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1.
J Vasc Surg Venous Lymphat Disord ; 9(3): 605-614.e2, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1510080

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Early reports suggest that patients with novel coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) infection carry a significant risk of altered coagulation with an increased risk for venous thromboembolic events. This report investigates the relationship of significant COVID-19 infection and deep venous thrombosis (DVT) as reflected in the patient clinical and laboratory characteristics. METHODS: We reviewed the demographics, clinical presentation, laboratory and radiologic evaluations, results of venous duplex imaging and mortality of COVID-19-positive patients (18-89 years) admitted to the Indiana University Academic Health Center. Using oxygen saturation, radiologic findings, and need for advanced respiratory therapies, patients were classified into mild, moderate, or severe categories of COVID-19 infection. A descriptive analysis was performed using univariate and bivariate Fisher's exact and Wilcoxon rank-sum tests to examine the distribution of patient characteristics and compare the DVT outcomes. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to estimate the adjusted odds ratio of experiencing DVT and a receiver operating curve analysis to identify the optimal cutoff for d-dimer to predict DVT in this COVID-19 cohort. Time to the diagnosis of DVT from admission was analyzed using log-rank test and Kaplan-Meier plots. RESULTS: Our study included 71 unique COVID-19-positive patients (mean age, 61 years) categorized as having 3% mild, 14% moderate, and 83% severe infection and evaluated with 107 venous duplex studies. DVT was identified in 47.8% of patients (37% of examinations) at an average of 5.9 days after admission. Patients with DVT were predominantly male (67%; P = .032) with proximal venous involvement (29% upper and 39% in the lower extremities with 55% of the latter demonstrating bilateral involvement). Patients with DVT had a significantly higher mean d-dimer of 5447 ± 7032 ng/mL (P = .0101), and alkaline phosphatase of 110 IU/L (P = .0095) than those without DVT. On multivariable analysis, elevated d-dimer (P = .038) and alkaline phosphatase (P = .021) were associated with risk for DVT, whereas age, sex, elevated C-reactive protein, and ferritin levels were not. A receiver operating curve analysis suggests an optimal d-dimer value of 2450 ng/mL cutoff with 70% sensitivity, 59.5% specificity, and 61% positive predictive value, and 68.8% negative predictive value. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that males with severe COVID-19 infection requiring hospitalization are at highest risk for developing DVT. Elevated d-dimers and alkaline phosphatase along with our multivariable model can alert the clinician to the increased risk of DVT requiring early evaluation and aggressive treatment.


Subject(s)
Alkaline Phosphatase/blood , COVID-19 , Extremities , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Risk Assessment/methods , Ultrasonography, Doppler, Duplex , Venous Thrombosis , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Coagulation , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Early Diagnosis , Extremities/blood supply , Extremities/diagnostic imaging , Female , Humans , Indiana/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Time-to-Treatment/statistics & numerical data , Ultrasonography, Doppler, Duplex/methods , Ultrasonography, Doppler, Duplex/statistics & numerical data , Venous Thrombosis/diagnosis , Venous Thrombosis/drug therapy , Venous Thrombosis/etiology , Venous Thrombosis/prevention & control
3.
Ann Vasc Surg ; 74: 264-270, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1379039

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vascular trauma comprises a diagnostic and surgical challenge. Aim of this study was to present the vascular traumas treated in our Tertiary Hospital during the last 5 years. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the surgical records of our vascular department and documented the site and type of vascular injuries of the extremities along with the concurrence of musculoskeletal injuries. The type and outcome of surgical interventions were also recorded. RESULTS: Fifty-eight cases of vascular trauma were recorded (39 in the upper and 19 in the lower extremities). Overall, iatrogenic traumas accounted for 41.3% of cases. The arterial injuries of the upper limb were blunt and penetrating in 27% and 67%, respectively. The most affected artery in the upper limb was the radial artery (37.8%), followed by the ulnar artery (27%) and the brachial artery (24.3%). Orthopedic injuries were recorded in 19% of patients. Management involved simple revascularization, bypass operations, patch arterioplasty and endovascular management in 48.7%, 33.3%, 5.1%, and 5.1%, respectively. The most affected site in the lower extremity was the common femoral artery (36.8%) followed by the popliteal artery (21%). Bone fractures were reported in 5 cases (26.3%). The surgical management involved bypass, simple revascularization, patch arterioplasty in 42.1%, 26.3%, and 21%, respectively. Endovascular management was performed in 10.5%. CONCLUSIONS: A considerable percentage of iatrogenic vascular injuries was recorded, affecting both the upper and lower limbs. Despite the trend toward centralization of vascular services, a basic service of vascular surgery should be available in most sites to ensure that patients with vascular injuries receive fast and appropriate care.


