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1.
Viruses ; 14(2)2022 02 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674825

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2-specific CD8+ T cell immunity is expected to counteract viral variants in both efficient and durable ways. We recently described a way to induce a potent SARS-CoV-2 CD8+ T immune response through the generation of engineered extracellular vesicles (EVs) emerging from muscle cells. This method relies on intramuscular injection of DNA vectors expressing different SARS-CoV-2 antigens fused at their N-terminus with the Nefmut protein, i.e., a very efficient EV-anchoring protein. However, quality, tissue distribution, and efficacy of these SARS-CoV-2-specific CD8+ T cells remained uninvestigated. To fill the gaps, antigen-specific CD8+ T lymphocytes induced by the immunization through the Nefmut-based method were characterized in terms of their polyfunctionality and localization at lung airways, i.e., the primary targets of SARS-CoV-2 infection. We found that injection of vectors expressing Nefmut/S1 and Nefmut/N generated polyfunctional CD8+ T lymphocytes in both spleens and bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALFs). When immunized mice were infected with 4.4 lethal doses of 50% of SARS-CoV-2, all S1-immunized mice succumbed, whereas those developing the highest percentages of N-specific CD8+ T lymphocytes resisted the lethal challenge. We also provide evidence that the N-specific immunization coupled with the development of antigen-specific CD8+ T-resident memory cells in lungs, supporting the idea that the Nefmut-based immunization can confer a long-lasting, lung-specific immune memory. In view of the limitations of current anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in terms of antibody waning and efficiency against variants, our CD8+ T cell-based platform could be considered for a new combination prophylactic strategy.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Viral/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Extracellular Vesicles/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Animals , Antigens, Viral/administration & dosage , Antigens, Viral/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Genetic Vectors/administration & dosage , Genetic Vectors/immunology , Humans , Lung/immunology , Lung/virology , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Transgenic , Vaccination
2.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 405, 2022 01 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1631967

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused the pandemic of the coronavirus induced disease 2019 (COVID-19) with evolving variants of concern. It remains urgent to identify novel approaches against broad strains of SARS-CoV-2, which infect host cells via the entry receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Herein, we report an increase in circulating extracellular vesicles (EVs) that express ACE2 (evACE2) in plasma of COVID-19 patients, which levels are associated with severe pathogenesis. Importantly, evACE2 isolated from human plasma or cells neutralizes SARS-CoV-2 infection by competing with cellular ACE2. Compared to vesicle-free recombinant human ACE2 (rhACE2), evACE2 shows a 135-fold higher potency in blocking the binding of the viral spike protein RBD, and a 60- to 80-fold higher efficacy in preventing infections by both pseudotyped and authentic SARS-CoV-2. Consistently, evACE2 protects the hACE2 transgenic mice from SARS-CoV-2-induced lung injury and mortality. Furthermore, evACE2 inhibits the infection of SARS-CoV-2 variants (α, ß, and δ) with equal or higher potency than for the wildtype strain, supporting a broad-spectrum antiviral mechanism of evACE2 for therapeutic development to block the infection of existing and future coronaviruses that use the ACE2 receptor.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Extracellular Vesicles/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , A549 Cells , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Extracellular Vesicles/genetics , Extracellular Vesicles/metabolism , HEK293 Cells , HeLa Cells , Humans , Mice, Transgenic , Neutralization Tests/methods , Pandemics/prevention & control , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Survival Analysis , Vero Cells
3.
J Extracell Vesicles ; 11(1): e12179, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1605805

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) entry is mediated by the interaction of the viral spike (S) protein with angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) on the host cell surface. Although a clinical trial testing soluble ACE2 (sACE2) for COVID-19 is currently ongoing, our understanding of the delivery of sACE2 via small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) is still rudimentary. With excellent biocompatibility allowing for the effective delivery of molecular cargos, sEVs are broadly studied as nanoscale protein carriers. In order to exploit the potential of sEVs, we design truncated CD9 scaffolds to display sACE2 on the sEV surface as a decoy receptor for the S protein of SARS-CoV-2. Moreover, to enhance the sACE2-S binding interaction, we employ sACE2 variants. sACE2-loaded sEVs exhibit typical sEVs characteristics and bind to the S protein. Furthermore, engineered sEVs inhibit the entry of wild-type (WT), the globally dominant D614G variant, Beta (K417N-E484K-N501Y) variant, and Delta (L452R-T478K-D614G) variant SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus, and protect against authentic SARS-CoV-2 and Delta variant infection. Of note, sACE2 variants harbouring sEVs show superior antiviral efficacy than WT sACE2 loaded sEVs. Therapeutic efficacy of the engineered sEVs against SARS-CoV-2 challenge was confirmed using K18-hACE2 mice. The current findings provide opportunities for the development of new sEVs-based antiviral therapeutics.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Extracellular Vesicles/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Animals , Female , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Mice , Protein Binding , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs
4.
Front Immunol ; 12: 784028, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581324

