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1.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 801133, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731766

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: acute illnesses, like COVID-19, can act as a catabolic stimulus on muscles. So far, no study has evaluated muscle mass and quality through limb ultrasound in post-COVID-19 patients. METHODS: cross sectional observational study, including patients seen one month after hospital discharge for SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. The patients underwent a multidimensional evaluation. Moreover, we performed dominant medial gastrocnemius ultrasound (US) to characterize their muscle mass and quality. RESULTS: two hundred fifty-nine individuals (median age 67, 59.8% males) were included in the study. COVID-19 survivors with reduced muscle strength had a lower muscle US thickness (1.6 versus 1.73 cm, p =0.02) and a higher muscle stiffness (87 versus 76.3, p = 0.004) compared to patients with normal muscle strength. Also, patients with reduced Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) scores had a lower muscle US thickness (1.3 versus 1.71 cm, p = 0.01) and a higher muscle stiffness (104.9 versus 81.07, p = 0.04) compared to individuals with normal SPPB scores. The finding of increased muscle stiffness was also confirmed in patients with a pathological value (≥ 4) at the sarcopenia screening tool SARC-F (103.0 versus 79.55, p < 0.001). Muscle stiffness emerged as a significant predictor of probable sarcopenia (adjusted OR 1.02, 95% C.I. 1.002 - 1.04, p = 0.03). The optimal ultrasound cut-offs for probable sarcopenia were 1.51 cm for muscle thickness (p= 0.017) and 73.95 for muscle stiffness (p = 0.004). DISCUSSION: we described muscle ultrasound characteristics in post COVID-19 patients. Muscle ultrasound could be an innovative tool to assess muscle mass and quality in this population. Our preliminary findings need to be confirmed by future studies comparing muscle ultrasound with already validated techniques for measuring muscle mass and quality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Muscle Strength/physiology , Muscle, Skeletal/pathology , Muscular Diseases/diagnosis , Survivors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/pathology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Extremities/diagnostic imaging , Extremities/physiopathology , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Muscle, Skeletal/diagnostic imaging , Muscular Diseases/etiology , Muscular Diseases/pathology , Muscular Diseases/physiopathology , Organ Size , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Sarcopenia/diagnosis , Sarcopenia/epidemiology , Sarcopenia/etiology , Survivors/statistics & numerical data , Ultrasonography
2.
J Ultrasound Med ; 41(6): 1475-1481, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1568223

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Determine the rate of positive extremity ultrasound exams for DVT in patients with COVID-19 and assess for differences in laboratory values in patients with and without DVT, which could be used as a surrogate to decide the need for further evaluation with ultrasound. METHODS: Retrospective case control study with 1:2 matching of cases (COVID-19+ patients) to controls (COVID-19- patients) based on age, gender, and race. Laboratory values assessed were serum D-dimer, fibrinogen, prothrombin time, international normalized ratio, and C-reactive protein. Demographic variables, comorbidities, and clinical variables including final disposition were also evaluated. P-values for categorical variables were calculated with the chi-square test or Fisher's exact test. P-values for continuous variables were compared with the use of a two-tailed unpaired t-test. RESULTS: The rate of extremity ultrasound exams positive for DVT were similar in patients with (14.7%) and without (19.3%) COVID-19 (P = .423). No significant difference was observed in laboratory values including the D-dimer level in COVID-19 patients without (mean 9523.9 ng/mL (range 339 to >60,000)) or with DVT (mean 13,663.7 ng/mL (range 1193->60,000)) (P = .475). No differences were found in demographic variabilities or co-morbidities among COVID-19 patients with and without extremity DVT. CONCLUSIONS: We found no statistically significant difference in rate of positive DVT studies between COVID-19+ and COVID-19- patients. D-dimer levels are elevated, in some cases markedly, in COVID-19 patients with and without DVTs and therefore these data do not support their use as a surrogate when assessing the need for ultrasound evaluation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Venous Thrombosis , COVID-19/complications , Case-Control Studies , Extremities/diagnostic imaging , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Venous Thrombosis/complications , Venous Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging
3.
J Vasc Surg Venous Lymphat Disord ; 9(3): 605-614.e2, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1510080

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Early reports suggest that patients with novel coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) infection carry a significant risk of altered coagulation with an increased risk for venous thromboembolic events. This report investigates the relationship of significant COVID-19 infection and deep venous thrombosis (DVT) as reflected in the patient clinical and laboratory characteristics. METHODS: We reviewed the demographics, clinical presentation, laboratory and radiologic evaluations, results of venous duplex imaging and mortality of COVID-19-positive patients (18-89 years) admitted to the Indiana University Academic Health Center. Using oxygen saturation, radiologic findings, and need for advanced respiratory therapies, patients were classified into mild, moderate, or severe categories of COVID-19 infection. A descriptive analysis was performed using univariate and bivariate Fisher's exact and Wilcoxon rank-sum tests to examine the distribution of patient characteristics and compare the DVT outcomes. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to estimate the adjusted odds ratio of experiencing DVT and a receiver operating curve analysis to identify the optimal cutoff for d-dimer to predict DVT in this COVID-19 cohort. Time to the diagnosis of DVT from admission was analyzed using log-rank test and Kaplan-Meier plots. RESULTS: Our study included 71 unique COVID-19-positive patients (mean age, 61 years) categorized as having 3% mild, 14% moderate, and 83% severe infection and evaluated with 107 venous duplex studies. DVT was identified in 47.8% of patients (37% of examinations) at an average of 5.9 days after admission. Patients with DVT were predominantly male (67%; P = .032) with proximal venous involvement (29% upper and 39% in the lower extremities with 55% of the latter demonstrating bilateral involvement). Patients with DVT had a significantly higher mean d-dimer of 5447 ± 7032 ng/mL (P = .0101), and alkaline phosphatase of 110 IU/L (P = .0095) than those without DVT. On multivariable analysis, elevated d-dimer (P = .038) and alkaline phosphatase (P = .021) were associated with risk for DVT, whereas age, sex, elevated C-reactive protein, and ferritin levels were not. A receiver operating curve analysis suggests an optimal d-dimer value of 2450 ng/mL cutoff with 70% sensitivity, 59.5% specificity, and 61% positive predictive value, and 68.8% negative predictive value. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that males with severe COVID-19 infection requiring hospitalization are at highest risk for developing DVT. Elevated d-dimers and alkaline phosphatase along with our multivariable model can alert the clinician to the increased risk of DVT requiring early evaluation and aggressive treatment.


Subject(s)
Alkaline Phosphatase/blood , COVID-19 , Extremities , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Risk Assessment/methods , Ultrasonography, Doppler, Duplex , Venous Thrombosis , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Coagulation , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Early Diagnosis , Extremities/blood supply , Extremities/diagnostic imaging , Female , Humans , Indiana/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Time-to-Treatment/statistics & numerical data , Ultrasonography, Doppler, Duplex/methods , Ultrasonography, Doppler, Duplex/statistics & numerical data , Venous Thrombosis/diagnosis , Venous Thrombosis/drug therapy , Venous Thrombosis/etiology , Venous Thrombosis/prevention & control
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