Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 186
Filter
1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(30): e26798, 2021 Jul 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2191047

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Patients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19) may develop acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). There have been few reports of postpartum woman with ARDS secondary to COVID-19 who required respiratory support using veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). We present the case of a 31-year-old woman who was admitted to hospital at 35 weeks gestation with ARDS secondary to COVID-19 and required ECMO during the postpartum period. PATIENT CONCERNS: The patient had obvious dyspnea, accompanied by chills and fever. Her dyspnea worsened and her arterial oxygen saturation decreased rapidly. DIAGNOSIS: ARDS secondary to COVID-19. INTERVENTIONS: Emergency bedside cesarean section. Medications included immunotherapy (thymosin α 1), antivirals (lopinavir/ritonavir and ribavirin), antibiotics (imipenem-cilastatin sodium and vancomycin), and methylprednisolone. Ventilatory support was provided using invasive mechanical ventilation. This was replaced by venous-venous ECMO 5 days postpartum. ECMO management focused on blood volume control, coagulation function adjustment, and airway management. OUTCOMES: The patient was successfully weaned for ECMO and the ventilator and made a good recovery. CONCLUSION: Special care, including blood volume control, coagulation function adjustment, and airway management, should be provided to postpartum patients with ARDS secondary to COVID-19 who require ECMO support.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Postpartum Period , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Adult , COVID-19/therapy , Cesarean Section , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/therapy
2.
J Heart Lung Transplant ; 41(11): 1547-1555, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2178981

ABSTRACT

The number of lung transplant procedures performed internationally is increasing but the donor organ pool is insufficient to meet demand and waiting list mortality is unacceptably high. As survival rates for patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome managed on extracorporeal life support (ECLS) have steadily improved, a potential role for ECLS to support critically ill patients awaiting a donor organ match has emerged. We explore the rapidly evolving landscape of ECLS as a bridge to lung transplantation with review of the patient selection criteria, predictors of survival, modes of pre and peri-transplant support, and the importance of a holistic multidisciplinary approach to care. Finally, we consider innovations that are envisaged to increase the accessibility, safety, and effectiveness of ECLS delivery for future lung transplant candidates.


Subject(s)
Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Lung Transplantation , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Humans , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Retrospective Studies , Waiting Lists
3.
Curr Opin Crit Care ; 28(6): 674-680, 2022 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2152246

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic changed the way we had to approach hospital- and intensive care unit (ICU)-related resource management, especially for demanding techniques required for advanced support, including extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). RECENT FINDINGS: Availability of ICU beds and ECMO machines widely varies around the world. In critical conditions, such a global pandemic, the establishment of contingency capacity tiers might help in defining to which conditions and subjects ECMO can be offered. A frequent reassessment of the resource saturation, possibly integrated within a regional healthcare coordination system, may be of help to triage the patients who most likely will benefit from advanced techniques, especially when capacities are limited. SUMMARY: Indications to ECMO during the pandemic should be fluid and may be adjusted over time. Candidacy of patients should follow the same prepandemic rules, taking into account the acute disease, the burden of any eventual comorbidity and the chances of a good quality of life after recovery; but the current capacity of healthcare system should also be considered, and frequently reassessed, possibly within a wide hub-and-spoke healthcare system. VIDEO ABSTRACT: http://links.lww.com/COCC/A43.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Humans , COVID-19/therapy , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Triage , SARS-CoV-2 , Patient Selection , Quality of Life
4.
Artif Organs ; 46(11): 2135-2146, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2136650

