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1.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(5): 487-497, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1537196

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Lung transplantation is a life-saving treatment for patients with end-stage lung disease; however, it is infrequently considered for patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) attributable to infectious causes. We aimed to describe the course of disease and early post-transplantation outcomes in critically ill patients with COVID-19 who failed to show lung recovery despite optimal medical management and were deemed to be at imminent risk of dying due to pulmonary complications. METHODS: We established a multi-institutional case series that included the first consecutive transplants for severe COVID-19-associated ARDS known to us in the USA, Italy, Austria, and India. De-identified data from participating centres-including information relating to patient demographics and pre-COVID-19 characteristics, pretransplantation disease course, perioperative challenges, pathology of explanted lungs, and post-transplantation outcomes-were collected by Northwestern University (Chicago, IL, USA) and analysed. FINDINGS: Between May 1 and Sept 30, 2020, 12 patients with COVID-19-associated ARDS underwent bilateral lung transplantation at six high-volume transplant centres in the USA (eight recipients at three centres), Italy (two recipients at one centre), Austria (one recipient), and India (one recipient). The median age of recipients was 48 years (IQR 41-51); three of the 12 patients were female. Chest imaging before transplantation showed severe lung damage that did not improve despite prolonged mechanical ventilation and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. The lung transplant procedure was technically challenging, with severe pleural adhesions, hilar lymphadenopathy, and increased intraoperative transfusion requirements. Pathology of the explanted lungs showed extensive, ongoing acute lung injury with features of lung fibrosis. There was no recurrence of SARS-CoV-2 in the allografts. All patients with COVID-19 could be weaned off extracorporeal support and showed short-term survival similar to that of transplant recipients without COVID-19. INTERPRETATION: The findings from our report show that lung transplantation is the only option for survival in some patients with severe, unresolving COVID-19-associated ARDS, and that the procedure can be done successfully, with good early post-transplantation outcomes, in carefully selected patients. FUNDING: National Institutes of Health. VIDEO ABSTRACT.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Critical Illness/therapy , Lung Transplantation/methods , Lung , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Blood Transfusion/methods , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/surgery , Critical Care/methods , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Female , Humans , Intraoperative Care/methods , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , Pulmonary Fibrosis/etiology , Pulmonary Fibrosis/pathology , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/surgery , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
2.
Aust Crit Care ; 34(3): 217-225, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1530621

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) often require prolonged periods of bed rest owing to their severity of illness along with the care required to maintain the position and integrity of the ECMO cannula. Many patients on ECMO receive passive exercises, and rehabilitation is often delayed owing to medical instability, with a high proportion of patients demonstrating severe muscle weakness. The physiological effects of an intensive rehabilitation program started early after ECMO commencement remain unknown. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of this study was to describe the respiratory and haemodynamic effects of early intensive rehabilitation compared with standard care physiotherapy over a 7-d period in patients requiring ECMO. METHODS: This was a physiological substudy of a multicentre randomised controlled trial conducted in one tertiary referral hospital. Consecutive adult patients undergoing ECMO were recruited. Respiratory and haemodynamic parameters, along with ECMO settings, were recorded 30 min before and after each session and continuously during the session. In addition, the minimum and maximum values for these parameters were recorded outside of the rehabilitation or standard care sessions for each 24-h period over the 7 d. The number of minutes of exercise per session was recorded. RESULTS: Fifteen patients (mean age = 51.5 ± standard deviation of 14.3 y, 80% men) received ECMO. There was no difference between the groups for any of the respiratory, haemodynamic, or ECMO parameters. The minimum and maximum values for each parameter were recorded outside of the rehabilitation or standard care sessions. The intensive rehabilitation group (n = 7) spent more time exercising per session than the standard care group (n = 8) (mean = 28.7 versus 4.2 min, p < 0.0001). Three patients (43%) in the intensive rehabilitation group versus none in the standard care group mobilised out of bed during ECMO. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, early intensive rehabilitation of patients on ECMO had minimal effect on physiological parameters.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Physical Therapy Modalities , Pilot Projects , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
3.
Int J Artif Organs ; 44(11): 861-867, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526574

ABSTRACT

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in COVID-19 patients is associated with poor clinical outcomes and high mortality rates, despite the use of mechanical ventilation. Veno-Venous Extracorporeal membrane Oxygenation (VV-ECMO) in these patients is a viable salvage therapy. We describe clinical outcomes and survival rates in 52 COVID-19 patients with ARDS treated with early VV-ECMO at a large, high-volume center ECMO program. Outcomes included arterial blood gases, respiratory parameters, inflammatory markers, adverse events, and survival rates. Patients' mean age was 47.8 ± 12.1 years, 33% were female, and 75% were Hispanic. At the end of study period, 56% (n = 29) of the patients survived and were discharged and 44% (n = 23) of the patients expired. Survival rate was 75.0% (9 out of 12) in patients placed on ECMO prior to mechanical ventilation. Longer duration on mechanical ventilation prior to ECMO intervention was associated with a 31% (aOR = 1.31, 95% CI, 1.00-1.70) increased odds of mortality after adjusting for age, gender, BMI, number of comorbid conditions, and post-ECMO ventilator days. Early and effective ECMO intervention in critical ill COVID-19 patients might be a valuable strategy in critical care settings to increase their odds of survival.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Adult , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Ventilators, Mechanical
4.
Crit Care Med ; 49(12): e1223-e1233, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526199

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Stroke has been reported in observational series as a frequent complication of coronavirus disease 2019, but more information is needed regarding stroke prevalence and outcomes. We explored the prevalence and outcomes of acute stroke in an international cohort of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 who required ICU admission. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected database. SETTING: A registry of coronavirus disease 2019 patients admitted to ICUs at over 370 international sites was reviewed for patients diagnosed with acute stroke during their stay. PATIENTS: Patients older than 18 years old with acute coronavirus disease 2019 infection in ICU. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Of 2,699 patients identified (median age 59 yr; male 65%), 59 (2.2%) experienced acute stroke: 0.7% ischemic, 1.0% hemorrhagic, and 0.5% unspecified type. Systemic anticoagulant use was not associated with any stroke type. The frequency of diabetes, hypertension, and smoking was higher in patients with ischemic stroke than in stroke-free and hemorrhagic stroke patients. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support was more common among patients with hemorrhagic (56%) and ischemic stroke (16%) than in those without stroke (10%). Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation patients had higher cumulative 90-day probabilities of hemorrhagic (relative risk = 10.5) and ischemic stroke (relative risk = 1.7) versus nonextracorporeal membrane oxygenation patients. Hemorrhagic stroke increased the hazard of death (hazard ratio = 2.74), but ischemic stroke did not-similar to the effects of these stroke types seen in noncoronavirus disease 2019 ICU patients. CONCLUSIONS: In an international registry of ICU patients with coronavirus disease 2019, stroke was infrequent. Hemorrhagic stroke, but not ischemic stroke, was associated with increased mortality. Further, both hemorrhagic stroke and ischemic stroke were associated with traditional vascular risk factors. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use was strongly associated with both stroke and death.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Stroke/epidemiology , Aged , Comorbidity , Critical Illness , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
6.
BMC Anesthesiol ; 21(1): 280, 2021 11 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1515436

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 can induce acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). In patients with congenital heart disease, established treatment strategies are often limited due to their unique cardiovascular anatomy and passive pulmonary perfusion. CASE PRESENTATION: We report the first case of an adult with single-ventricle physiology and bidirectional cavopulmonary shunt who suffered from severe COVID-19 ARDS. Treatment strategies were successfully adopted, and pulmonary vascular resistance was reduced, both medically and through prone positioning, leading to a favorable outcome. CONCLUSION: ARDS treatment strategies including ventilatory settings, prone positioning therapy and cannulation techniques for extracorporeal oxygenation must be adopted carefully considering the passive venous return in patients with single-ventricle physiology.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Cardiomegaly/diagnostic imaging , Cardiovascular Surgical Procedures/methods , Dextrocardia/diagnostic imaging , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Genetic Diseases, X-Linked/diagnostic imaging , Heterotaxy Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Patient Positioning/methods , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Cardiomegaly/complications , Cardiomegaly/therapy , Dextrocardia/complications , Dextrocardia/therapy , Genetic Diseases, X-Linked/complications , Genetic Diseases, X-Linked/therapy , Heterotaxy Syndrome/complications , Heterotaxy Syndrome/therapy , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Severity of Illness Index
7.
Qual Life Res ; 30(8): 2123-2135, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1509285

