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1.
Cogn Res Princ Implic ; 7(1): 32, 2022 04 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1782458

ABSTRACT

We examined how mask use affects performance and eye movements in face recognition and whether strategy change reflected in eye movements is associated with performance change. Eighty-eight participants performed face recognition with masked faces either during learning only, during recognition only, or during both learning and recognition. As compared with the baseline condition where faces were unmasked during both learning and recognition, participants had impaired performance in all three scenarios, with larger impairment when mask conditions during learning and recognition did not match. When recognizing unmasked faces, whether the faces were learned with or without a mask on did not change eye movement behavior. Nevertheless, when recognizing unmasked faces that were learned with a mask on, participants who adopted more eyes-focused patterns had less performance impairment as compared with the baseline condition. When recognizing masked faces, participants had more eyes-focused patterns and more consistent gaze transition behavior than recognizing unmasked faces regardless of whether the faces were learned with or without a mask on. Nevertheless, when recognizing masked faces that were learned without a mask, participants whose gaze transition behavior was more consistent had less performance impairment as compared with the baseline condition. Thus, although eye movements during recognition were mainly driven by the mask condition during recognition but not that during learning, those who adjusted their strategy according to the mask condition difference between learning and recognition had better performance. This finding has important implications for identifying populations vulnerable to the impact of mask use and potential remedial strategies.


Subject(s)
DiGeorge Syndrome , Facial Recognition , Eye Movements , Eye-Tracking Technology , Humans , Learning , Recognition, Psychology
2.
Front Public Health ; 10: 855857, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776082

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the effect of hospital outdoor rest space on the eye movement measures and self-rating restoration of staff. Background: Relieving the pressure of hospital staff through exposure to hospital outdoor rest space is essential, but there is a scarcity of research on the impact of hospital outdoor rest space on the eye movement measures and self-rating restoration of staff, especially for large Chinese hospitals. Methods: Cross-analysis was conducted based on the eye movement measures of 76 staff members obtained by eye movement tracking equipment in combination with the self-rating restoration scale and hospital outdoor rest space picture attributes (element proportion and position, brightness and saturation). Results: The differences in eye movement measures of different staff attributes (occupation, age, and gender) were identified, and the effects of hospital outdoor rest space picture attributes on the eye movement measures and self-rating restoration scale of staff were summarized. A number of proposals were also formulated: hospital outdoor rest space should be set up close to the working area of the group of medical staff; attention should be paid to the actual needs of senior staff members and the work pressure of junior nurses; the exposure to natural environment should be increased and the proportion of hard artificial elements should be reduced; the natural environment should be placed in the visual center; the saturation and brightness of hospital outdoor rest space should be increased; and staff members should have access to the sky environment in a variety of ways. Conclusion: The present study is an empirical study of evidence-based design on hospital outdoor rest space in China, and the results reveal the effects of hospital outdoor rest space on the eye movement measures and self-rating restoration of staff.


Subject(s)
Environment , Eye Movements , Occupational Stress , Personnel, Hospital , China , Hospitals , Humans , Occupational Stress/prevention & control , Rest
3.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(4)2022 Feb 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686948

ABSTRACT

There is much evidence pointing out eye movement alterations in several neurological diseases. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first video-oculography study describing potential alterations of eye movements in the post-COVID-19 condition. Visually guided saccades, memory-guided saccades, and antisaccades in horizontal axis were measured. In all visual tests, the stimulus was deployed with a gap condition. The duration of the test was between 5 and 7 min per participant. A group of n=9 patients with the post-COVID-19 condition was included in this study. Values were compared with a group (n=9) of healthy volunteers whom the SARS-CoV-2 virus had not infected. Features such as centripetal and centrifugal latencies, success rates in memory saccades, antisaccades, and blinks were computed. We found that patients with the post-COVID-19 condition had eye movement alterations mainly in centripetal latency in visually guided saccades, the success rate in memory-guided saccade test, latency in antisaccades, and its standard deviation, which suggests the involvement of frontoparietal networks. Further work is required to understand these eye movements' alterations and their functional consequences.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Eye Movements , Blinking , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Saccades
4.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263668, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674017

ABSTRACT

The digitalization process for organizations, which was inevitably accelerated by the COVID-19 pandemic, raises relevant challenges for Human Resource Management (HRM) because every technological implementation has a certain impact on human beings. Between many organizational HRM practices, recruitment and assessment interviews represent a significant moment where a social interaction provides the context for evaluating candidates' skills. It is therefore relevant to investigate how different interaction frames and relational conditions affect such task, with a specific focus on the differences between face-to-face (FTF) and remote computer-mediated (RCM) interaction settings. In particular, the possibility of qualifying and quantifying the mechanisms shaping the efficiency of interaction in the recruiter-candidate dyad-i.e. interpersonal attunement-is potentially insightful. We here present a neuroscientific protocol aimed at elucidating the impact of FTF vs. RCM modalities on social dynamics within assessment interviews. Specifically, the hyperscanning approach, understood as the concurrent recording and integrated analysis of behavioural-physiological responses of interacting agents, will be used to evaluate recruiter-candidate dyads while they are involved in either FTF or RCM conditions. Specifically, the protocol has been designed to collect self-report, oculometric, autonomic (electrodermal activity, heart rate, heart rate variability), and neurophysiological (electroencephalography) metrics from both inter-agents to explore the perceived quality of the interaction, automatic visual-attentional patterns of inter-agents, as well as their cognitive workload and emotional engagement. The proposed protocol will provide a theoretical evidence-based framework to assess possible differences between FTF vs. RMC settings in complex social interactions, with a specific focus on job interviews.