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Training is an essential aspect of providing high-quality treatment and ensuring patient safety in any medical practice. Because extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a complicated operation with various elements, variables, and irregular situations, doctors must be experienced and knowledgeable about all conventional protocols and emergency procedures. The conventional simulation approach has a number of limitations. The approach is intrinsically costly since it relies on disposable medical equipment (i.e., oxygenators, heat exchangers, and pumps) that must be replaced regularly due to the damage caused by the liquid used to simulate blood. The oxygenator, which oxygenates the blood through a tailored membrane in ECMO, acts as a replacement for the patient's natural lung. For the context of simulation-based training (SBT) oxygenators are often expensive and cannot be recycled owing to contamination issues. METHODS: Consequently, it is advised that the training process include a simulated version of oxygenators to optimize reusability and decrease training expenses. Toward this goal, this article demonstrates a mock oxygenator for ECMO SBT, designed to precisely replicate the real machine structure and operation. RESULTS: The initial model was reproduced using 3D modeling and printing. Additionally, the mock oxygenator could mimic frequent events such as pump noise and clotting. Furthermore, the oxygenator is integrated with the modular ECMO simulator using cloud-based communication technology that goes in hand with the internet of things technology to provide remote control via an instructor tablet application. CONCLUSIONS: The final 3D modeled oxygenator body was tested and integrated with the other simulation modules at Hamad Medical Corporation with several participants to evaluate the effectiveness of the training session.


Subject(s)
Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Simulation Training , Humans , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Oxygenators , Lung , Computer Simulation , Oxygenators, Membrane
5.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 20236, 2022 Nov 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2133578

ABSTRACT

Severe COVID-19 infection results in significant immune dysregulation resulting from excessive recruitment and activation of neutrophils. The aim of this study was to confirm feasibility, initial safety and detect signal of efficacy of a non-propriety device delivered using an intermittent extra-corporeal system (LMOD) allowing leucocytes modulation in the setting of Severe COVID-19 infection. Twelve patients were recruited. Inclusion criteria were > 18 years age, confirmed COVID-19, acute respiratory distress syndrome requiring mechanical support and hypotension requiring vasopressor support. Primary end point was vasopressor requirements (expressed as epinephrine dose equivalents) and principle secondary endpoints related to safety, ability to deliver the therapy and markers of inflammation assessed over five days after treatment initiation. LMOD treatment appeared safe, defined by hemodynamic stability and no evidence of white cell number depletion from blood. We demonstrated a significant decrease in vasopressor doses (-37%, p = 0.02) in patients receiving LMOD therapy (despite these patients having to tolerate an additional extracorporeal intermittent therapy). Vasopressor requirements unchanged/increasing in control group (+ 10%, p = 0.48). Although much about the use of this therapy in the setting of severe COVID-19 infection remains to be defined (e.g. optimal dose and duration), this preliminary study supports the further evaluation of this novel extracorporeal approach.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Humans , Critical Illness , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , COVID-19/drug therapy , Immunomodulation , Vasoconstrictor Agents/therapeutic use
6.
J Invasive Cardiol ; 34(11): E825, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2093175

ABSTRACT

Left ventricular (LV) unloading has been associated with improved survival in patients treated with venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. This case describes a patient with a COVID-19 infection who subsequently developed non-ischemic cardiomyopathy with an LV ejection fraction of 10% to 15% (baseline echocardiography). He did poorly in the outpatient setting and was admitted to an outside hospital with heart failure symptoms and was subsequently transferred to our hospital for escalation of care and consideration of advanced heart failure therapies. This clinical image and related video series help to visually demonstrate the effect of LV unloading in a 30-year-old male with a history of COVID-19 myocarditis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Heart Failure , Heart-Assist Devices , Male , Humans , Adult , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Heart Ventricles , Ventricular Function, Left , Shock, Cardiogenic/therapy
7.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 17423, 2022 Oct 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2077097