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO) has been used successfully for the past decade in adult patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) refractory to conventional ventilatory support. However, knowledge of the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in VV-ECMO patients is still limited. Thus, this study aimed to provide a comprehensive overview of the HRQoL following VV-ECMO support in ARDS patients. METHODS: A systematic search was performed on PubMed and Web of Science databases from January 1st, 2009 to October 19th, 2020. Studies reporting on HRQoL following VV-ECMO for ARDS in adults were included. Two authors independently selected studies, extracted data, and assessed methodological quality. RESULTS: Eight studies were eligible for inclusion, consisting of seven observational studies and one randomized controlled trial (total N = 441). All eight studies had a quantitative design and reported 265 VV-ECMO survivors to have a reduced HRQoL compared to a generally healthy population. Follow-up time varied between six months to three years. Additionally, only four studies (total N = 335) compared the HRQoL of VV-ECMO (N = 159) to conventionally treated survivors (N = 176), with one study showing a significantly better HRQoL in VV-ECMO survivors, while three studies were stating comparable HRQoL across groups. Notably, most survivors in these studies appeared to experience varying degrees of anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). CONCLUSIONS: ARDS survivors supported by VV-ECMO have a decline in HRQoL and suffered from physical and psychological impairments. This HRQoL reduction is comparable or even better to the HRQoL in conventionally treated ARDS survivors.


Subject(s)
Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/psychology , Quality of Life/psychology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Health Status , Humans , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/psychology , Survivors , Treatment Outcome
8.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(11): e2134241, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1508587

ABSTRACT

Importance: The influence of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) and sleep-related hypoxemia in SARS-CoV-2 viral infection and COVID-19 outcomes remains unknown. Controversy exists regarding whether to continue treatment for SDB with positive airway pressure given concern for aerosolization with limited data to inform professional society recommendations. Objective: To investigate the association of SDB (identified via polysomnogram) and sleep-related hypoxia with (1) SARS-CoV-2 positivity and (2) World Health Organization (WHO)-designated COVID-19 clinical outcomes while accounting for confounding including obesity, underlying cardiopulmonary disease, cancer, and smoking history. Design, Setting, and Participants: This case-control study was conducted within the Cleveland Clinic Health System (Ohio and Florida) and included all patients who were tested for COVID-19 between March 8 and November 30, 2020, and who had an available sleep study record. Sleep indices and SARS-CoV-2 positivity were assessed with overlap propensity score weighting, and COVID-19 clinical outcomes were assessed using the institutional registry. Exposures: Sleep study-identified SDB (defined by frequency of apneas and hypopneas using the Apnea-Hypopnea Index [AHI]) and sleep-related hypoxemia (percentage of total sleep time at <90% oxygen saturation [TST <90]). Main Outcomes and Measures: Outcomes were SARS-CoV-2 infection and WHO-designated COVID-19 clinical outcomes (hospitalization, use of supplemental oxygen, noninvasive ventilation, mechanical ventilation or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, and death). Results: Of 350 710 individuals tested for SARS-CoV-2, 5402 (mean [SD] age, 56.4 [14.5] years; 3005 women [55.6%]) had a prior sleep study, of whom 1935 (35.8%) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. Of the 5402 participants, 1696 were Black (31.4%), 3259 were White (60.3%), and 822 were of other race or ethnicity (15.2%). Patients who were positive vs negative for SARS-CoV-2 had a higher AHI score (median, 16.2 events/h [IQR, 6.1-39.5 events/h] vs 13.6 events/h [IQR, 5.5-33.6 events/h]; P < .001) and increased TST <90 (median, 1.8% sleep time [IQR, 0.10%-12.8% sleep time] vs 1.4% sleep time [IQR, 0.10%-10.8% sleep time]; P = .02). After overlap propensity score-weighted logistic regression, no SDB measures were associated with SARS-CoV-2 positivity. Median TST <90 was associated with the WHO-designated COVID-19 ordinal clinical outcome scale (adjusted odds ratio, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.10-1.74; P = .005). Time-to-event analyses showed sleep-related hypoxia associated with a 31% higher rate of hospitalization and mortality (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.08-1.57; P = .005). Conclusions and Relevance: In this case-control study, SDB and sleep-related hypoxia were not associated with increased SARS-CoV-2 positivity; however, once patients were infected with SARS-CoV-2, sleep-related hypoxia was an associated risk factor for detrimental COVID-19 outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cause of Death , Hospitalization , Severity of Illness Index , Sleep Apnea Syndromes/complications , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Case-Control Studies , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure , Delivery of Health Care, Integrated , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Female , Florida , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Hypoxia , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Ohio , Respiration, Artificial , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep , Sleep Apnea Syndromes/pathology , Sleep Apnea Syndromes/therapy
10.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 760, 2021 Nov 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511731