ABSTRACT

Background: Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are mediators of cell-to-cell communication in inflammatory lung diseases. They function as carriers for miRNAs which regulate mRNA transcripts and signaling pathways after uptake into recipient cells. We investigated whether miRNAs associated with circulating EVs regulate immunologic processes in COVID-19. Methods: We prospectively studied 20 symptomatic patients with COVID-19 pneumonia, 20 mechanically ventilated patients with severe COVID-19 (severe acute respiratory corona virus-2 syndrome, ARDS) and 20 healthy controls. EVs were isolated by precipitation, total RNA was extracted, profiled by small RNA sequencing and evaluated by differential gene expression analysis (DGE). Differentially regulated miRNAs between groups were bioinformatically analyzed, mRNA target transcripts identified and signaling networks constructed, thereby comparing COVID-19 pneumonia to the healthy state and pneumonia to severe COVID-19 ARDS. Results: DGE revealed 43 significantly and differentially expressed miRNAs (25 downregulated) in COVID-19 pneumonia when compared to controls, and 20 miRNAs (15 downregulated) in COVID-19 ARDS patients in comparison to those with COVID-19 pneumonia. Network analysis for comparison of COVID-19 pneumonia to healthy controls showed upregulated miR-3168 (log2FC=2.28, padjusted<0.001), among others, targeting interleukin-6 (IL6) (25.1, 15.2 - 88.2 pg/ml in COVID-19 pneumonia) and OR52N2, an olfactory smell receptor in the nasal epithelium. In contrast, miR-3168 was significantly downregulated in COVID-19 ARDS (log2FC=-2.13, padjusted=0.003) and targeted interleukin-8 (CXCL8) in a completely activated network. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) was inhibited in COVID-19 pneumonia by miR-146a-5p and upregulated in ARDS by let-7e-5p. Conclusion: EV-derived miRNAs might have important regulative functions in the pathophysiology of COVID-19: CXCL8 regulates neutrophil recruitment into the lung causing epithelial damage whereas activated TLR4, to which SARS-CoV-2 spike protein binds strongly, increases cell surface ACE2 expression and destroys type II alveolar cells that secrete pulmonary surfactants; both resulting in pulmonary-capillary leakage and ARDS. These miRNAs may serve as biomarkers or as possible therapeutic targets.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Extracellular Vesicles/immunology , MicroRNAs/immunology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/pathology , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia/immunology , Pneumonia/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Signal Transduction/immunology
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(3)2021 Jan 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389388

ABSTRACT

The prevention and control of infectious diseases is crucial to the maintenance and protection of social and public healthcare. The global impact of SARS-CoV-2 has demonstrated how outbreaks of emerging and re-emerging infections can lead to pandemics of significant public health and socio-economic burden. Vaccination is one of the most effective approaches to protect against infectious diseases, and to date, multiple vaccines have been successfully used to protect against and eradicate both viral and bacterial pathogens. The main criterion of vaccine efficacy is the induction of specific humoral and cellular immune responses, and it is well established that immunogenicity depends on the type of vaccine as well as the route of delivery. In addition, antigen delivery to immune organs and the site of injection can potentiate efficacy of the vaccine. In light of this, microvesicles have been suggested as potential vehicles for antigen delivery as they can carry various immunogenic molecules including proteins, nucleic acids and polysaccharides directly to target cells. In this review, we focus on the mechanisms of microvesicle biogenesis and the role of microvesicles in infectious diseases. Further, we discuss the application of microvesicles as a novel and effective vaccine delivery system.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Extracellular Vesicles/immunology , Immunologic Factors/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Viral Vaccines/administration & dosage , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , Drug Delivery Systems/methods , Humans , Vaccination/methods , Viral Vaccines/immunology
6.
Front Immunol ; 12: 711565, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1335926