ABSTRACT

Acute brain injuries such as intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and ischemic stroke have been reported in critically ill COVID-19 patients as well as in patients treated with veno-venous (VV)-ECMO independently of their COVID-19 status. The purpose of this study was to compare critically ill COVID-19 patients with and without VV-ECMO treatment with regard to acute neurological symptoms, pathological neuroimaging findings (PNIF) and long-term deficits. The single center study was conducted in critically ill COVID-19 patients between February 1, 2020 and June 30, 2021. Demographic, clinical and laboratory parameters were extracted from the hospital's databases. Retrospective imaging modalities included head computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Follow-up MRI and neurological examinations were performed on survivors > 6 months after the primary occurrence. Of the 440 patients, 67 patients received VV-ECMO treatment (15%). Sixty-four patients (24 with VV-ECMO) developed acute neurological symptoms (pathological levels of arousal/brain stem function/motor responses) during their ICU stay and underwent neuroimaging with brain CT as the primary modality. Critically ill COVID-19 patients who received VV-ECMO treatment had a significantly lower survival during their hospital stay compared to those without (p < 0.001). Among patients treated with VV-ECMO, 10% showed acute PNIF in one of the imaging modalities during their ICU stay (vs. 4% of patients in the overall COVID-19 ICU cohort). Furthermore, 9% showed primary or secondary ICH of any severity (vs. 3% overall), 6% exhibited severe ICH (vs. 1% overall) and 1.5% were found to have non-hemorrhagic cerebral infarctions (vs. < 1% overall). There was a weak, positive correlation between patients treated with VV-ECMO and the development of acute neurological symptoms. However, the association between the VV-ECMO treatment and acute PNIF was negligible. Two survivors (one with VV-ECMO-treatment/one without) showed innumerable microhemorrhages, predominantly involving the juxtacortical white matter. None of the survivors exhibited diffuse leukoencephalopathy. Every seventh COVID-19 patient developed acute neurological symptoms during their ICU stay, but only every twenty-fifth patient had PNIF which were mostly ICH. VV-ECMO was found to be a weak risk factor for neurological complications (resulting in a higher imaging rate), but not for PNIF. Although logistically complex, repeated neuroimaging should, thus, be considered in all critically ill COVID-19 patients since ICH may have an impact on the treatment decisions and outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Humans , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Critical Illness/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Prevalence , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/therapy , Neuroimaging , Cerebral Hemorrhage/diagnostic imaging , Cerebral Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Cerebral Hemorrhage/etiology
8.
J Cardiothorac Surg ; 17(1): 263, 2022 Oct 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2064825

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Crescent cannula adhesion in the setting of COVID-19 respiratory failure requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support is a novel complication. The objective of this case presentation is to highlight this rare complication and to explore potential predisposing factors and our management strategies. CASE PRESENTATION: We present the case of a 25 y.o. patient with COVID-19 respiratory failure requiring ECMO support for 16-days in which a 32 Fr crescent cannula became adherent to the SVC and proximal jugular vein. Attempts to remove the cannula at the bedside failed due to immobility of the cannula. Ultrasound of the right neck was unremarkable, so he was taken to the hybrid OR where both TEE and fluoroscopy were unrevealing. An upper sternotomy was performed, and the superior vena cava and proximal jugular vein were dissected revealing a 2 cm segment of the distal SVC and proximal jugular vein that was densely sclerosed and adherent to the cannula. The vessel was opened across the adherent area at the level of the innominate vein and the cannula was then able to be withdrawn. The patient suffered no ill effects and had an unremarkable recovery to discharge. CONCLUSIONS: To date, there have been no reports of crescent cannula adhesion related complications. In patients with COVID-19 respiratory failure requiring ECMO, clinicians should be aware of widespread hypercoagulability and the potential of unprovoked, localized venous sclerosis and cannula adhesion. We report our technique of decannulation in the setting of cannula adhesion and hope that presentation will shed further light on this complication allowing clinicians to optimize patient care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Respiratory Insufficiency , COVID-19/therapy , Cannula , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Humans , Male , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Vena Cava, Superior
9.
Can J Anaesth ; 69(10): 1300-1304, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2048601

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Freon™ is a halogenated hydrocarbon often used as a refrigerant. When inhaled recreationally, it has the desired effects of euphoria and intoxication. Toxic effects include cardiovascular and neurologic insults such as arrhythmias and seizures, and less well-described toxicities include airway and lung injury. The treatment in general is primarily supportive. CLINICAL FEATURES: We present the case of a 42-yr-old previously healthy male who developed acute bronchiolitis and pneumonitis following inhalation of Freon leading to severe respiratory failure. He was supported by veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and managed with high-dose corticosteroids. CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this is the first case report of an inhaled Freon exposure resulting in acute lung injury refractory to conventional therapy that was salvaged by vv-ECMO as a bridge towards a full recovery.