Subject(s)
Extremities/blood supply , Iatrogenic Disease , Vascular Surgical Procedures , Vascular System Injuries/surgery , Wounds, Nonpenetrating/surgery , Wounds, Penetrating/surgery , Adult , Aged , Delivery of Health Care, Integrated , Female , Greece , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Musculoskeletal System/injuries , Retrospective Studies , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Vascular System Injuries/diagnostic imaging , Vascular System Injuries/etiology , Wounds, Nonpenetrating/diagnostic imaging , Wounds, Nonpenetrating/etiology , Wounds, Penetrating/diagnostic imaging , Wounds, Penetrating/etiology
4.
J Vasc Surg ; 75(1): 326-342, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1351776

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has been associated with thrombotic complications such as deep vein thrombosis or stroke. Recently, numerous cases of acute limb ischemia (ALI) have been reported although pooled data are lacking. METHODS: We systematically searched PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and the Cochrane Library for studies published online up to January 2021 that reported cases with SARS-CoV-2 infection and ALI. Eligible studies should have reported early outcomes including mortality. Primary endpoints included also pooled amputation, clinical improvement, and reoperation rates. RESULTS: In total, 34 studies (19 case reports and 15 case series/cohort studies) including a total of 540 patients (199 patients were eligible for analysis) were evaluated. All studies were published in 2020. Mean age of patients was 61.6 years (range, 39-84 years; data from 32 studies) and 78.4% of patients were of male gender (data from 32 studies). There was a low incidence of comorbidities: arterial hypertension, 49% (29 studies); diabetes mellitus, 29.6% (29 studies); dyslipidemia, 20.5% (27 studies); chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 8.5% (26 studies); coronary disease, 8.3% (26 studies); and chronic renal disease, 7.6% (28 studies). Medical treatment was selected as first-line treatment for 41.8% of cases. Pooled mortality rate among 34 studies reached 31.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 25.4%%-37.7%). Pooled amputation rate among 34 studies reached 23.2% (95% CI, 17.3%-29.7%). Pooled clinical improvement rate among 28 studies reached 66.6% (95% CI, 55.4%%-76.9%). Pooled reoperation rate among 29 studies reached 10.5% (95% CI, 5.7%%-16.7%). Medical treatment was associated with a higher death risk compared with any intervention (odds ratio, 4.04; 95% CI, 1.075-15.197; P = .045) although amputation risk was not different between the two strategies (odds ratio, 0.977; 95% CI, 0.070-13.600; P = .986) (data from 31 studies). CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with a high risk for thrombotic complications, including ALI. COVID-associated ALI presents in patients with a low incidence of comorbidities, and it is associated with a high mortality and amputation risk. Conservative treatment seems to have a higher mortality risk compared with any intervention, although amputation risk is similar.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Extremities/blood supply , Ischemia/etiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Acute Disease , COVID-19/epidemiology , Global Health , Humans , Incidence , Ischemia/epidemiology
5.
Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg ; 62(1): 119-125, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1171631

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: A previous study revealed a preliminary trend towards higher in hospital mortality in patients admitted as an emergency with acute stroke during the COVID-19 pandemic in Germany. The current study aimed to further examine the possible impact of a confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection on in hospital mortality. METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of health insurance claims data from the second largest insurance fund in Germany, BARMER. Patients hospitalised for ST elevation (STEMI) and non-ST elevation (NSTEMI) myocardial infarction, acute limb ischaemia (ALI), aortic rupture, acute stroke, or transient ischaemic attack (TIA) between 1 January 2017, and 31 October 2020, were included. Admission rates per 10 000 insured and mortality were compared between March - June 2017 - 2019 (pre-COVID) and March - June 2020 (COVID). Mortality rates were determined by the occurrence of a confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. RESULTS: A total of 316 718 hospitalisations were included (48.7% female, mean 72.5 years), and 21 191 (6.7%, 95% CI 6.6% - 6.8%) deaths occurred. In hospital mortality increased during the COVID-19 pandemic when compared with the three previous years for patients with acute stroke from 8.3% (95% CI 8.0 - 8.5) to 9.6% (95% CI 9.1 - 10.2), while no statistically significant changes were observed for STEMI, NSTEMI, ALI, aortic rupture, and TIA. When comparing patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection (2.4%, 95% CI 2.3 - 2.5) vs. non-infected patients, a higher in hospital mortality was observed for acute stroke (12.4% vs. 9.0%), ALI (14.3% vs. 5.0%), and TIA (2.7% vs. 0.3%), while no statistically significant differences were observed for STEMI, NSTEMI, and aortic rupture. CONCLUSION: This retrospective analysis of claims data has provided hints of an association between the COVID-19 pandemic and increased in hospital mortality in patients with acute stroke. Furthermore, confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection was associated with increased mortality in patients with stroke, TIA, and ALI. Future studies are urgently needed to better understand the underlying mechanism and relationship between the new coronavirus and acute stroke.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Ischemic Attack, Transient/mortality , Peripheral Arterial Disease/mortality , Stroke/mortality , Administrative Claims, Healthcare/statistics & numerical data , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Emergencies/epidemiology , Extremities/blood supply , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality/trends , Humans , Insurance, Health/statistics & numerical data , Ischemic Attack, Transient/complications , Ischemic Attack, Transient/therapy , Male , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Peripheral Arterial Disease/complications , Peripheral Arterial Disease/therapy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Stroke/complications , Stroke/therapy
7.
Am Heart J ; 235: 12-23, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1070993

