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1.
Cornea ; 40(11): 1502-1504, 2021 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2063050

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: The coronavirus disease 2019 global pandemic is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Several ophthalmic manifestations have been reported to be associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection, including conjunctivitis, acute sixth nerve palsy, and multiple cranial neuropathies. We present a unique case of unilateral phlyctenular keratoconjunctivitis in a 5-year-old boy in the setting of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Conjunctivitis, Viral/diagnosis , Eye Infections, Viral/diagnosis , Keratoconjunctivitis/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Administration, Oral , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Ascorbic Acid/administration & dosage , Azithromycin/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Child, Preschool , Conjunctivitis, Viral/drug therapy , Conjunctivitis, Viral/virology , Drug Therapy, Combination , Eye Infections, Viral/drug therapy , Eye Infections, Viral/virology , Fluorometholone/therapeutic use , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Keratoconjunctivitis/drug therapy , Keratoconjunctivitis/virology , Male , Ophthalmic Solutions , Slit Lamp Microscopy , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Visual Acuity/physiology
2.
Ocul Immunol Inflamm ; 30(5): 1260-1264, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1784144

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To describe a case of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV 1) infection following coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination in an Asian Indian female. METHODS: Retrospective case report. RESULT: A 40-year-old female presented with decreased vision, pain, and photophobia of 2 weeks duration. She reported receiving the second dose of COVISHIELDTM (ChAdOx1-S [recombinant]) 1 week prior to the onset of ocular symptoms. Left eye examination revealed granulomatous anterior uveitis. Aqueous sample from the left eye tested positive for HSV1 by polymerase chain reaction(PCR) method. She was managed with oral antiviral therapy, topical steroids, and cycloplegic agent and showed significant improvement of inflammation within 1 week and resolved within 3 weeks. CONCLUSION: This report demonstrates a potential association of HSV 1 anterior uveitis with COVID-19 vaccination. A high index of suspicion of viral etiology is warranted when uveitis presents with reduced corneal sensations and pigmented keratic precipitates, following a recent history of COVID-19 vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Eye Infections, Viral , Herpes Simplex , Herpesvirus 1, Human , Uveitis, Anterior , Adult , Female , Humans , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , DNA, Viral/analysis , Eye Infections, Viral/diagnosis , Eye Infections, Viral/drug therapy , Herpes Simplex/diagnosis , Herpes Simplex/drug therapy , Herpesvirus 1, Human/genetics , Mydriatics/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Uveitis/drug therapy , Uveitis, Anterior/chemically induced , Uveitis, Anterior/diagnosis , Uveitis, Anterior/drug therapy , Vaccination/adverse effects
3.
Retina ; 42(3): 465-475, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1706662

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To describe clinical and ophthalmologic features and outcomes of patients with coronavirus disease-19 with retinal vascular occlusions. METHODS: Retrospective multicenter case series and PubMed review of cases reported from March 2020 to September 2021. Outcome measures are as follows: type of occlusion, treatments, best-corrected visual acuity, and central macular thickness on optical coherence tomography. RESULTS: Thirty-nine patients were identified. Fifteen patients with a median age of 39 (30-67) years were included in the multicenter study. Vascular occlusions included central retinal vein occlusion (12 eyes), branch retinal vein occlusion (4 eyes), and central retinal artery occlusion (2 eyes). Three cases were bilateral. Baseline best-corrected visual acuity was 20/45 (no light perception-20/20). Baseline central macular thickness was 348.64 (±83) µm. Nine eyes received anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agents, dexamethasone intravitreal implant, or both. Final best-corrected visual acuity was 20/25 (no light perception-20/20), and central macular thickness was 273.7 ± 68 µm (follow-up of 19.6 ± 6 weeks). Among the 24 cases from the literature review, retinal vein occlusion was the predominant lesion. Clinical characteristics and outcomes were similar to those found in our series. CONCLUSION: Coronavirus disease-19-associated retinal vascular occlusions tend to occur in individuals younger than 60 years. Retinal vein occlusion is the most frequent occlusive event, and outcomes are favorable in most cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Eye Infections, Viral/diagnosis , Retinal Vein Occlusion/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , Aged , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Drug Implants , Eye Infections, Viral/drug therapy , Eye Infections, Viral/virology , Female , Fluorescein Angiography , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Intravitreal Injections , Male , Middle Aged , Retinal Vein Occlusion/drug therapy , Retinal Vein Occlusion/virology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/antagonists & inhibitors , Visual Acuity/physiology
4.
Cornea ; 40(9): 1204-1206, 2021 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1343730

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to report 2 patients with anterior scleritis manifesting after coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: The patients with confirmed COVID-19 developed anterior scleritis after their systemic symptoms were markedly improved. A thorough systemic workup identified no underlying autoimmune diseases. Ocular characteristics and safety and efficacy of systemic immunosuppressive therapy were evaluated. RESULTS: Case 1 was a 67-year-old woman who presented with necrotizing anterior scleritis in both eyes 3 weeks after the onset of COVID-19. One-week treatment with topical betamethasone and oral prednisolone (65 mg daily) did not result in improvement, so she was started on intravenous cyclophosphamide and subcutaneous adalimumab in addition to oral prednisolone. Necrotizing scleritis was gradually improved over 3 months. Case 2 was a 33-year-old man who presented with sectoral anterior scleritis in his right eye 2 weeks after the onset of COVID-19. He was started on topical betamethasone and oral prednisolone (85 mg daily). One week later, all signs and symptoms disappeared, and topical and oral corticosteroids were gradually tapered off over 2 weeks. There was no recurrence of respiratory symptoms or active scleritis in any cases after discontinuation of treatment. CONCLUSIONS: These cases suggest that COVID-19 can be associated with anterior scleritis, which responds to immunosuppressive and biologic agents. Ophthalmologists should consider anterior scleritis in patients with COVID-19 who present with ocular pain and redness during the convalescent phase of the illness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Eye Infections, Viral/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Scleritis/diagnosis , Adalimumab/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Cyclophosphamide/therapeutic use , Eye Infections, Viral/drug therapy , Eye Infections, Viral/virology , Female , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Infusions, Intravenous , Infusions, Subcutaneous , Male , Prednisolone/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Scleritis/drug therapy , Scleritis/virology
5.
Cornea ; 40(8): 1067-1069, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1303954

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: We present 2 cases of striking stromal corneal infiltrates months after COVID-19 infection. While we cannot prove that these infiltrates are caused by or directly related to COVID-19, we did not find any other plausible cause that could explain these ophthalmic signs. In these cases, the ongoing process was detected in relatively early stages due to scheduled visits with patients and responded positively to prednisolone acetate 1% ophthalmic suspension. However, we do not know the response to treatment in more advanced cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Corneal Diseases/diagnosis , Corneal Stroma/pathology , Eye Infections, Viral/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Corneal Diseases/drug therapy , Corneal Diseases/virology , Eye Infections, Viral/drug therapy , Eye Infections, Viral/virology , Female , Glaucoma, Open-Angle/diagnosis , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Immune Complex Diseases/diagnosis , Immune Complex Diseases/drug therapy , Immune Complex Diseases/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Prednisolone/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Uveitis/diagnosis
6.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 69(4): 992-994, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1138821

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a respiratory virus, which has affected various organ systems as well. Here we report a neuro-ophthalmic presentation of pituitary apoplexy under the setting of COVID-19 infection in a middle-aged man who presented to ophthalmic emergency with sudden bilateral loss of vision along with a history of fever past 10 days. There was sluggishly reacting pupils and RT-PCR for COVID was positive. Imaging pointed the diagnosis as pituitary macroadenoma with apopexy. In view of pandemic situation, patient was given symptomatic treatment as per the protocols and stabilized. Vision also showed improvement to some extent and the patient is awaiting neurosurgery.


Subject(s)
Adenoma/diagnosis , COVID-19/diagnosis , Eye Infections, Viral/diagnosis , Pituitary Apoplexy/diagnosis , Pituitary Neoplasms/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Adenoma/drug therapy , Adenoma/virology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Eye Infections, Viral/drug therapy , Eye Infections, Viral/virology , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Middle Aged , Pituitary Apoplexy/drug therapy , Pituitary Apoplexy/virology , Pituitary Neoplasms/drug therapy , Pituitary Neoplasms/virology
7.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 69(4): 985-986, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1138826

ABSTRACT

A 32-year-old man with a clear and compact graft following a penetrating keratoplasty 6 years back, developed an episode of acute graft rejection, coinciding with the COVID-19 disease. Subsequent to the infection with the novel coronavirus, he developed symptoms of acute graft rejection concurrent with the development of respiratory distress and peak systemic symptoms. This was the phase of cytokine storm as evidenced by the raised inflammatory markers in his blood tests. Such a case of acute corneal graft rejection coinciding with SARS-CoV-2 infection has been reported only once in the literature and this unique association needs to be researched further.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Corneal Diseases/diagnosis , Eye Infections, Viral/diagnosis , Graft Rejection/diagnosis , Keratoplasty, Penetrating , SARS-CoV-2 , Acute Disease , Adult , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Cataract Extraction , Corneal Diseases/drug therapy , Corneal Diseases/virology , Cytokines/blood , Eye Infections, Viral/drug therapy , Eye Infections, Viral/virology , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Graft Rejection/drug therapy , Graft Rejection/virology , Humans , Incidence , Inflammation Mediators/blood , Lens Implantation, Intraocular , Male , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Prednisolone/therapeutic use , Visual Acuity
8.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 69(4): 989-991, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1138825

ABSTRACT

Ocular manifestations of COVID-19 are still being studied. Posterior segment involvement in viral entities is either direct viral involvement or a delayed immune response to the antigen. A 22-year-old woman presented with history of perceiving absolute inferior scotoma in the right eye for 4 days and history of fever and sore throat 10 days ago. Fundus examination revealed disc edema and vessel tortuosity. Humphreys Field Analyzer confirmed inferior field defect and Optical Coherence Tomography showed superior, nasal and inferior retinal nerve fiber layer thickening in the right eye. Patient was positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing. Patient received three doses of injection methylprednisolone over 3 days. There was subjective resolution of scotoma reported 3 weeks posttreatment. We bring forward the first reported case of parainfectious optic neuritis associated with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Eye Infections, Viral/diagnosis , Papilledema/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Scotoma/diagnosis , Visual Fields/physiology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Eye Infections, Viral/drug therapy , Eye Infections, Viral/virology , Female , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Papilledema/drug therapy , Papilledema/virology , Scotoma/drug therapy , Scotoma/virology , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Visual Acuity , Visual Field Tests , Young Adult
9.
Eur J Ophthalmol ; 31(2): NP161-NP166, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-671272

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a novel virus causing an ongoing pandemic in 2020. Although the symptomatic patients infected by SARS-CoV-2 generally show respiratory distress, atypical manifestations such as conjunctivitis are also observed. A series of cases are reported in which reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing on tears had demonstrated the presence of the virus. However, the transmission of the virus through ocular fluids remains unknown. CASE DESCRIPTION: In this case report, the development of conjunctivitis is presented as the sole symptom of a new coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in an emergency health care worker. The patient's first application was to the ophthalmology clinic due to redness, stinging, tearing, and photophobia for one day in the right eye. The patient had no symptoms of fever, cough, shortness of breath, or fatigue. Two days later, the RT-PCR test, blood analysis, and chest computed tomography (CT) were applied to the patient for being in contact with a COVID positive patient. Conjunctival swabs did not identify SARS-CoV-2 by RT-PCR. However, nasopharyngeal swab and blood test confirmed the diagnosis of COVID-19. Chest CT did not show pneumonia. CONCLUSION: This phenomenon shows that conjunctivitis may occur as a sole manifestation of COVID-19 which needs to be carefully evaluated by health care workers and eye care professionals during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Conjunctivitis, Viral/diagnosis , Eye Infections, Viral/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Administration, Ophthalmic , Adult , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Conjunctivitis, Viral/drug therapy , Eye Infections, Viral/drug therapy , Humans , Male , Moxifloxacin/therapeutic use , Nurses , Occupational Exposure , Ophthalmic Solutions , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , RNA, Viral/analysis , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Tears/virology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
10.
Cornea ; 40(3): 383-386, 2021 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066450

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To present a patient with bilateral conjunctivitis, testing positive for viral RNA of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in both nasopharyngeal and conjunctival samples. METHODS: A 40-year-old man with bilateral acute conjunctivitis and suspicious signs of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) presented to the hospital. A detailed ophthalmic examination was performed. Samples obtained from conjunctival and nasopharyngeal swabs were tested by reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 virus. Ocular findings and duration of the presence of viral RNA in the conjunctival specimens were evaluated at follow-up visits. RESULTS: Slit-lamp biomicroscopy revealed bilateral acute follicular conjunctivitis. The RT-PCR assay demonstrated the presence of viral RNA in the nasopharyngeal and conjunctival specimens at the initial visit and at the 4-day follow-up. Conjunctivitis findings were decreased after 4 days and recovered completely without any sequelae within10 days. The PCR results of both nasopharyngeal and conjunctiva specimens were negative for the viral RNA at 10 days. CONCLUSIONS: Bilateral conjunctivitis is rare in patients infected with COVID-19. Although it is difficult to detect viral RNA from conjunctival swabs, conjunctival secretions may be a source of contamination, and protective measures must be taken.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Conjunctiva/virology , Conjunctivitis, Viral/virology , Eye Infections, Viral/virology , Nasopharynx/virology , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Administration, Ophthalmic , Administration, Oral , Adult , Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Conjunctivitis, Viral/diagnosis , Conjunctivitis, Viral/drug therapy , Drug Therapy, Combination , Eye Infections, Viral/diagnosis , Eye Infections, Viral/drug therapy , Ganciclovir/therapeutic use , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Intraocular Pressure , Male , Pharmaceutic Aids/therapeutic use , Povidone/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Slit Lamp Microscopy , Visual Acuity
12.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 68(10): 2291-2293, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-796779

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a form of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that has been declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO). Ocular manifestations related to COVID-19 are uncommon with conjunctivitis being reported in a few cases. We report a unique case of vasculitic retinal vein occlusion (RVO) secondary to COVID-19 in a 52-year-old patient who presented with the diminution of vision in the left eye 10 days after he tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. All investigations for vasculitis were negative. This case supports the mechanism of thrombo-inflammatory state secondary to the "cytokine-storm" as the pathogenesis for systemic manifestations of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Eye Infections, Viral/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Retinal Vasculitis/virology , Retinal Vein Occlusion/virology , Administration, Oral , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Drug Therapy, Combination , Eye Infections, Viral/diagnosis , Eye Infections, Viral/drug therapy , Fluorescein Angiography , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Intravitreal Injections , Male , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Ranibizumab/therapeutic use , Retinal Vasculitis/diagnosis , Retinal Vasculitis/drug therapy , Retinal Vein Occlusion/diagnosis , Retinal Vein Occlusion/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/antagonists & inhibitors
13.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 68(8): 1675-1677, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-679354

ABSTRACT

A 65-year-old known diabetic, hypertensive, and asthmatic patient was admitted for suspected coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) infection following complaints of breathlessness. He tested positive for COVID-19 and was put on ventilation. He developed severe follicular conjunctivitis of the right eye while on a ventilator, which was treated conservatively. The resolution of ocular signs was noted over 2 weeks without any complications. This case highlights the timeline of events and discusses the late ophthalmic manifestations in patients with COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Conjunctivitis, Viral/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Eye Infections, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Respiration, Artificial , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Conjunctivitis, Viral/drug therapy , Conjunctivitis, Viral/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Eye Infections, Viral/drug therapy , Eye Infections, Viral/physiopathology , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Lubricants/administration & dosage , Male , Moxifloxacin/therapeutic use , Ophthalmic Solutions , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Acta Ophthalmol ; 98(8): 859-863, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-260153

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The current outbreak of COVID-19 has spread rapidly all over the world. Respiratory droplets and contaction with infected patients are the two major transmission routes. However, the value of tear virus nucleic acid is still not clear. We dynamic detected the SARS-CoV-2 in eye sample of one COVID-19 patient with obstruction of common lacrimal ducts. METHODS: Besides the routine examination, nasopharyngeal and eye swab were continuously measured by polymerase chain reaction assay and next-generation sequencing (NGS). Gene detection was performed for drug use guidance, and flow cytometry was performed to analyse the lymphocyte subsets. RESULTS: Nasopharyngeal swabs were positive for 22 days, but eye swabs were still continuously positive for 2 weeks after nasopharyngeal swabs turned negative. The low level of lymphocyte and the high level IL-6 lasted for almost 4 weeks, then became near normal. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) confirmed the existing of SARS-CoV-2, HSV1 and HHV6B virus nucleic acid. The gene detection for drug use guidance showed the genetic locus ABCB1 (3435T>C) rs1045642 belonged to type CC and it mean the efficiency of lopinavir-ritonavir would be significantly decreased. The flow cytometry of lymphocyte subsets showed PD-1+  CD95+ cells was accounting for 94.8% in CD3+  CD8+ T subset and for 94.8% in CD3+  TCRγδ+ T subset. CONCLUSIONS: As obstruction of common lacrimal duct, positively detection in one eye for 2 weeks more after nasopharyngeal swab became negative. More eye swabs should be collected from COVID-19 patients, especially from those immunocompromised, those with eye symptoms and those had a history of ocular diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Conjunctiva/virology , Eye Infections, Viral/diagnosis , Herpesvirus 1, Human/isolation & purification , Herpesvirus 6, Human/isolation & purification , Lacrimal Duct Obstruction/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Tears/virology , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Conjunctivitis, Viral/diagnosis , Drug Therapy, Combination , Eye Infections, Viral/drug therapy , Eye Infections, Viral/virology , Flow Cytometry , HIV Protease Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Herpes Simplex/diagnosis , Herpes Simplex/drug therapy , Herpes Simplex/virology , Herpesvirus 1, Human/genetics , Herpesvirus 6, Human/genetics , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Lacrimal Duct Obstruction/drug therapy , Lacrimal Duct Obstruction/virology , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Male , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Moxifloxacin/therapeutic use , Nasopharynx/virology , Nucleic Acids/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Viral/genetics , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Roseolovirus Infections/diagnosis , Roseolovirus Infections/drug therapy , Roseolovirus Infections/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
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