RéSUMé: CONTEXTE: Le Fréon™ est un hydrocarbure halogéné souvent utilisé comme réfrigérant. Lorsqu'il est inhalé à des fins récréatives, il a les effets souhaités d'euphorie et d'intoxication. Les effets toxiques comprennent les lésions cardiovasculaires et neurologiques telles que les arythmies et les convulsions, et les toxicités moins bien décrites comprennent les lésions des voies aériennes et des poumons. En général, le traitement est principalement un traitement de soutien. CARACTéRISTIQUES CLINIQUES: Nous présentons le cas d'un homme de 42 ans auparavant en bonne santé qui a développé une bronchiolite et une pneumonite aiguës après inhalation de Fréon, entraînant une insuffisance respiratoire sévère. Il a été supplémenté par oxygénation par membrane extracorporelle veino-veineuse et pris en charge avec des corticostéroïdes à forte dose. CONCLUSION: À notre connaissance, il s'agit de la première présentation de cas d'exposition au Fréon inhalé entraînant une lésion pulmonaire aiguë réfractaire au traitement conventionnel et pour laquelle un sauvetage par ECMO-VV a favorisé un rétablissement complet.


Subject(s)
Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Respiratory Insufficiency , Chlorofluorocarbons , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Humans , Male , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy
10.
Pediatr Crit Care Med ; 23(4): 268-276, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2042669

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Children receiving prolonged extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support may benefit from tracheostomy during ECMO by facilitating rehabilitation; however, the procedure carries risks, especially hemorrhagic complications. Knowledge of tracheostomy practices and outcomes of ECMO-supported children who undergo tracheostomy on ECMO may inform decision-making. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: ECMO centers contributing to the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization registry. PATIENTS: Children from birth to 18 years who received ECMO support for greater than or equal to 7 days for respiratory failure from January 1, 2015, to December 31, 2019. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Three thousand six hundred eighty-five children received at least 7 days of ECMO support for respiratory failure. The median duration of ECMO support was 13.0 days (interquartile range [IQR], 9.3-19.9 d), and inhospital mortality was 38.7% (1,426/3,685). A tracheostomy was placed during ECMO support in 94/3,685 (2.6%). Of those who received a tracheostomy on ECMO, the procedure was performed at a median 13.2 days (IQR, 6.3-25.9 d) after initiation of ECMO. Surgical site bleeding was documented in 26% of children who received a tracheostomy (12% after tracheostomy placement). Among children who received a tracheostomy, the median duration of ECMO support was 24.2 days (IQR, 13.0-58.7 d); inhospital mortality was 30/94 (32%). Those that received a tracheostomy before 14 days on ECMO were older (median age, 15.8 yr [IQR, 4.7-15.5] vs 11.7 yr [IQR, 11.5-17.3 yr]; p =0.002) and more likely to have been supported on venovenous-ECMO (84% vs 52%; p = 0.001). Twenty-two percent (11/50) of those who received a tracheostomy before 14 days died in the hospital, compared with 19/44 (43%) of those who received a tracheostomy at 14 days or later (p = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Tracheostomies during ECMO were uncommon in children. One in four patients who received a tracheostomy on ECMO had surgical site bleeding. Children who had tracheostomies placed after 14 days were younger and had worse outcomes, potentially representing tracheostomy as a "secondary" strategy for prolonged ECMO support.