Subject(s)
Employment/statistics & numerical data , Eye Movements/physiology , Interviews as Topic/statistics & numerical data , Personnel Selection/methods , Psychometrics , Telecommunications/statistics & numerical data , Employment/psychology , Humans , Surveys and Questionnaires , Video Recording
5.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(22)2021 Nov 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1538464

ABSTRACT

Mind-wandering has been shown to largely influence our learning efficiency, especially in the digital and distracting era nowadays. Detecting mind-wandering thus becomes imperative in educational scenarios. Here, we used a wearable eye-tracker to record eye movements during the sustained attention to response task. Eye movement analysis with hidden Markov models (EMHMM), which takes both spatial and temporal eye-movement information into account, was used to examine if participants' eye movement patterns can differentiate between the states of focused attention and mind-wandering. Two representative eye movement patterns were discovered through clustering using EMHMM: centralized and distributed patterns. Results showed that participants with the centralized pattern had better performance on detecting targets and rated themselves as more focused than those with the distributed pattern. This study indicates that distinct eye movement patterns are associated with different attentional states (focused attention vs. mind-wandering) and demonstrates a novel approach in using EMHMM to study attention. Moreover, this study provides a potential approach to capture the mind-wandering state in the classroom without interrupting the ongoing learning behavior.


Subject(s)
Eye Movements , Eye , Humans , Learning
6.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 560, 2021 11 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1533249

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In addition to having a negative impact on the physical and emotional health of the population, the global Covid-19 pandemic has necessitated psychotherapists moving their practice to online environments. This service evaluation examines the efficacy of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) Therapy delivered via the internet. METHODS: A real-world service evaluation was conducted from a self-selecting group of EMDR therapists that subscribe to either a JISCMail discussion list or either the UK or All Ireland National EMDR Associations. Author designed questionnaires were used to gather information on the efficacy of EMDR delivered online as well as client and therapist characteristics. RESULTS: Thirty-three therapists provided efficacy data on a total of 93 patients. Statistically significant and clinically meaningful reductions were found in all four-psychometrics used both in adult and children and young people populations. Client outcome was not related to therapist experience. CONCLUSIONS: EMDR delivered via the internet can be an effective treatment for clients experiencing mental health issues.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Eye Movement Desensitization Reprocessing , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Eye Movements , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
7.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 64(3): 1008-1022, 2021 03 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1454832

ABSTRACT

Aim The aim of this scoping review is to identify the eye tracking paradigms and eye movement measures used to investigate auditory and reading comprehension deficits in persons with aphasia (PWA). Method MEDLINE via PubMed, Cochrane, CINAHL, Embase, PsycINFO, OTseeker, Scopus, Google Scholar, Grey Literature Database, and ProQuest Search (Dissertations & Theses) were searched for relevant studies. The Covidence software was used to manage the initial and full-text screening process for the search. Results and Discussion From a total of 1,803 studies, 68 studies were included for full-text screening. In addition, 418 records from gray literature were also screened. After full-text screening, 16 studies were included for this review-12 studies for auditory comprehension in PWA and four studies for reading comprehension in PWA. The review highlights the use of common eye tracking paradigms used to study language comprehension in PWA. We also discusse eye movement measures and how they help in assessing auditory and reading comprehension. Methodological challenges of using eye tracking are discussed. Conclusion The studies summarized in this scoping review provide evidence that the eye tracking methods are beneficial for studying auditory and reading comprehension in PWA.


Subject(s)
Aphasia , Comprehension , Eye Movements , Eye-Tracking Technology , Humans
8.
Aesthet Surg J ; 41(8): NP1125-NP1126, 2021 07 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1364738
9.
Aesthet Surg J ; 41(8): NP1125-NP1126, 2021 07 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1214478
10.
Aesthet Surg J ; 41(8): NP1118-NP1124, 2021 07 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1165331

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic facecovers have become a common sight. The effect of facecovers on the gaze when looking at faces has not yet been assessed. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to investigate any potential differences in eye movement pattern in observers exposed to images showing a face without and with a facecover to identify if there is truly a change of gaze when identifying (masked) facial features. METHODS: The eye movement of 64 study participants (28 males and 36 females) with a mean [standard deviation] age of 31.84 [9.0] years was analyzed in this cross-sectional observational study. Eye movement analysis was conducted based on positional changes of eye features within an x- and y-coordinate system while two images (face without/with facecover) were displayed for 8 seconds. RESULTS: The results of this study revealed that the sequence of focusing on facial regions was not altered when wearing a facecover and followed the sequence: perioral, nose, periorbital. Wearing a facecover significantly increased the time spent focusing on the periorbital region and also increased the number of repeated eye fixations during the 8-second visual stimulus presentation. No statistically significant differences were observed between male and female participants in their eye movement pattern across all investigated variables (P > 0.433). CONCLUSIONS: The altered eye movement pattern caused by wearing facecoverings that this study has revealed suggests that, during the COVID-19 pandemic, aesthetic practitioners might consider developing marketing and treatment strategies that principally target the periorbital area.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Eye Movements , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
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