Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 92
Filter
1.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263466, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1968849

ABSTRACT

Due to the prolonged COVID-19 pandemic, wearing masks has become essential for social interaction, disturbing emotion recognition in daily life. In the present study, a total of 39 Korean participants (female = 20, mean age = 24.2 years) inferred seven emotions (happiness, surprise, fear, sadness, disgust, anger, surprise, and neutral) from uncovered, mask-covered, sunglasses-covered faces. The recognition rates were the lowest under mask conditions, followed by the sunglasses and uncovered conditions. In identifying emotions, different emotion types were associated with different areas of the face. Specifically, the mouth was the most critical area for happiness, surprise, sadness, disgust, and anger recognition, but fear was most recognized from the eyes. By simultaneously comparing faces with different parts covered, we were able to more accurately examine the impact of different facial areas on emotion recognition. We discuss the potential cultural differences and the ways in which individuals can cope with communication in which facial expressions are paramount.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Emotions , Eye Protective Devices , Facial Expression , Masks , Pandemics , Recognition, Psychology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , COVID-19/virology , Eye , Female , Humans , Male , Mouth , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Sex Factors , Young Adult
2.
BMJ Open Ophthalmol ; 7(1)2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1868736

ABSTRACT

In addition to catastrophic loss of life, and dramatic and unwanted alterations to the daily lives of those left behind, the COVID-19 pandemic has fostered the publication and dissemination of an unprecedented quantity of peer-reviewed medical and scientific publications on a single subject. In particular, the ophthalmic literature is now replete with clinical and laboratory studies on putative eye involvement by SARS-CoV-2, the aetiologic agent of COVID-19. In this review, we critically appraise the published literature on COVID-19, and suggest that the quality of scientific peer review and editorial decision-making also suffered during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Eye , Humans , Pandemics , Peer Review , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Adv Healthc Mater ; 11(14): e2200283, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1843840

ABSTRACT

The eye is susceptible to viral infections, causing severe ocular symptoms or even respiratory diseases. Methods capable of protecting the eye from external viral invasion in a long-term and highly effective way are urgently needed but have been proved to be extremely challenging. Here, a strategy of forming a long-acting protective ocular surface is described by instilling adhesive dual-antiviral nanoparticles. Taking pseudotyped severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) as a model virus, antiviral agent-loaded nanoparticles are coated with a "double-lock" hybrid cell membrane abundant with integrin-ß1 and angiotensin converting enzyme II (ACE2). After instillation, the presence of integrin-ß1 endows coated nanoparticles with steady adhesion via specific binding to Arg-Gly-Asp sequence on the fibronectin of ocular epithelium, achieving durable retention on the ocular surface. In addition to loaded inhibitors, the exposure of ACE2 can trap SARS-CoV-2 and subsequently neutralize the associated spike protein, playing a dual antiviral effect of the resulting nanoparticles. Adhesive dual-antiviral nanoparticles enabled by coating with a "double-lock" hybrid cell membrane could be a versatile platform for topical long-acting protection against viral infection of the eye.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , COVID-19 , Eye Diseases , Eye , Nanoparticles , Adhesives/pharmacology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Eye/drug effects , Eye/virology , Eye Diseases/prevention & control , Eye Diseases/virology , Humans , Integrins , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 70(5): 1825-1827, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1835162

ABSTRACT

In late 2019, we saw the emergence of a new coronavirus, the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which rapidly evolved into a global pandemic. We report two cases of ocular vascular occlusion related to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) disease. The first case is of choroidal artery occlusion, while the second case is of combined central retinal artery and vein occlusion (CRAO and CRVO). We performed a thorough literature search and to the best of our knowledge, neither any of the above said has been reported in COVID-19-positive patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Retinal Artery Occlusion , Retinal Vein Occlusion , Eye , Humans , Retinal Artery Occlusion/diagnosis , Retinal Artery Occlusion/etiology , Retinal Vein Occlusion/diagnosis , Retinal Vein Occlusion/etiology , SARS-CoV-2
6.
STAR Protoc ; 3(2): 101383, 2022 06 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1799657

ABSTRACT

Here, we describe a series of protocols detailing the steps for evaluating SARS-CoV-2 infection in models of the human eye. Included are protocols for whole eye organoid differentiation, SARS-CoV-2 infection, and processing organoids for single-cell RNA sequencing. Additional protocols describe how to dissect and culture adult human ocular cells from cadaver donor eyes and how to compare infection of SARS-CoV-2 and the presence of SARS-CoV-2 entry factors using qPCR, immunofluorescence, and plaque assays. For complete details on the use and execution of this protocol, please refer to Eriksen et al. (2021).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Eye , Humans , Organoids , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 70(3): 1030, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742830

Subject(s)
Telerehabilitation , Eye , Humans
8.
Trends Mol Med ; 26(6): 529-531, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1720652

ABSTRACT

The current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is rapidly spreading around the world. The first doctor to report this new disease was an ophthalmologist: this exemplifies the role of ophthalmologists in an infectious disease pandemic. Here we review how severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) affects the eye and discuss implications for ophthalmologists.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Conjunctiva/virology , Conjunctivitis, Viral/virology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , COVID-19 , Conjunctivitis, Viral/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Eye/virology , Humans , Ophthalmologists , Ophthalmology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 70(3): 1059-1060, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715910
10.
Surv Ophthalmol ; 67(2): 307-320, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1705413

ABSTRACT

Vaccines such as bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) are known for their heterologous effects mediated through a number of mechanisms, including trained immunity constituted by monocyte-macrophage based innate immunity. Other events such as direct hematogenous spread and induction of autoimmunity are also described. There has been a resurgent interest in harnessing some of the benefits of trained immunity in the management of COVID-19, even as several specific vaccines have been approved. We summarize the current knowledge of ocular effects of BCG. Potential effect of granulomatous inflammation on angiotensin converting enzyme activity and accentuation of cytokine storm that may result in undesirable ocular and systemic effects are also discussed.


Subject(s)
BCG Vaccine , COVID-19 , BCG Vaccine/pharmacology , Eye , Humans , Immunity, Innate , SARS-CoV-2
13.
J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus ; 59(1): 65-66, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1650055

Subject(s)
Eye , Child , Humans , Syndrome
14.
Radiology ; 299(2): E226-E229, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1613117

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may affect various organs. This case series reports nine patients (one of nine [11%] women and eight of nine [89%] men; mean age ± standard deviation, 56 years ± 13) with globe MRI abnormalities obtained from a multicenter cohort of 129 patients presenting with severe COVID-19 from March 4, 2020, to May 1, 2020. Nine of 129 (7%) patients had one or several nodules of the posterior pole that were hyperintense at fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery imaging. All patients had nodules in the macular region, eight of nine (89%) had bilateral nodules, and two of nine (22%) had nodules outside the macular region. Screening of these patients might improve the management of potentially severe ophthalmologic manifestations of the virus. See also the editorial by Kirsch in this issue. © RSNA, 2021 Online supplemental material is available for this article.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Eye Diseases/complications , Eye Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Cohort Studies , Eye/diagnostic imaging , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
15.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; 44: 102191, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1608937

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: With the accumulating evidence of ocular manifestations of the 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), the study aimed to systematically summarize the ocular manifestations in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: The PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science databases were searched through June 2021. Studies that provided clinical characteristics and outcomes and reported on the ocular manifestations or conjunctival swab RT-PCR tests among COVID-19 patients were included. RESULTS: A total of 30 studies involving 5,717 patients were identified. Ocular manifestations including conjunctival hyperemia (7.6%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.8-8.9%), conjunctival discharge (4.8%, 95% CI 1.8-8.9%), epiphora (6.9%, 95% CI 2.8-12.8%), and foreign body sensation (6.9%, 95% CI 2.4-13.0%) were observed. The positive rate of conjunctival swab tests was 3.9% (95% CI 0.2-6.4%). Severe cases of COVID-19 were associated with an increased risk of developing ocular complications (odds ratio [OR] = 2.77, 95% CI 1.75-4.40). CONCLUSIONS: Despite their relatively low incidence rate in COVID-19 patients, ocular manifestations may be non-specific and present as the initial symptoms of infection. The presence of SARS-CoV-2 in the conjunctival swabs implicates the eye as a potential source of infection. Early diagnosis and proper eye protection would help prevent viral transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Eye Diseases , Eye , Eye Diseases/epidemiology , Eye Diseases/etiology , Humans , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Med Princ Pract ; 31(1): 66-73, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1606632

