associated with hypoxemia due to diffuse alveolar damage-induced high right-to-left shunts. Immunothrombosis occurs at the site of infection due to innate immune inflammatory and coagulofibrinolytic responses to SARS-CoV-2, resulting in microvascular occlusion with hypoperfusion of the lungs. Lung immunothrombosis in type L ARDS results from neutrophil extracellular traps containing platelets and fibrin in the lung microvasculature, leading to hypoxemia due to impaired blood flow and a high ventilation/perfusion (VA/Q) ratio. COVID-19-associated ARDS is more vascular centric than the other types of ARDS. D-dimer levels have been monitored for the progression of microvascular thrombosis in COVID-19 patients. Early anticoagulation therapy in critical patients with high D-dimer levels may improve prognosis, including the prevention and/or alleviation of ARDS. CONCLUSIONS: Right-to-left shunts and high VA/Q ratios caused by lung microvascular thrombosis contribute to hypoxemia in type H and L ARDS, respectively. D-dimer monitoring-based anticoagulation therapy may prevent the progression to and/or worsening of ARDS in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Hemostasis/physiology , Hypoxia/physiopathology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/physiopathology , Thrombosis/physiopathology , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Platelets/metabolism , Extracellular Traps/metabolism , Fibrin/metabolism , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Fibrinolysis , Humans , Lung/blood supply , Microvessels/physiopathology , Phenotype , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Thromboinflammation/physiopathology , Thrombosis/drug therapy , COVID-19 Drug Treatment
13.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1078891, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2198917

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The intravascular formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) is a trigger for coagulation and blood vessel occlusion. NETs are released from neutrophils as a response to strong inflammatory signals in the course of different diseases such as COVID-19, cancer or antiphospholipid syndrome. NETs are composed of large, chromosomal DNA fibers decorated with a variety of proteins such as histones. Previous research suggested a close mechanistic crosstalk between NETs and the coagulation system involving the coagulation factor XII (FXII), von Willebrand factor (VWF) and tissue factor. However, the direct impact of NET-related DNA fibers on blood flow and blood aggregation independent of the coagulation cascade has remained elusive. Methods: In the present study, we used different microfluidic setups in combination with fluorescence microscopy to investigate the influence of neutrophil-derived extracellular DNA fibers on blood rheology, intravascular occlusion and activation of the complement system. Results: We found that extended DNA fiber networks decelerate blood flow and promote intravascular occlusion of blood vessels independent of the plasmatic coagulation. Associated with the DNA dependent occlusion of the flow channel was the strong activation of the complement system characterized by the production of complement component 5a (C5a). Vice versa, we detected that the local activation of the complement system at the vascular wall was a trigger for NET release. Discussion: In conclusion, we found that DNA fibers as the principal component of NETs are sufficient to induce blood aggregation even in the absence of the coagulation system. Moreover, we discovered that complement activation at the endothelial surface promoted NET formation. Our data envisions DNA degradation and complement inhibition as potential therapeutic strategies in NET-induced coagulopathies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracellular Traps , Humans , Extracellular Traps/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Neutrophils/metabolism , DNA/metabolism , Complement Activation
14.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 5206, 2022 09 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2008281

ABSTRACT

Vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) is a rare yet serious adverse effect of the adenoviral vector vaccines ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AstraZeneca) and Ad26.COV2.S (Janssen) against COVID-19. The mechanisms involved in clot formation and thrombocytopenia in VITT are yet to be fully determined. Here we show neutrophils undergoing NETosis and confirm expression markers of NETs in VITT patients. VITT antibodies directly stimulate neutrophils to release NETs and induce thrombus formation containing abundant platelets, neutrophils, fibrin, extracellular DNA and citrullinated histone H3 in a flow microfluidics system and in vivo. Inhibition of NETosis prevents VITT-induced thrombosis in mice but not thrombocytopenia. In contrast, in vivo blockage of FcγRIIa abrogates both thrombosis and thrombocytopenia suggesting these are distinct processes. Our findings indicate that anti-PF4 antibodies activate blood cells via FcγRIIa and are responsible for thrombosis and thrombocytopenia in VITT. Future development of NETosis and FcγRIIa inhibitors are needed to treat VITT and similar immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia conditions more effectively, leading to better patient outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracellular Traps , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic , Thrombocytopenia , Thrombosis , Vaccines , Ad26COVS1 , Animals , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Extracellular Traps/metabolism , Humans , Mice , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/chemically induced , Thrombocytopenia/chemically induced , Thrombosis/prevention & control , Vaccines/metabolism
15.
Front Immunol ; 13: 953195, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1990285