Subject(s)
Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Respiratory Insufficiency , Adolescent , Child , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Hemorrhage/etiology , Humans , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , Tracheostomy/adverse effects , Tracheostomy/methods
11.
Int J Artif Organs ; 45(12): 1006-1012, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2020840

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The ProtekDuo with oxygenator mimics veno-venous (V-V) extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in veno-pulmonary (V-P) configuration. We have recently developed a new configuration by utilizing a 25 Fr multistage femoral venous drainage cannula and by returning oxygenated blood through both lumina of the double lumen ProtekDuo cannula (V-VP configuration), thereby creating partial right ventricular bypass and oxygenated blood flow of up to seven LPM. We investigated our experience with V-P and V-VP ECMO in patients suffering from COVID-19 acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). METHODS: Single center, retrospective observational study. RESULTS: Of nine patients, one was initiated on V-A, two on V-P, and six on V-V ECMO. All patients were reconfigured to V-P and five patients in addition had V-VP ECMO configuration. All patients had at least one and up to three circuit exchanges. Patients were on ECMO support between 20 and 122 (55 ± 29) days, were in ICU between 46 and 161 (78 ± 40) days with a total hospital length of stay between 35 and 171 (82 ± 42) days. Six of nine (67%) patients could successfully be weaned off ECMO, survived, and were discharged. CONCLUSION: The ProtekDuo cannula in V-P configuration provides ECMO blood flow while reducing RV flow, wall-stress and dilatation, as well as oxygen consumption. The V-VP configuration is useful to provide high blood flows of up to seven LPM of oxygenated blood, and partial RV support without over-circulating the pulmonary vascular bed. Our results show that V-P and V-VP ECMO configurations are feasible, have good outcome and are without complications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Humans , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , COVID-19/therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Cannula , Catheterization
12.
Artif Organs ; 46(11): 2257-2265, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1992726

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has shown variable results in COVID-19 pneumonia however, some evidence supports benefit. Here we compare our institution's ECMO outcomes across multiple waves of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: All patients who received ECMO for COVID-19 between March 1, 2020, and March 1, 2021, were reviewed. Patients received venovenous (VV) or right ventricular assist device (RVAD/ECMO) ECMO. Early (March 1-July 6, 2020, Era 1) and late (July 7, 2020-March 1, 2021, Era 2) pandemic RVAD/ECMO patients were compared. RESULTS: Fifty-four patients received ECMO of which 16 (29.6%) patients received VV ECMO and 38 (70.4%) RVAD/ECMO. Median age was 53.0 years, body mass index 36.1 kg/m2 , 41.2% female, and 49% Caucasian. The most common pre-cannulation treatments included steroids (79.6%) and convalescent plasma (70.4%). Median time from admission to cannulation was 7.0 days. Median support time was 30.5 days (VV ECMO 35.0 days, RVAD/ECMO 26.0 days). In- hospital mortality was 42.6% (39.5% RVAD/ECMO, 50.0% VV ECMO). Significant morbidities included infection (80.8%), bleeding events (74.5%), and renal replacement therapy (30.8%). Cumulative mortality 120-days post-cannulation was 45.7% (VV ECMO 60.8%, RVAD/ECMO 40.0%). RVAD/ECMO Era 1 demonstrated a significantly lower cumulative mortality (16.2%) compared to Era 2 (60.4%). Competing risk analysis found age (HR 0.95, [95% CI 0.92, 0.98] p = 0.005) to be a protective factor for survival. CONCLUSION: ECMO support for COVID-19 is beneficial but carries significant morbidity. RVAD/ECMO support demonstrated consistent advantages in survival to VV-ECMO, but with declining efficacy across time during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Male , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , COVID-19/therapy , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies
13.
Intensive Care Med ; 48(10): 1326-1337, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1982111