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: COVID-19 has varied clinical manifestations, from asymptomatic to severe cases, and conjunctivitis is one of them, but sometimes a lone initial symptom is found to be present. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of conjunctivitis as the first symptom in COVID-19 patients in a primary healthcare unit. METHODOLOGY: A retrospective study was conducted, analyzing the presenting complains/symptoms and results of COVID-19-confirmatory tests. RESULTS: Out of the 672 cases that were sent for RT-PCR testing, only 121 (18%) were found to be positive. Among these, 2.67% patients had both conjunctivitis and COVID-19, 77.77% patients had unilateral eye affected, while 22.22% had bilateral conjunctivitis of varying degrees. Fifteen patients diagnosed to have both acute conjunctivitis and COVID-19 presented other symptoms associated with COVID-19 infection. Three patients had only acute conjunctivitis during their entire course of COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Conjunctivitis is a symptom of COVID-19 and may be the first sign of the infection, until the onset of the classical manifestations; such patients may continue to be a viral reservoir. Physicians should not miss unilateral conjunctivitis as it can be the only presenting complaint of COVID-19 during the initial phase, which might worsen if undetected and can aid in the spread of the contagion.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Conjunctivitis/epidemiology , Eye/virology , RNA, Viral/analysis , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Case-Control Studies , Conjunctivitis/etiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
17.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(22)2021 Nov 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1538464

ABSTRACT

Mind-wandering has been shown to largely influence our learning efficiency, especially in the digital and distracting era nowadays. Detecting mind-wandering thus becomes imperative in educational scenarios. Here, we used a wearable eye-tracker to record eye movements during the sustained attention to response task. Eye movement analysis with hidden Markov models (EMHMM), which takes both spatial and temporal eye-movement information into account, was used to examine if participants' eye movement patterns can differentiate between the states of focused attention and mind-wandering. Two representative eye movement patterns were discovered through clustering using EMHMM: centralized and distributed patterns. Results showed that participants with the centralized pattern had better performance on detecting targets and rated themselves as more focused than those with the distributed pattern. This study indicates that distinct eye movement patterns are associated with different attentional states (focused attention vs. mind-wandering) and demonstrates a novel approach in using EMHMM to study attention. Moreover, this study provides a potential approach to capture the mind-wandering state in the classroom without interrupting the ongoing learning behavior.


Subject(s)
Eye Movements , Eye , Humans , Learning
18.
J Neuroophthalmol ; 41(4): 452-460, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1522456

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To review the literature and provide a summary of COVID-19-related neurologic and neuro-ophthalmic complications. METHODS: The currently available literature was reviewed on PubMed and Google Scholar using the following keywords for searches: CNS, Neuro-Ophthalmology, COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, coronavirus, optic neuritis, pseudotumor cerebri, Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis, posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES), meningitis, encephalitis, acute necrotizing hemorrhagic encephalopathy, and Guillain-Barré and Miller Fisher syndromes. RESULTS: Neuroradiologic findings of neurologic and neuro-ophthalmologic complications in relationship to COVID-19 infection were reviewed. Afferent visual pathway-related disorders with relevant imaging manifestations included fundus nodules on MRI, papilledema and pseudotumor cerebri syndrome, optic neuritis, Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis, vascular injury with thromboembolism and infarct, leukoencephalopathy, gray matter hypoxic injury, hemorrhage, infectious meningitis/encephalitis, acute necrotizing hemorrhagic encephalopathy, and PRES. Efferent visual pathway-related complications with relevant imaging manifestations were also reviewed, including orbital abnormalities, cranial neuropathy, Guillain-Barré and Miller Fisher syndromes, and nystagmus and other eye movement abnormalities related to rhombencephalitis. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 can cause central and peripheral nervous system disease, including along both the afferent and efferent components of visual axis. Manifestations of disease and long-term sequela continue to be studied and described. Familiarity with the wide variety of neurologic, ophthalmic, and neuroradiologic presentations can promote prompt and appropriate treatment and continue building a framework to understand the underlying mechanism of disease.


Subject(s)
Brain/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/complications , Eye/diagnostic imaging , Neuroimaging/methods , Optic Neuritis/etiology , Papilledema/etiology , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Optic Neuritis/diagnostic imaging , Papilledema/diagnostic imaging
19.
Emotion ; 21(8): 1801-1806, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1521702

ABSTRACT

The necessity to wear facial masks in public during the COVID-19 pandemic generated a unique situation where the eyes' importance as a visual source of information about individuals' mental and emotional states greatly increased. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that experience in looking in interlocutor's eyes (as a result of mask-wearing) will be correlated with enhanced performance on "reading the mind in the eyes test" (RMET). To test this, 87 participants performed an online version of the RMET at 2 different timepoints: when the mandatory mask wearing rules were put in place and a month later. We found that reported tendency to look at interlocutors' eyes, combined with experience in interacting with other people wearing masks, explained individual differences in RMET performance. Moreover, we found that individual's tendency to look at interlocutors' eyes was correlated with change in performance in reading the mind in the eyes over this month. These results suggest that in addition to individual's interest and motivation in understanding other's mental state, continuous everyday experiences can result in an improved capacity for reading mental and emotional states by looking into individuals' eyes. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emotions , Eye , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL