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1.
BMJ Case Rep ; 15(5)2022 May 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1840564

ABSTRACT

A man in mid-50s presented with progressive blurred vision in his left eye for over 6 weeks. He was a known diabetic with history of COVID-19 pneumonia treated with steroids and remdesivir. He had pyelonephritis and urinary culture grown Klebsiella He was referred as a case of non-resolving vitreous haemorrhage. Visual acuity (VA) was hand movements with fundus showing dense vitritis. He underwent pars plana vitrectomy, vitreous biopsy with intraocular antibiotics (imipenem) suspecting as a case of endogenous bacterial endophthalmitis. Vitreous biopsy did not yield organisms on the smear/culture. The patient's condition worsened with perception of light and fundus showing dense vitritis with discrete yellowish white deposits on the surface of the retina. A repeat vitreous biopsy done along with intravitreal injection of voriconazole (suspecting fungal aetiology) grown fungal colonies and the organism was identified as Cryptococcus laurentii At 4-month follow-up, the VA improved to 6/24.


Subject(s)
Basidiomycota , COVID-19 , Endophthalmitis , Eye Infections, Bacterial , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Endophthalmitis/diagnosis , Endophthalmitis/drug therapy , Endophthalmitis/etiology , Eye Infections, Bacterial/microbiology , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , Vitrectomy/adverse effects
2.
Retina ; 41(8): 1709-1714, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1503647

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To describe endogenous endophthalmitis in the setting of COVID-19 pneumonia. METHODS: Patients recovering from COVID-19 pneumonia who presented to our department with any or all of the following complaints: pain, watering, redness, and decreased vision were identified. All relevant data were collected for analysis. RESULTS: Three patients with endogenous endophthalmitis were identified. All patients had been treated for COVID-19 pneumonia and therefore had received remdesivir and systemic steroids; 2 of the 3 patients received tocilizumab. All patients received vitreous biopsy, vitrectomy, and intraocular antibiotic injection. Patient 1 demonstrated Klebsiella pneumoniae in blood culture, K. pneumoniae and Escherichia coli in urine culture, and K. pneumoniae in vitreous fluid, whereas Patients 2 and 3 demonstrated Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the blood and nasopharyngeal culture, respectively. Correspondingly, the same organism was cultured from vitreous in Patients 2 and 3. The visual acuity at the last follow-up in Patients 1 to 3 was 20/100, 20/80, and 20/40, respectively. The probable source of infection was identified in each as renal calculi, dental caries, and the pharynx, respectively. Real-time polymerase chain reaction demonstrated the presence of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 in the vitreous fluid of Patient 1. CONCLUSION: We report good outcomes of early intervention for endogenous endophthalmitis in the setting of COVID-19 infection. We also document the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in vitreous.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Endophthalmitis/microbiology , Eye Infections, Bacterial/microbiology , Klebsiella pneumoniae/isolation & purification , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Stenotrophomonas maltophilia/isolation & purification , Adult , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Endophthalmitis/diagnosis , Endophthalmitis/drug therapy , Eye Infections, Bacterial/diagnosis , Eye Infections, Bacterial/drug therapy , Female , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Humans , Klebsiella Infections/diagnosis , Klebsiella Infections/drug therapy , Klebsiella Infections/microbiology , Male , Middle Aged , Staphylococcal Infections/diagnosis , Staphylococcal Infections/drug therapy , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Vitrectomy , Vitreous Body/microbiology , Vitreous Body/virology
3.
Cornea ; 40(11): 1474-1481, 2021 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1322677

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to report the adverse effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the clinical outcomes of infectious keratitis in South India. METHODS: Two hundred fifty-eight patients presented with infectious keratitis at 6 tertiary care centers when strict travel restrictions were in place from March 24 to May 31, 2020. Case records were collected retrospectively and analyzed for demographics, type of initial treatment, length of delay in presentation, microbiological diagnosis, clinical course, and final treatment outcome. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 49.2 years, with most of them (61.2%) being male. Forty-one patients (15.9%) did not receive any treatment for at least a week after the onset of symptoms. One hundred eight patients (41.9%) presented with severe ulcer (32 had a frank perforation). Resolution of the infection was achieved only in 103 patients (45.6%). A total of 90 patients (39.8%) with ulcers had a perforation, yet only 29 patients (32.2%) could receive keratoplasty because of the unavailability of donor tissues. At the end of 6-month follow-up, 47 patients had anatomical failure (loss of globe) and 12 additional patients had functional failure (total permanent vision loss). CONCLUSIONS: Delay in presentation and acute shortage of donor corneal tissues for emergency keratoplasty because of the COVID-19 pandemic had a grave impact, resulting in irreversible blindness in a significant number of patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Corneal Ulcer/therapy , Delivery of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Eye Infections, Bacterial/therapy , Eye Infections, Fungal/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Corneal Ulcer/diagnosis , Corneal Ulcer/microbiology , Eye Banks/statistics & numerical data , Eye Infections, Bacterial/diagnosis , Eye Infections, Bacterial/microbiology , Eye Infections, Fungal/diagnosis , Eye Infections, Fungal/microbiology , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Keratoplasty, Penetrating/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Quarantine , Retrospective Studies , Tertiary Care Centers/statistics & numerical data , Tissue Donors/statistics & numerical data , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
4.
Ocul Immunol Inflamm ; 29(4): 726-729, 2021 May 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1307411

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To report six patients with endogenous endophthalmitis as a complication of COVID-19 infection. METHODS: A multicentric retrospective database review of patients with a diagnosis of endogenous endophthalmitis and a history of COVID-19 infection. RESULTS: Four of six patients were diabetics. All presented after an average duration of 40 days (Range 17-90 days) of COVID-19 infection. Two of six patients had bilateral involvement. Five of six patients had received intravenous corticosteroid for COVID-19. Two of six vitreous samples showed fungi (Candida and Bipolaris species), two showed bacteria (Staphylococcus species) and two samples were culture negative. Control of infection with good visual outcome in four out of eight eyes. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 patients with a history of hospitalization and prolonged use of systemic corticosteroids and comorbidities, for example, diabetes mellitus have a high risk of endogenous endophthalmitis. A high index of clinical suspicion with timely intervention can salvage many eyes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Endophthalmitis/etiology , Eye Infections, Bacterial/etiology , Eye Infections, Fungal/etiology , Pandemics , Visual Acuity , Vitreous Body/microbiology , Adult , Bacteria/isolation & purification , COVID-19/epidemiology , Endophthalmitis/diagnosis , Endophthalmitis/microbiology , Eye Infections, Bacterial/diagnosis , Eye Infections, Bacterial/microbiology , Eye Infections, Fungal/diagnosis , Eye Infections, Fungal/microbiology , Follow-Up Studies , Fungi/isolation & purification , Humans , India/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
5.
Ocul Immunol Inflamm ; 29(4): 709-714, 2021 May 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1226482

ABSTRACT

Purpose: This study aims to evaluate the effect of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on conjunctival flora in patients hospitalized with COVID-19.Methods: This prospective, controlled study was conducted between June 2020 and December 2020. The study group consisted of 45 confirmed COVID-19 patients and 43 control subjects. The collected samples were inoculated into the Thioglycollate broth media without delay. The samples with growth were then passed on eosin methylene blue agar, sabouraud dextrose agar, chocolate agar, and 5% sheep blood agar solid media.Results: The mean age of the COVID-19 patients was 64.24 ± 15.4 years, and the control subjects were 59.72 ± 11.4 years. The culture positivity of conjunctiva samples in COVID-19 patients (95.6%) was statistically significantly higher than control subjects (76.7%) (p = .024). Coagulase-negative staphylococcus and Staphylococcus aureus' positivity was significantly higher in COVID-19 patients than control subjects (p < .05).Conclusion: Patients with COVID-19 demonstrate significantly higher culture positivity on conjunctival flora than the control subjects.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Conjunctiva/microbiology , Conjunctivitis, Bacterial/epidemiology , Eye Infections, Bacterial/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Staphylococcal Infections/diagnosis , Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Comorbidity , Conjunctivitis, Bacterial/diagnosis , Conjunctivitis, Bacterial/microbiology , Eye Infections, Bacterial/diagnosis , Eye Infections, Bacterial/microbiology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Inpatients , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Staphylococcal Infections/epidemiology , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Turkey/epidemiology , Young Adult
6.
Retina ; 41(8): 1709-1714, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1140026

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To describe endogenous endophthalmitis in the setting of COVID-19 pneumonia. METHODS: Patients recovering from COVID-19 pneumonia who presented to our department with any or all of the following complaints: pain, watering, redness, and decreased vision were identified. All relevant data were collected for analysis. RESULTS: Three patients with endogenous endophthalmitis were identified. All patients had been treated for COVID-19 pneumonia and therefore had received remdesivir and systemic steroids; 2 of the 3 patients received tocilizumab. All patients received vitreous biopsy, vitrectomy, and intraocular antibiotic injection. Patient 1 demonstrated Klebsiella pneumoniae in blood culture, K. pneumoniae and Escherichia coli in urine culture, and K. pneumoniae in vitreous fluid, whereas Patients 2 and 3 demonstrated Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the blood and nasopharyngeal culture, respectively. Correspondingly, the same organism was cultured from vitreous in Patients 2 and 3. The visual acuity at the last follow-up in Patients 1 to 3 was 20/100, 20/80, and 20/40, respectively. The probable source of infection was identified in each as renal calculi, dental caries, and the pharynx, respectively. Real-time polymerase chain reaction demonstrated the presence of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 in the vitreous fluid of Patient 1. CONCLUSION: We report good outcomes of early intervention for endogenous endophthalmitis in the setting of COVID-19 infection. We also document the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in vitreous.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Endophthalmitis/microbiology , Eye Infections, Bacterial/microbiology , Klebsiella pneumoniae/isolation & purification , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Stenotrophomonas maltophilia/isolation & purification , Adult , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Endophthalmitis/diagnosis , Endophthalmitis/drug therapy , Eye Infections, Bacterial/diagnosis , Eye Infections, Bacterial/drug therapy , Female , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Humans , Klebsiella Infections/diagnosis , Klebsiella Infections/drug therapy , Klebsiella Infections/microbiology , Male , Middle Aged , Staphylococcal Infections/diagnosis , Staphylococcal Infections/drug therapy , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Vitrectomy , Vitreous Body/microbiology , Vitreous Body/virology
7.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 68(10): 2199-2201, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-798273

ABSTRACT

To describe a smartphone-based telemedicine tool for monitoring of corneal ulcer size during the corona pandemic, a simple "U"-shaped tool was constructed using three Schirmer's strips that were provided to the patients with small to medium-sized corneal ulcers. The patient and the attendant were trained to use this simple U-shaped tool at home and send digital images to the treating ophthalmologist, to monitor the course of the ulcer. The tool was used in five eyes of five patients with active microbial keratitis. Patients were followed up regularly with the use of telemedicine facility every 48 h for an average duration of 7.6 days (range 6-9 days). In all the five eyes, assessment of the serial images with U-shaped tool showed decrease in size of corneal ulcer, which corroborated with subjective improvement in symptoms. Hence, the novel "'U'-shaped tool" may provide an effective measure in following-up of corneal ulcer patients in times of the COVID-19 pandemic, obviating frequent hospital visits and risk of contracting COVID.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Corneal Ulcer/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Diagnostic Techniques, Ophthalmological/instrumentation , Eye Infections, Bacterial/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Smartphone/instrumentation , Telemedicine/methods , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , Child, Preschool , Corneal Ulcer/microbiology , Eye Infections, Bacterial/microbiology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , India/epidemiology , Male , Pandemics , Pilot Projects , SARS-CoV-2 , Slit Lamp Microscopy
8.
Retina ; 40(9): 1651-1656, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-682169

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate the safety of face masks worn by patients during intravitreal injections. METHODS: A prospective, qualitative, interventional study performed in a tertiary university hospital. Healthy volunteers were asked to wear three different professional surgical face masks while air leaks around the eyes were monitored. Three types of masks were investigated as follows: 1) surgical face mask with four tying strips, 2) surgical face mask with elastic ear loops and 3) 2200 N95 tuberculosis particulate face mask. For each session the periocular area was inspected for air leak during normal respiration, speech, and deep respiration. Detection of air leak was performed using the following two professional thermal cameras: FLIR A310-thermal camera and EyeCGas 2.0-super sensitive infrared camera used for detection of minute fugitive emissions of industrial gases. RESULTS: Ten healthy volunteers were enrolled in this study. The experiment was repeated 45 times for each camera; 3 times for each of 3 mask types, on 5 volunteers, for a total of 90 trials. Air jets were detected originating from the superior edges of the masks radiating toward the eyes in 81% (73/90) of cases in total; 71% (32/45) with the FLIR camera and 91% (41/45) with the OPGAL camera. Air leaks were detected with all investigated mask types. CONCLUSION: Patients wearing face masks during intravitreal injections may be at a higher risk of endophthalmitis. Until further data are available, we recommend verifying proper face mask fitting and either taping the upper edges of the face masks with a medical adhesive tape or using an adhesive surgical drape around the injected eye.


Subject(s)
Endophthalmitis/epidemiology , Eye Infections, Bacterial/epidemiology , Intravitreal Injections , Masks/adverse effects , Surgical Wound Infection/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Endophthalmitis/microbiology , Eye Infections, Bacterial/microbiology , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Surgical Wound Infection/microbiology , Thermography/methods , Young Adult
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