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is associated with both venous and arterial thrombotic complications. While prophylactic anticoagulation is now widely recommended for hospitalized patients with COVID-19, the effectiveness and safety of thromboprophylaxis in outpatients with COVID-19 has not been established. STUDY DESIGN: PREVENT-HD is a double-blind, placebo-controlled, pragmatic, event-driven phase 3 trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban in symptomatic outpatients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 at risk for thrombotic events, hospitalization, and death. Several challenges posed by the pandemic have necessitated innovative approaches to clinical trial design, start-up, and conduct. Participants are randomized in a 1:1 ratio, stratified by time from COVID-19 confirmation, to either rivaroxaban 10 mg once daily or placebo for 35 days. The primary efficacy end point is a composite of symptomatic venous thromboembolism, myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, acute limb ischemia, non-central nervous system systemic embolization, all-cause hospitalization, and all-cause mortality. The primary safety end point is fatal and critical site bleeding according to the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis definition. Enrollment began in August 2020 and is expected to enroll approximately 4,000 participants to yield the required number of end point events. CONCLUSIONS: PREVENT-HD is a pragmatic trial evaluating the efficacy and safety of the direct oral anticoagulant rivaroxaban in the outpatient setting to reduce major venous and arterial thrombotic events, hospitalization, and mortality associated with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Factor Xa Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Hospitalization , Outpatients , Rivaroxaban/therapeutic use , Thrombosis/prevention & control , Adult , COVID-19/mortality , Cause of Death , Double-Blind Method , Extremities/blood supply , Factor Xa Inhibitors/adverse effects , Female , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Hemorrhage/mortality , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Ischemia/etiology , Ischemic Stroke/etiology , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardial Infarction/etiology , Placebos/therapeutic use , Rivaroxaban/adverse effects , Thrombosis/mortality , Venous Thromboembolism/mortality , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control
8.
Int J Cardiol ; 323: 281-284, 2021 01 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-753509

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 infection is commonly complicated with pro-thrombotic state and endothelial dysfunction. While several studies reported a high incidence of venous thromboembolic events. The occurrence of arterial thromboses are yet rarely described and could be underestimated. OBJECTIVES: To describe the clinical and biological characteristics of COVID-19 patients presenting with an associated arterial thromboembolic event. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective multicentric study in 3 centers between France and Italy. All patients with a confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and arterial thromboembolic events were included in the analysis. RESULTS: From March 8th to April 25th 2020, we identified 20 patients (24 events) with arterial thromboembolic events over 209 admitted patients (9.6%) with severe COVID-19 infection. Arterial thrombotic events included acute coronary occlusions (n = 9), stroke (n = 6), limb ischemia (n = 3), splenic infarcts (n = 3), aortic thrombosis (n = 2) and occlusive mesenteric ischemia (n = 1). At the time of the event, 10/20 (50%) of patients received thromboprohylaxis, 2/20 (10%) were receiving treatment dose anticoagulation and 5/20 (25%) were receiving antiplatelet therapy. CONCLUSION: Our observations suggest that serious arterial thrombotic events might occur in Covid-19 patients. However, the exact incidence of such events and the best way to prevent them yet remains to be investigated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Coronary Occlusion/virology , Ischemia/virology , Mesenteric Ischemia/virology , Splenic Infarction/virology , Stroke/virology , Thrombosis/virology , Aged , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Aorta , Extremities/blood supply , Female , France/epidemiology , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
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