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Infection with SARS-CoV-2 during pregnancy can lead to a severe condition in the patient, which is challenging for obstetricians and anaesthesiologists. Upon severe COVID-19 and a lack of improvement after multidrug therapy and mechanical ventilation, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is introduced as the last option. Such treatment is critical in women with very preterm pregnancy when each additional day of the intrauterine stay is vital for the survival of the newborn. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of a 38-year-old woman at 27 weeks of gestation treated with multidrug therapy and ECMO. The woman was admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) with increasing fever, cough and dyspnoea. The course of the pregnancy was uncomplicated. She was otherwise healthy. At admission, she presented with severe dyspnoea, with oxygen saturation (SpO2) of 95% on passive oxygenation, heart rate of 145/min, and blood pressure of 145/90. After confirmation of SARS-CoV-2 infection, she received steroids, remdesivir and convalescent plasma therapy. The foetus was in good condition. No signs of an intrauterine infection were visible. Due to tachypnea of 40/min and SpO2 of 90%, the woman was intubated and mechanically ventilated. Due to circulatory failure, the prothrombotic activity of the coagulation system, further saturation worsening, and poor control of sedation, she was qualified for veno-venous ECMO. An elective caesarean section was performed at 29 weeks on ECMO treatment in the ICU. A preterm female newborn was delivered with an Apgar score of 7 and a birth weight of 1440 g. The newborn had no laboratory or clinical evidence of COVID-19. The placenta showed the following pathological changes: large subchorionic haematoma, maternal vascular malperfusion, marginal cord insertion, and chorangioma. CONCLUSIONS: This case presents the successful use of ECMO in a pregnant woman with acute respiratory distress syndrome in the course of severe COVID-19. Further research is required to explain the aetiology of placental disorders (e.g., maternal vascular malperfusion lesions or thrombotic influence of COVID-19). ECMO treatment in pregnant women remains challenging; thus, it should be used with caution. Long-term assessment may help to evaluate the safety of the ECMO procedure in pregnant women.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Placenta/pathology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/therapy , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cesarean Section , Female , Humans , Placenta/virology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Trimester, Second , Treatment Outcome
12.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 21(1): 528, 2021 11 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1505900

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The value of mechanical circulatory support (MCS) in cardiogenic shock, especially the combination of the ECMELLA approach (Impella combined with ECMO), remains controversial. CASE PRESENTATION: A previously healthy 33-year-old female patient was submitted to a local emergency department with a flu-like infection and febrile temperatures up to 39 °C. The patient was tested positive for type-A influenza, however negative for SARS-CoV-2. Despite escalated invasive ventilation, refractory hypercapnia (paCO2: 22 kPa) with severe respiratory acidosis (pH: 6.9) and a rising norepinephrine rate occurred within a few hours. Due to a Horovitz-Index < 100, out-of-centre veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (vv-ECMO)-implantation was performed. A CT-scan done because of anisocoria revealed an extended dissection of the right vertebral artery. While the initial left ventricular function was normal, echocardiography revealed severe global hypokinesia. After angiographic exclusion of coronary artery stenoses, we geared up LV unloading by additional implantation of an Impella CP and expanded the vv-ECMO to a veno-venous-arterial ECMO (vva-ECMO). Clinically relevant bleeding from the punctured femoral arteries resulted in massive transfusion and was treated by vascular surgery later on. Under continued MCS, LVEF increased to approximately 40% 2 days after the initiation of ECMELLA. After weaning, the Impella CP was explanted at day 5 and the vva-ECMO was removed on day 9, respectively. The patient was discharged in an unaffected neurological condition to rehabilitation 25 days after the initial admission. CONCLUSIONS: This exceptional case exemplifies the importance of aggressive MCS in severe cardiogenic shock, which may be especially promising in younger patients with non-ischaemic cardiomyopathy and potentially reversible causes of cardiogenic shock. This case impressively demonstrates that especially young patients may achieve complete neurological restoration, even though the initial prognosis may appear unfavourable.


Subject(s)
Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Heart-Assist Devices , Influenza A virus/isolation & purification , Influenza, Human , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Respiratory Insufficiency , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , Clinical Deterioration , Critical Care/methods , Echocardiography/methods , Female , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Heart Failure/therapy , Humans , Influenza, Human/complications , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/physiopathology , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/physiopathology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Serologic Tests/methods , Severity of Illness Index , Shock, Cardiogenic/etiology , Shock, Cardiogenic/physiopathology , Shock, Cardiogenic/therapy , Treatment Outcome , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/etiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/therapy
14.
Resuscitation ; 167: 12-21, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1479724

ABSTRACT

AIM: We aimed to characterize extracorporeal CPR (ECPR) outcomes in our center and to model prediction of severe functional impairment or death at discharge. METHODS: All ECPR events between 2011 and 2019 were reviewed. The primary outcome measure was severe functional impairment or death at discharge (Functional Status Score [FSS] ≥ 16). Organ dysfunction was graded using the Pediatric Logistic Organ Dysfunction Score-2, neuroimaging using the modified Alberta Stroke Program Early Computed Tomography Score. Multivariable logistic regression was used to model FSS ≥ 16 at discharge. RESULTS: Of the 214 patients who underwent ECPR, 182 (median age 148 days, IQR 14-827) had an in-hospital cardiac arrest and congenital heart disease and were included in the analysis. Of the 110 patients who underwent neuroimaging, 52 (47%) had hypoxic-ischemic injury and 45 (41%) had hemorrhage. In-hospital mortality was 52% at discharge. Of these, 87% died from the withdrawal of life-sustaining therapies; severe neurologic injury was a contributing factor in the decision to withdraw life-sustaining therapies in 50%. The median FSS among survivors was 8 (IQR 6-8), and only one survivor had severe functional impairment. At 6 months, mortality was 57%, and the median FSS among survivors was 6 (IQR 6-8, n = 79). Predictive models identified FSS at admission, single ventricle physiology, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) duration, mean PELOD-2, and worst mASPECTS (or DWI-ASPECTS) as independent predictors of FSS ≥ 16 (AUC = 0.931) and at 6 months (AUC = 0.924). CONCLUSION: Mortality and functional impairment following ECPR in children remain high. It is possible to model severe functional impairment or death at discharge with high accuracy using daily post-ECPR data up to 28 days. This represents a prognostically valuable tool and may identify endpoints for future interventional trials.


Subject(s)
Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Heart Arrest , Heart Defects, Congenital , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
18.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 355, 2021 10 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463260

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) was frequently used to treat patients with severe coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19)-associated acute respiratory distress (ARDS) during the initial outbreak. Care of COVID-19 patients evolved markedly during the second part of 2020. Our objective was to compare the characteristics and outcomes of patients who received ECMO for severe COVID-19 ARDS before or after July 1, 2020. METHODS: We included consecutive adults diagnosed with COVID-19 in Paris-Sorbonne University Hospital Network ICUs, who received ECMO for severe ARDS until January 28, 2021. Characteristics and survival probabilities over time were estimated during the first and second waves. Pre-ECMO risk factors predicting 90-day mortality were assessed using multivariate Cox regression. RESULTS: Characteristics of the 88 and 71 patients admitted, respectively, before and after July 1, 2020, were comparable except for older age, more frequent use of dexamethasone (18% vs. 82%), high-flow nasal oxygenation (19% vs. 82%) and/or non-invasive ventilation (7% vs. 37%) after July 1. Respective estimated probabilities (95% confidence intervals) of 90-day mortality were 36% (27-47%) and 48% (37-60%) during the first and the second periods. After adjusting for confounders, probability of 90-day mortality was significantly higher for patients treated after July 1 (HR 2.27, 95% CI 1.02-5.07). ECMO-related complications did not differ between study periods. CONCLUSIONS: 90-day mortality of ECMO-supported COVID-19-ARDS patients increased significantly after July 1, 2020, and was no longer comparable to that of non-COVID ECMO-treated patients. Failure of prolonged non-invasive oxygenation strategies before intubation and increased lung damage may partly explain this outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/mortality , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/trends , Hospitalization/trends , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , Severity of Illness Index , Adult , COVID-19/therapy , Cohort Studies , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Intensive Care Units/trends , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality/trends , Paris/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Treatment Outcome
19.
Ann Surg ; 274(5): e388-e394, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455430