ABSTRACT

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are released by most cell types as part of an intracellular communication system in crucial processes such as inflammation, cell proliferation, and immune response. However, EVs have also been implicated in the pathogenesis of several diseases, such as cancer and numerous infectious diseases. An important feature of EVs is their ability to deliver a wide range of molecules to nearby targets or over long distances, which allows the mediation of different biological functions. This delivery mechanism can be utilized for the development of therapeutic strategies, such as vaccination. Here, we have highlighted several studies from a historical perspective, with respect to current investigations on EV-based vaccines. For example, vaccines based on exosomes derived from dendritic cells proved to be simpler in terms of management and cost-effectiveness than dendritic cell vaccines. Recent evidence suggests that EVs derived from cancer cells can be leveraged for therapeutics to induce strong anti-tumor immune responses. Moreover, EV-based vaccines have shown exciting and promising results against different types of infectious diseases. We have also summarized the results obtained from completed clinical trials conducted on the usage of exosome-based vaccines in the treatment of cancer, and more recently, coronavirus disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Cancer Vaccines/immunology , Exosomes/immunology , Extracellular Vesicles/immunology , Neoplasms/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Vaccines/immunology , Animals , Clinical Trials as Topic , Humans , Immunity , Immunization
7.
Viruses ; 13(6)2021 06 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282641

ABSTRACT

This article reviews the current knowledge on how viruses may utilize Extracellular Vesicle Assisted Inflammatory Load (EVAIL) to exert pathologic activities. Viruses are classically considered to exert their pathologic actions through acute or chronic infection followed by the host response. This host response causes the release of cytokines leading to vascular endothelial cell dysfunction and cardiovascular complications. However, viruses may employ an alternative pathway to soluble cytokine-induced pathologies-by initiating the release of extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes. The best-understood example of this alternative pathway is human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-elicited EVs and their propensity to harm vascular endothelial cells. Specifically, an HIV-encoded accessory protein called the "negative factor" (Nef) was demonstrated in EVs from the body fluids of HIV patients on successful combined antiretroviral therapy (ART); it was also demonstrated to be sufficient in inducing endothelial and cardiovascular dysfunction. This review will highlight HIV-Nef as an example of how HIV can produce EVs loaded with proinflammatory cargo to disseminate cardiovascular pathologies. It will further discuss whether EV production can explain SARS-CoV-2-mediated pulmonary and cardiovascular pathologies.


Subject(s)
Extracellular Vesicles/immunology , Extracellular Vesicles/virology , Inflammation/virology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cardiovascular Diseases/virology , Endothelial Cells/pathology , Endothelial Cells/virology , Exosomes/metabolism , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/immunology , HIV Infections/physiopathology , HIV-1/pathogenicity , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
8.
EBioMedicine ; 67: 103369, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1220821

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection causes an acute respiratory syndrome accompanied by multi-organ damage that implicates a prothrombotic state leading to widespread microvascular clots. The causes of such coagulation abnormalities are unknown. The receptor tissue factor, also known as CD142, is often associated with cell-released extracellular vesicles (EV). In this study, we aimed to characterize surface antigens profile of circulating EV in COVID-19 patients and their potential implication as procoagulant agents. METHODS: We analyzed serum-derived EV from 67 participants who underwent nasopharyngeal swabs molecular test for suspected SARS-CoV-2 infection (34 positives and 33 negatives) and from 16 healthy controls (HC), as referral. A sub-analysis was performed on subjects who developed pneumonia (n = 28). Serum-derived EV were characterized for their surface antigen profile and tested for their procoagulant activity. A validation experiment was performed pre-treating EV with anti-CD142 antibody or with recombinant FVIIa. Serum TNF-α levels were measured by ELISA. FINDINGS: Profiling of EV antigens revealed a surface marker signature that defines circulating EV in COVID-19. A combination of seven surface molecules (CD49e, CD209, CD86, CD133/1, CD69, CD142, and CD20) clustered COVID (+) versus COVID (-) patients and HC. CD142 showed the highest discriminating performance at both multivariate models and ROC curve analysis. Noteworthy, we found that CD142 exposed onto surface of EV was biologically active. CD142 activity was higher in COVID (+) patients and correlated with TNF-α serum levels. INTERPRETATION: In SARS-CoV-2 infection the systemic inflammatory response results in cell-release of substantial amounts of procoagulant EV that may act as clotting initiation agents, contributing to disease severity. FUNDING: Cardiocentro Ticino Institute, Ente ospedaliero Cantonale, Lugano-Switzerland.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Extracellular Vesicles/immunology , Thromboplastin/metabolism , Thrombosis/blood , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antigens, Surface/analysis , Biomarkers/analysis , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Case-Control Studies , Diagnosis, Differential , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Switzerland , Thrombosis/etiology , Thrombosis/immunology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood
9.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 97: 107694, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1209540

