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1.
Cells ; 10(3)2021 03 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1125522

ABSTRACT

Since the outbreak of the COVID-19 crisis, the handling of biological samples from confirmed or suspected SARS-CoV-2-positive individuals demanded the use of inactivation protocols to ensure laboratory operators' safety. While not standardized, these practices can be roughly divided into two categories, namely heat inactivation and solvent-detergent treatments. These routine procedures should also apply to samples intended for Extracellular Vesicles (EVs) analysis. Assessing the impact of virus-inactivating pre-treatments is therefore of pivotal importance, given the well-known variability introduced by different pre-analytical steps on downstream EVs isolation and analysis. Arguably, shared guidelines on inactivation protocols tailored to best address EVs-specific requirements will be needed among the analytical community, yet deep investigations in this direction have not yet been reported. We here provide insights into SARS-CoV-2 inactivation practices to be adopted prior to serum EVs analysis by comparing solvent/detergent treatment vs. heat inactivation. Our analysis entails the evaluation of EVs recovery and purity along with biochemical, biophysical and biomolecular profiling by means of a set of complementary analytical techniques: Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis, Western Blotting, Atomic Force Microscopy, miRNA content (digital droplet PCR) and tetraspanin assessment by microarrays. Our data suggest an increase in ultracentrifugation (UC) recovery following heat treatment; however, it is accompanied by a marked enrichment in EVs-associated contaminants. On the other hand, solvent/detergent treatment is promising for small EVs (<150 nm range), yet a depletion of larger vesicular entities was detected. This work represents a first step towards the identification of optimal serum inactivation protocols targeted to EVs analysis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Containment of Biohazards/methods , Extracellular Vesicles/chemistry , Virus Inactivation , COVID-19/virology , Detergents/pharmacology , Extracellular Vesicles/drug effects , Extracellular Vesicles/genetics , Hot Temperature , Humans , MicroRNAs/analysis , Microarray Analysis , Microscopy, Atomic Force , SARS-CoV-2 , Tetraspanins/analysis , Ultracentrifugation
2.
Infect Genet Evol ; 85: 104422, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-597100

ABSTRACT

Extracellular vesicles releasing from various types of cells contribute to intercellular communication via delivering bio-molecules like nucleic acids, proteins, and lipids to recipient cells. Exosomes are 30-120 nm extracellular vesicles that participate in several pathological conditions. Virus-infected cells release exosomes that are implicated in infection through transferring viral components such as viral-derived miRNAs and proteins. As well, exosomes contain receptors for viruses that make recipient cells susceptible to virus entry. Since December 2019, SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) infection has become a worldwide urgent public health concern. There is currently no vaccine or specific antiviral treatment existing for COVID-19 virus infection. Hence, it is critical to find a safe and effective therapeutic tool to patients with severe COVID-19 virus infection. Extracellular vesicles may contribute to spread this virus as they transfer such receptors as CD9 and ACE2, which make recipient cells susceptible to virus docking. Upon entry, COVID-19 virus may be directed into the exosomal pathway, and its component is packaged into exosomes for secretion. Exosome-based strategies for the treatment of COVID-19 virus infection may include following items: inhibition of exosome biogenesis and uptake, exosome-therapy, exosome-based drug delivery system, and exosome-based vaccine. Mesenchymal stem cells can suppress nonproductive inflammation and improve/repair lung cells including endothelial and alveolar cells, which damaged by COVID-19 virus infection. Understanding molecular mechanisms behind extracellular vesicles related COVID-19 virus infection may provide us with an avenue to identify its entry, replication, spreading, and infection to overcome its adverse effects.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Extracellular Vesicles/genetics , Extracellular Vesicles/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Extracellular Vesicles/drug effects , Humans , Molecular Targeted Therapy , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Virus Shedding/drug effects
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