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Does extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) improve outcomes in ECMO-eligible patients with COVID-19 respiratory failure compared to maximum ventilation alone (MVA)? SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: ECMO is beneficial in severe cases of respiratory failure when mechanical ventilation is inadequate. Outcomes for ECMO-eligible COVID-19 patients on MVA have not been reported. Consequently, a direct comparison between COVID-19 patients on ECMO and those on MVA has not been established. METHODS: A total of 3406 COVID-19 patients treated at two major medical centers in Chicago were studied. One hundred ninety-five required maximum ventilatory support, and met ECMO eligibility criteria. Eighty ECMO patients were propensity matched to an equal number of MVA patients using detailed demographic, physiological, and comorbidity data. Primary outcome was survival and disposition at discharge. RESULTS: Seventy-one percent of patients were decannulated from ECMO. Mechanical ventilation was discontinued in 75% ECMO and 16% MVA patients. Twenty-five percent of patients in the ECMO arm expired, 21% while on ECMO, compared with 74% in the MVA cohort. Mortality was significantly lower across all age and BMI groups in the ECMO arm. Sixty-eight percent ECMO and 26% MVA patients were discharged from the hospital. Fewer ECMO patients required long-term rehabilitation. Major complications such as septic shock, ventilator associated pneumonia, inotropic requirements, acute liver and kidney injuries are less frequent among ECMO patients. CONCLUSIONS: ECMO-eligible patients with severe COVID-19 respiratory failure demonstrate a 3-fold improvement in survival with ECMO. They are also in a better physical state at discharge and have lower overall complication rates. As such, strong consideration should be given for ECMO when mechanical ventilatory support alone becomes insufficient in treating COVID-19 respiratory failure.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Propensity Score , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Patient Discharge/trends , Respiratory Insufficiency/epidemiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Rate/trends , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
20.
Anaesthesist ; 70(7): 573-581, 2021 07.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453676

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In a pandemic situation the overall mortality rate is of considerable interest; however, these data must always be seen in relation to the given healthcare system and the availability of local level of care. A recently published German data evaluation of more than 10,000 COVID-19 patients treated in 920 hospitals showed a high mortality rate of 22% in hospitalized patients and of more than 50% in patients requiring invasive ventilation. Because of the high infection rates in Bavaria, a large number of COVID-19 patients with considerable severity of disease were treated at the intensive care units of the LMU hospital. The LMU hospital is a university hospital and a specialized referral center for the treatment of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). OBJECTIVE: Data of LMU intensive care unit (ICU) patients were systematically evaluated and compared with the recently published German data. METHODS: Data of all COVID-19 patients with invasive and noninvasive ventilation and with completed admission at the ICU of the LMU hospital until 31 July 2020 were collected. Data were processed using descriptive statistics. RESULTS: In total 70 critically ill patients were included in the data evaluation. The median SAPS II on admission to the ICU was 62 points. The median age was 66 years and 81% of the patients were male. More than 90% were diagnosed with ARDS and received invasive ventilation. Treatment with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) was necessary in 10% of the patients. The median duration of ventilation was 16 days, whereby 34.3% of patients required a tracheostomy. Of the patients 27.1% were transferred to the LMU hospital from external hospitals with reference to our ARDS/ECMO program. Patients from external hospitals had ARDS of higher severity than the total study population. In total, nine different substances were used for virus-specific treatment of COVID-19. The most frequently used substances were hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin. Immunomodulatory treatment, such as Cytosorb® (18.6%) and methylprednisolone (25.7%) were also frequently used. The overall in-hospital mortality rate of ICU patients requiring ventilation was 28.6%. The mortality rates of patients from external hospitals, patients with renal replacement therapy and patients with ECMO therapy were 47.4%, 56.7% and 85.7%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The mortality rate in the ventilated COVID-19 intensive care patients was considerably different from the general rate in Germany. The data showed that treatment in an ARDS referral center could result in a lower mortality rate. Low-dose administration of steroids may be another factor to improve patient outcome in a preselected patient population. In the authors' opinion, critically ill COVID-19 patients should be treated in an ARDS center provided that sufficient resources are available.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Critical Illness/therapy , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Female , Germany , Hospital Mortality , Hospitals, University , Humans , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Transfer , Renal Replacement Therapy/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Treatment Outcome
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