ABSTRACT

In late 2019, a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in Wuhan city, Hubei province, China. Rapidly escalated into a worldwide pandemic, it has caused an unprecedented and devastating situation on the global public health and society economy. The severity of recent coronavirus disease, abbreviated to COVID-19, seems to be mostly associated with the patients' immune response. In this vein, mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) have been suggested as a worth-considering option against COVID-19 as their therapeutic properties are mainly displayed in immunomodulation and anti-inflammatory effects. Indeed, administration of MSCs can attenuate cytokine storm and enhance alveolar fluid clearance, endothelial recovery, and anti-fibrotic regeneration. Despite advantages attributed to MSCs application in lung injuries, there are still several issues __foremost probability of malignant transformation and incidence of MSCs-related coagulopathy__ which should be resolved for the successful application of MSC therapy in COVID-19. In the present study, we review the historical evidence of successful use of MSCs and MSC-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) in the treatment of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We also take a look at MSCs mechanisms of action in the treatment of viral infections, and then through studying both the dark and bright sides of this approach, we provide a thorough discussion if MSC therapy might be a promising therapeutic approach in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Extracellular Vesicles/immunology , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/immunology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/immunology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology
10.
Int J Lab Hematol ; 43(5): 895-906, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1145304

ABSTRACT

Although platelets are traditionally recognized for their central role in hemostasis, the presence of chemotactic factors, chemokines, adhesion molecules, and costimulatory molecules in their granules and membranes indicates that they may play an immunomodulatory role in the immune response, flanking their capacity to trigger blood coagulation and inflammation. Indeed, platelets play a role not only in the innate immune response, through the expression of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and release of inflammatory cytokines, but also in the adaptive immune response, through expression of key costimulatory molecules and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules capable to activate T cells. Moreover, platelets release huge amounts of extracellular vesicles capable to interact with multiple immune players. The function of platelets thus extends beyond aggregation and implies a multifaceted interplay between hemostasis, inflammation, and the immune response, leading to the amplification of the body's defense processes on one hand, but also potentially degenerating into life-threatening pathological processes on the other. This narrative review summarizes the current knowledge and the most recent updates on platelet immune functions and interactions with infectious agents, with a particular focus on their involvement in COVID-19, whose pathogenesis involves a dysregulation of hemostatic and immune processes in which platelets may be determinant causative agents.


Subject(s)
Blood Platelets/pathology , COVID-19/pathology , Inflammation/pathology , Thrombosis/pathology , Animals , Blood Platelets/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , Extracellular Vesicles/immunology , Extracellular Vesicles/pathology , Hemostasis , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Inflammation/blood , Inflammation/etiology , Inflammation/immunology , Platelet Activation , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Thrombocytopenia/blood , Thrombocytopenia/etiology , Thrombocytopenia/immunology , Thrombocytopenia/pathology , Thrombosis/blood , Thrombosis/etiology , Thrombosis/immunology
11.
Immunology ; 163(4): 416-430, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1142903

ABSTRACT

The sudden outbreak of SARS-CoV-2-infected disease (COVID-19), initiated from Wuhan, China, has rapidly grown into a global pandemic. Emerging evidence has implicated extracellular vesicles (EVs), a key intercellular communicator, in the pathogenesis and treatment of COVID-19. In the pathogenesis of COVID-19, cells that express ACE2 and CD9 can transfer these viral receptors to other cells via EVs, making recipient cells more susceptible for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Once infected, cells release EVs packaged with viral particles that further facilitate viral spreading and immune evasion, aggravating COVID-19 and its complications. In contrast, EVs derived from stem cells, especially mesenchymal stromal/stem cells, alleviate severe inflammation (cytokine storm) and repair damaged lung cells in COVID-19 by delivery of anti-inflammatory molecules. These therapeutic beneficial EVs can also be engineered into drug delivery platforms or vaccines to fight against COVID-19. Therefore, EVs from diverse sources exhibit distinct effects in regulating viral infection, immune response, and tissue damage/repair, functioning as a double-edged sword in COVID-19. Here, we summarize the recent progress in understanding the pathological roles of EVs in COVID-19. A comprehensive discussion of the therapeutic effects/potentials of EVs is also provided.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Extracellular Vesicles/virology , Lung/virology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Virion/metabolism , Animals , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/metabolism , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Cytokines/metabolism , Drug Carriers , Extracellular Vesicles/immunology , Extracellular Vesicles/metabolism , Extracellular Vesicles/transplantation , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Lung/immunology , Lung/metabolism , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Virion/immunology
12.
J Hematol Oncol ; 14(1): 24, 2021 02 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1084770

ABSTRACT

Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), also known as mesenchymal stem cells, have been intensely investigated for clinical applications within the last decades. However, the majority of registered clinical trials applying MSC therapy for diverse human diseases have fallen short of expectations, despite the encouraging pre-clinical outcomes in varied animal disease models. This can be attributable to inconsistent criteria for MSCs identity across studies and their inherited heterogeneity. Nowadays, with the emergence of advanced biological techniques and substantial improvements in bio-engineered materials, strategies have been developed to overcome clinical challenges in MSC application. Here in this review, we will discuss the major challenges of MSC therapies in clinical application, the factors impacting the diversity of MSCs, the potential approaches that modify MSC products with the highest therapeutic potential, and finally the usage of MSCs for COVID-19 pandemic disease.


Subject(s)
Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/cytology , Animals , Artificial Intelligence , COVID-19/therapy , CRISPR-Cas Systems , Cell Differentiation , Cell Movement , Clinical Trials as Topic , Extracellular Vesicles/genetics , Extracellular Vesicles/immunology , Extracellular Vesicles/transplantation , Genetic Engineering/methods , Humans , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/immunology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/metabolism
13.
J Neuroimmune Pharmacol ; 16(2): 270-288, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064584

ABSTRACT

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are the common designation for ectosomes, microparticles and microvesicles serving dominant roles in intercellular communication. Both viable and dying cells release EVs to the extracellular environment for transfer of cell, immune and infectious materials. Defined morphologically as lipid bi-layered structures EVs show molecular, biochemical, distribution, and entry mechanisms similar to viruses within cells and tissues. In recent years their functional capacities have been harnessed to deliver biomolecules and drugs and immunological agents to specific cells and organs of interest or disease. Interest in EVs as putative vaccines or drug delivery vehicles are substantial. The vesicles have properties of receptors nanoassembly on their surface. EVs can interact with specific immunocytes that include antigen presenting cells (dendritic cells and other mononuclear phagocytes) to elicit immune responses or affect tissue and cellular homeostasis or disease. Due to potential advantages like biocompatibility, biodegradation and efficient immune activation, EVs have gained attraction for the development of treatment or a vaccine system against the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS CoV-2) infection. In this review efforts to use EVs to contain SARS CoV-2 and affect the current viral pandemic are discussed. An emphasis is made on mesenchymal stem cell derived EVs' as a vaccine candidate delivery system.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Delivery Systems/trends , Extracellular Vesicles , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Animals , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/metabolism , Drug Delivery Systems/methods , Extracellular Vesicles/immunology , Extracellular Vesicles/metabolism , Humans , Immunity, Cellular/drug effects , Immunity, Cellular/physiology , Immunologic Factors/administration & dosage , Immunologic Factors/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism
14.
Stem Cell Rev Rep ; 17(2): 341-356, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1053104

ABSTRACT

In the end of 2019 COVID-19 emerged as a new threat worldwide and this disease present impaired immune system, exacerbated production of inflammatory cytokines, and coagulation disturbs. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) have emerged as a therapeutic option due to its intrinsic properties to alleviate inflammatory responses, capable to promote the restoring of injured tissue. EVs contain heterogeneous cargo, including active microRNAs, small noncoding sequences involved in post-transcriptional gene repression or degradation and can attach in multiple targets. This study investigated whether the MSC-EVs miRNA cargo has the capacity to modulate the exacerbated cytokines, cell death and coagulation disturbs present in severe COVID-19. Through bioinformatics analysis, four datasets of miRNA, using different stem cell tissue sources (bone marrow, umbilical cord and adipose tissue), and one dataset of mRNA (bone marrow) were analyzed. 58 miRNAs overlap in the four miRNA datasets analyzed. Sequentially, those miRNAs present in at least two datasets, were analyzed using miRWalk for the 3'UTR binding target mRNA. The result predicted 258 miRNAs for exacerbated cytokines and chemokines, 266 miRNAs for cell death genes and 148 miRNAs for coagulation cascades. Some miRNAs may simultaneously attenuate inflammatory agents, inhibit cell death genes and key factors of coagulation cascade, consequently preventing tissue damage and coagulation disturbs. Therefore, the MSC-derived EVs due to their heterogeneous cargo are a potential multitarget approach able to improve the survival rates of severe COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Extracellular Vesicles/immunology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/immunology , MicroRNAs/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Extracellular Vesicles/virology , Humans , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/virology
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