ABSTRACT

Acute lung injury (ALI) is a heterogeneous inflammatory condition associated with high morbidity and mortality. Neutrophils play a key role in the development of different forms of ALI, and the release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) is emerging as a common pathogenic mechanism. NETs are essential in controlling pathogens, and their defective release or increased degradation leads to a higher risk of infection. However, NETs also contain several pro-inflammatory and cytotoxic molecules than can exacerbate thromboinflammation and lung tissue injury. To reduce NET-mediated lung damage and inflammation, DNase is frequently used in preclinical models of ALI due to its capability of digesting NET DNA scaffold. Moreover, recent advances in neutrophil biology led to the development of selective NET inhibitors, which also appear to reduce ALI in experimental models. Here we provide an overview of the role of NETs in different forms of ALI discussing existing gaps in our knowledge and novel therapeutic approaches to modulate their impact on lung injury.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , Extracellular Traps , Thrombosis , Acute Lung Injury/pathology , Extracellular Traps/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation/metabolism , Neutrophils/metabolism , Thrombosis/metabolism
16.
Biomolecules ; 12(8)2022 07 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1969083

ABSTRACT

Background: Neutrophil extracellular traps' (NETs') formation is a mechanism of defense that neutrophils deploy as an alternative to phagocytosis, to constrain the spread of microorganisms. Aim: The aim was to evaluate biomarkers of NETs' formation in a patient cohort admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) due to infection. Methods: Forty-six septic shock patients, 22 critical COVID-19 patients and 48 matched control subjects were recruited. Intact nucleosomes containing histone 3.1 (Nu.H3.1), or citrullinated histone H3R8 (Nu.Cit-H3R8), free citrullinated histone (Cit-H3), neutrophil elastase (NE) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were measured. Results: Significant differences in Nu.H3.1 and NE levels were observed between septic shock and critical COVID-19 subjects as well as with controls (p-values < 0.05). The normalization of nucleosome levels according to the neutrophil count improved the discrimination between septic shock and critical COVID-19 patients. The ratio of Nu.Cit-H3R8 to Nu.H3.1 allowed the determination of nucleosome citrullination degree, presumably by PAD4. Conclusions: H3.1 and Cit-H3R8 nucleosomes appear to be interesting markers of global cell death and neutrophil activation when combined. Nu.H3.1 permits the evaluation of disease severity and differs between septic shock and critical COVID-19 patients, reflecting two distinct potential pathological processes in these conditions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracellular Traps , Shock, Septic , Biomarkers/metabolism , Extracellular Traps/metabolism , Histones/metabolism , Humans , Neutrophils/metabolism , Nucleosomes/metabolism , Shock, Septic/metabolism
17.
Crit Care ; 26(1): 206, 2022 07 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1923570

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) is associated with inflammation, coagulopathy, and organ damage found in severe cases of COVID-19. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the release of NETs in COVID-19 remain unclear. OBJECTIVES: We aim to investigate the role of the Gasdermin-D (GSDMD) pathway on NETs release and the development of organ damage during COVID-19. METHODS: We performed a single-cell transcriptome analysis in public data of bronchoalveolar lavage. Then, we enrolled 63 hospitalized patients with moderate and severe COVID-19. We analyze in blood and lung tissue samples the expression of GSDMD, presence of NETs, and signaling pathways upstreaming. Furthermore, we analyzed the treatment with disulfiram in a mouse model of SARS-CoV-2 infection. RESULTS: We found that the SARS-CoV-2 virus directly activates the pore-forming protein GSDMD that triggers NET production and organ damage in COVID-19. Single-cell transcriptome analysis revealed that the expression of GSDMD and inflammasome-related genes were increased in COVID-19 patients. High expression of active GSDMD associated with NETs structures was found in the lung tissue of COVID-19 patients. Furthermore, we showed that activation of GSDMD in neutrophils requires active caspase1/4 and live SARS-CoV-2, which infects neutrophils. In a mouse model of SARS-CoV-2 infection, the treatment with disulfiram inhibited NETs release and reduced organ damage. CONCLUSION: These results demonstrated that GSDMD-dependent NETosis plays a critical role in COVID-19 immunopathology and suggests GSDMD as a novel potential target for improving the COVID-19 therapeutic strategy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Extracellular Traps , Animals , Disulfiram/metabolism , Extracellular Traps/metabolism , Mice , Neutrophils/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Ann Clin Lab Sci ; 52(3): 374-381, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1918736

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Exploration of biomarkers to predict the severity of COVID-19 is important to reduce mortality. Upon COVID-19 infection, neutrophil extracellular traps (NET) are formed, which leads to a cytokine storm and host damage. Hence, the extent of NET formation may reflect disease progression and predict mortality in COVID-19. METHODS: We measured 4 NET parameters - cell-free double stranded DNA (cell-free dsDNA), neutrophil elastase, citrullinated histone H3 (Cit-H3), and histone - DNA complex - in 188 COVID-19 patients and 20 healthy controls. Survivors (n=166) were hospitalized with or without oxygen supplementation, while non-survivors (n=22) expired during in-hospital treatment. RESULTS: Cell-free dsDNA was significantly elevated in non-survivors in comparison with survivors and controls. The survival rate of patients with high levels of cell-free dsDNA, neutrophil elastase, and Cit-H3 was significantly lower than that of patients with low levels. These three markers significantly correlated with inflammatory markers (absolute neutrophil count and C-reactive protein). CONCLUSION: Since the increase in NET parameters indicates the unfavourable course of COVID-19 infection, patients predisposed to poor outcome can be rapidly managed through risk stratification by using these NET parameters.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracellular Traps , Biomarkers/metabolism , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cell-Free Nucleic Acids/blood , Cell-Free Nucleic Acids/metabolism , Extracellular Traps/metabolism , Histones/blood , Histones/metabolism , Humans , Leukocyte Elastase/blood , Leukocyte Elastase/metabolism , Neutrophils/metabolism , Prognosis
19.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 11078, 2022 06 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1908298

ABSTRACT

Immune cell chemotaxis to the sites of pathogen invasion is critical for fighting infection, but in life-threatening conditions such as sepsis and Covid-19, excess activation of the innate immune system is thought to cause a damaging invasion of immune cells into tissues and a consequent excessive release of cytokines, chemokines and neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). In these circumstances, tempering excessive activation of the innate immune system may, paradoxically, promote recovery. Here we identify the antimalarial compound artemisinin as a potent and selective inhibitor of neutrophil and macrophage chemotaxis induced by a range of chemotactic agents. Artemisinin released calcium from intracellular stores in a similar way to thapsigargin, a known inhibitor of the Sarco/Endoplasmic Reticulum Calcium ATPase pump (SERCA), but unlike thapsigargin, artemisinin blocks only the SERCA3 isoform. Inhibition of SERCA3 by artemisinin was irreversible and was inhibited by iron chelation, suggesting iron-catalysed alkylation of a specific cysteine residue in SERCA3 as the mechanism by which artemisinin inhibits neutrophil motility. In murine infection models, artemisinin potently suppressed neutrophil invasion into both peritoneum and lung in vivo and inhibited the release of cytokines/chemokines and NETs. This work suggests that artemisinin may have value as a therapy in conditions such as sepsis and Covid-19 in which over-activation of the innate immune system causes tissue injury that can lead to death.


Subject(s)
Artemisinins , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Extracellular Traps , Macrophages , Neutrophils , Sepsis , Animals , Artemisinins/pharmacology , Calcium/metabolism , Calcium-Transporting ATPases/metabolism , Chemotaxis/drug effects , Cytokines/biosynthesis , Cytokines/metabolism , Extracellular Traps/metabolism , Macrophages/drug effects , Macrophages/metabolism , Mice , Neutrophils/drug effects , Neutrophils/metabolism , Thapsigargin/pharmacology
20.
Front Immunol ; 13: 879686, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1903014

ABSTRACT

Neutrophils play a significant role in determining disease severity following SARS-CoV-2 infection. Gene and protein expression defines several neutrophil clusters in COVID-19, including the emergence of low density neutrophils (LDN) that are associated with severe disease. The functional capabilities of these neutrophil clusters and correlation with gene and protein expression are unknown. To define host defense and immunosuppressive functions of normal density neutrophils (NDN) and LDN from COVID-19 patients, we recruited 64 patients with severe COVID-19 and 26 healthy donors (HD). Phagocytosis, respiratory burst activity, degranulation, neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation, and T-cell suppression in those neutrophil subsets were measured. NDN from severe/critical COVID-19 patients showed evidence of priming with enhanced phagocytosis, respiratory burst activity, and degranulation of secretory vesicles and gelatinase and specific granules, while NET formation was similar to HD NDN. COVID LDN response was impaired except for enhanced NET formation. A subset of COVID LDN with intermediate CD16 expression (CD16Int LDN) promoted T cell proliferation to a level similar to HD NDN, while COVID NDN and the CD16Hi LDN failed to stimulate T-cell activation. All 3 COVID-19 neutrophil populations suppressed stimulation of IFN-γ production, compared to HD NDN. We conclude that NDN and LDN from COVID-19 patients possess complementary functional capabilities that may act cooperatively to determine disease severity. We predict that global neutrophil responses that induce COVID-19 ARDS will vary depending on the proportion of neutrophil subsets.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracellular Traps , Extracellular Traps/metabolism , Humans , Neutrophils/metabolism , Respiratory Burst , SARS-CoV-2
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