ABSTRACT

Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is increasingly being used for patients with severe respiratory failure and has received particular attention during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Evidence from two key randomized controlled trials, a subsequent post hoc Bayesian analysis, and meta-analyses support the interpretation of a benefit of ECMO in combination with ultra-lung-protective ventilation for select patients with very severe forms of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). During the pandemic, new evidence has emerged helping to better define the role of ECMO for patients with COVID-19. Results from large cohorts suggest outcomes during the first wave of the pandemic were similar to those in non-COVID-19 cohorts. As the pandemic continued, mortality of patients supported with ECMO has increased. However, the precise reasons for this observation are unclear. Known risk factors for mortality in COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 patients are higher patient age, concomitant extra-pulmonary organ failures or malignancies, prolonged mechanical ventilation before ECMO, less experienced treatment teams and lower ECMO caseloads in the treating center. ECMO is a high resource-dependent support option; therefore, it should be used judiciously, and its availability may need to be constrained when resources are scarce. More evidence from high-quality research is required to better define the role and limitations of ECMO in patients with severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Respiratory Insufficiency , Bayes Theorem , COVID-19/therapy , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Humans , Pandemics , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy
14.
Anaesthesia ; 77(10): 1137-1151, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1978415

ABSTRACT

Veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation is indicated in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome and severely impaired gas exchange despite evidence-based lung protective ventilation, prone positioning and other parts of the standard algorithm for treating such patients. Extracorporeal support can facilitate ultra-lung-protective ventilation, meaning even lower volumes and pressures than standard lung-protective ventilation, by directly removing carbon dioxide in patients needing injurious ventilator settings to maintain sufficient gas exchange. Injurious ventilation results in ventilator-induced lung injury, which is one of the main determinants of mortality in acute respiratory distress syndrome. Marked reductions in the intensity of ventilation to the lowest tolerable levels under extracorporeal support may be achieved and could thereby potentially mitigate ventilator-induced lung injury and theoretically patient self-inflicted lung injury in spontaneously breathing patients with high respiratory drive. However, the benefits of this strategy may be counterbalanced by the use of continuous deep sedation and even neuromuscular blocking drugs, which may impair physical rehabilitation and impact long-term outcomes. There are currently a lack of large-scale prospective data to inform optimal invasive ventilation practices and how to best apply a holistic approach to patients receiving veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, while minimising ventilator-induced and patient self-inflicted lung injury. We aimed to review the literature relating to invasive ventilation strategies in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome receiving extracorporeal support and discuss personalised ventilation approaches and the potential role of adjunctive therapies in facilitating lung protection.


Subject(s)
Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Humans , Prospective Studies , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury/prevention & control
15.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 760, 2021 Nov 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1923523

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Infection with SARS-CoV-2 during pregnancy can lead to a severe condition in the patient, which is challenging for obstetricians and anaesthesiologists. Upon severe COVID-19 and a lack of improvement after multidrug therapy and mechanical ventilation, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is introduced as the last option. Such treatment is critical in women with very preterm pregnancy when each additional day of the intrauterine stay is vital for the survival of the newborn. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of a 38-year-old woman at 27 weeks of gestation treated with multidrug therapy and ECMO. The woman was admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) with increasing fever, cough and dyspnoea. The course of the pregnancy was uncomplicated. She was otherwise healthy. At admission, she presented with severe dyspnoea, with oxygen saturation (SpO2) of 95% on passive oxygenation, heart rate of 145/min, and blood pressure of 145/90. After confirmation of SARS-CoV-2 infection, she received steroids, remdesivir and convalescent plasma therapy. The foetus was in good condition. No signs of an intrauterine infection were visible. Due to tachypnea of 40/min and SpO2 of 90%, the woman was intubated and mechanically ventilated. Due to circulatory failure, the prothrombotic activity of the coagulation system, further saturation worsening, and poor control of sedation, she was qualified for veno-venous ECMO. An elective caesarean section was performed at 29 weeks on ECMO treatment in the ICU. A preterm female newborn was delivered with an Apgar score of 7 and a birth weight of 1440 g. The newborn had no laboratory or clinical evidence of COVID-19. The placenta showed the following pathological changes: large subchorionic haematoma, maternal vascular malperfusion, marginal cord insertion, and chorangioma. CONCLUSIONS: This case presents the successful use of ECMO in a pregnant woman with acute respiratory distress syndrome in the course of severe COVID-19. Further research is required to explain the aetiology of placental disorders (e.g., maternal vascular malperfusion lesions or thrombotic influence of COVID-19). ECMO treatment in pregnant women remains challenging; thus, it should be used with caution. Long-term assessment may help to evaluate the safety of the ECMO procedure in pregnant women.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Placenta/pathology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/therapy , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cesarean Section , Female , Humans , Placenta/virology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Trimester, Second , Treatment Outcome
16.
J Pain Symptom Manage ; 64(4): e181-e187, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1907349

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: Patients with severe respiratory failure from COVID-19 refractory to conventional therapies may be treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). ECMO requirement is associated with high mortality and prolonged hospital course. ECMO is a high-resource intervention with significant burdens placed on caregivers and families with limited data on the integration of palliative care consultation (PCC). OBJECTIVES: To explore the role of standard vs. automatic PCC in the management of COVID patients on ECMO. METHODS: Retrospective chart review of all COVID patients on ECMO admitted from March 2020 to May 2021 at a large volume academic medical center with subsequent analysis. RESULTS: Forty-eight patients were included in the analysis. Twenty-six (54.2%) received PCC of which 42% of consults were automatically initiated. PCC at any point in admission was associated with longer duration on ECMO (24.5 vs. 37 days; P < 0.05). Automatic PCC resulted in more family meetings than standard PCC (0 vs. 3; P < 0.05) and appears to trend with reduced time on ECMO, shorter length of stay, and higher DNAR rates at death, though results were not significant. Decedents not receiving PCC had higher rates of no de-escalation of interventions at time of death (31% vs. 11%), indicating full intensive care measures continued through death. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with COVID-19 receiving ECMO, PCC may be associated with a shift to DNAR status particularly with automatic PCC. There may be a further impact on length of stay, duration of time on ECMO and care plan at end of life.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Respiratory Insufficiency , COVID-19/therapy , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Humans , Palliative Care , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Retrospective Studies
17.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 114(1): 70-75, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1906777

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can cause acute respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation. Venovenous (VV) extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has been used in patients in whom conventional mechanical ventilatory support has failed. To date, published data have focused on survival from ECMO and survival to discharge. In addition to survival to discharge, this study reports 1-year follow-up data for patients who were successfully discharged from the hospital. METHODS: A single-institution, retrospective review of all patients with severe COVID-19 who were cannulated for VV-ECMO between March 10, 2020 and May 1, 2020 was performed. A multidisciplinary ECMO team evaluated, selected, and managed patients with ECMO support. The primary outcome of this study was survival to discharge. Available 1-year follow-up data are also reported. RESULTS: A total of 30 patients were supported with VV-ECMO, and 27 patients (90%) survived to discharge. All patients were discharged home or to acute rehabilitation on room air, except for 1 patient (3.7%), who required supplemental oxygen therapy. At a median follow-up of 10.8 months (interquartile range [IQR], 8.9-14.4 months) since ECMO cannulation, survival was 86.7%, including 1 patient who underwent lung transplantation. Of the patients discharged from the hospital, 44.4% (12/27) had pulmonary function testing, with a median percent predicted forced expiratory volume of 100% (IQR, 91%-110%). For survivors, a 6-minute walk test was performed in 59.3% (16/27), with a median value of 350 m (IQR, 286-379 m). CONCLUSIONS: A well-defined patient selection and management strategy of VV-ECMO support in patients with severe COVID-19 resulted in exceptional survival to discharge that was sustained at 1-year after ECMO cannulation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , COVID-19/therapy , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Humans , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies
18.
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue ; 34(5): 509-513, 2022 May.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1903523

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To explore the diagnosis process and treatment experience of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with heparin resistance (HR). METHODS: The medical team of the First People's Hospital of Lianyungang admitted 2 severe COVID-19 patients with HR in intensive care unit (ICU) during their support to the designated hospital for the treatment of COVID-19 patients in Lianyungang City in November 2021. The clinical features, laboratory examinations, imaging features, treatment and prognosis of the two patients were analyzed. RESULTS: Both severe COVID-19 patients received mechanical ventilation, 1 patient was treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support. Both patients were complicated with lower extremity deep venous thrombosis and HR phenomenon under routine dose anticoagulant therapy. The maximum daily dose of unfractionated heparin exceeded 35 000 U (up to 43 200 U), the 2 patients failed to meet the standard of anticoagulation treatment, and the course of disease was prolonged. After that, argatroban was given 0.4 µg×kg-1×min-1 combined with anticoagulant therapy, the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) of patients undergoing ECMO could be maintained at 55-60 seconds and the activated coagulation time (ACT) of them could be maintained at 180-200 seconds. After ECMO support or later sequential mechanical ventilation, both patients recovered and were discharged, and deep venous thrombosis was also effectively controlled. CONCLUSIONS: HR phenomenon often occurs during the treatment of severe COVID-19 patients, the anticoagulation regimen should be adjusted in time, and the anticoagulation effect combined with argatroban is clear.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Heparin/therapeutic use , Humans , Partial Thromboplastin Time
19.
BMJ Case Rep ; 15(6)2022 Jun 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1891767

ABSTRACT

A woman in her 50s who had been diagnosed with COVID-19 developed deep vein thrombosis in the left femoral vein extending into inferior vena cava (IVC). An IVC filter was placed to prevent fatal pulmonary embolism. Her respiratory failure subsequently deteriorated despite optimal mechanical ventilation and required venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO) as a rescue therapy. Femoro-jugular VV-ECMO configuration was not suitable due to the IVC filter, hence a single-site venous cannulation using bicaval dual lumen (AvalonElite) cannula was selected. Placement of the Avalon cannula conventionally requires guidance by fluoroscopy or transoesophageal echocardiography, which were not feasible in COVID-19 patients. Hence, transthoracic echocardiography guidance was chosen. Guidewire looping into the right ventricle might lead to cannula malposition and imminent right ventricular rupture, but these could be detected by 'bending' sign. Transthoracic echocardiography could be a feasible guidance method for Avalon cannulation, nonetheless a thorough protocol should be followed to avoid cannula malposition during the procedure.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Cannula , Catheterization/methods , Echocardiography , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Female , Humans
20.
Int J Artif Organs ; 45(7): 615-622, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1886858

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Patients with severe manifestations of COVID-19 might exhibit characteristics of a sepsis-like syndrome that can progress to multiple organ failure and ultimately death. Underlying mechanism have been explored and suggest a profound dysregulation of the immune system associated with hyperinflammation, hemodynamic instability and respiratory failure. Besides standard intensive care treatment, approaches modulating the dysregulated immune response, such as CytoSorb hemoadsorption, have been used. However, data of ECMO-dependent patients in comparison to a control cohort remain scarce. METHODS: Included were 26 critically ill COVID-19 patients requiring high-flow veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (high-flow VV ECMO) therapy due to severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), of whom 16 were additionally treated with an extracorporeal hemoadsorption device, and compared to a control group of 10 patients. Assessed were levels of inflammatory markers, vasopressor requirements, oxygenation parameters, as well as clinically relevant outcome variables. Data were prospectively recorded and retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: Treatment with the applied multimodal therapy approach resulted in a stabilization in hemodynamics, a control of the hyperinflammatory response as evidenced by a significant reduction in inflammatory mediators, as well as a marked improvement in lung function. No device related adverse events were observed while treatment appeared safe and feasible. CONCLUSION: Treatment of a critically ill COVID-19 ARDS patients with combined VV ECMO support and hemoadsorption therapy led to a rapid and sustained hemodynamic stabilization, a control of the uncontrolled inflammatory response and an improvement in oxygenation. Given these signals pointing toward a patient-oriented benefit of extracorporeal hemoadsorption therapy in those patients, future controlled, randomized studies should focus on the investigation of the appropriate timing and dosing of this promising treatment modality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Illness , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Humans , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Retrospective Studies
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL