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1.
Adv Healthc Mater ; 11(14): e2200283, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1843840

ABSTRACT

The eye is susceptible to viral infections, causing severe ocular symptoms or even respiratory diseases. Methods capable of protecting the eye from external viral invasion in a long-term and highly effective way are urgently needed but have been proved to be extremely challenging. Here, a strategy of forming a long-acting protective ocular surface is described by instilling adhesive dual-antiviral nanoparticles. Taking pseudotyped severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) as a model virus, antiviral agent-loaded nanoparticles are coated with a "double-lock" hybrid cell membrane abundant with integrin-ß1 and angiotensin converting enzyme II (ACE2). After instillation, the presence of integrin-ß1 endows coated nanoparticles with steady adhesion via specific binding to Arg-Gly-Asp sequence on the fibronectin of ocular epithelium, achieving durable retention on the ocular surface. In addition to loaded inhibitors, the exposure of ACE2 can trap SARS-CoV-2 and subsequently neutralize the associated spike protein, playing a dual antiviral effect of the resulting nanoparticles. Adhesive dual-antiviral nanoparticles enabled by coating with a "double-lock" hybrid cell membrane could be a versatile platform for topical long-acting protection against viral infection of the eye.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , COVID-19 , Eye Diseases , Eye , Nanoparticles , Adhesives/pharmacology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Eye/drug effects , Eye/virology , Eye Diseases/prevention & control , Eye Diseases/virology , Humans , Integrins , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 28(1): 122-126, 2021 Mar 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1156231

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: The COVID-19 pandemic causes vital concerns due to the lack of proved, effective, and safe therapy. Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine seem to be useful, but recently serious concerns regarding their adverse events have risen. The aim of the study was to broaden the general perspective of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine use in COVID-19 treatment, based on an analysis of their current safety profile among patients with rheumatic diseases. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was based on a group of 152 patients with rheumatic diseases, aged 20-78 years, treated either with chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine. Analyzed data included age, gender, comorbidities, type of drug, dosage, treatment duration, and reported adverse events. Cases of drug withdrawal related to adverse events were also recorded. RESULTS: The dosage was consistent in both groups: 250 mg of chloroquine or 200 mg of hydroxychloroquine daily. 77.6% of patients did not experience any adverse reactions to the treatment. Hydroxychloroquine showed better safety profile, with 10.9% of patients reporting side-ffects, compared to 28.9% in patients treated with chloroquine. The overall incidence of ophthalmic complications was 6.6%. For both drugs, no statistically significant correlation between adverse events and age, chronic heart or liver disease, or hypertension was found. CONCLUSIONS: Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine at lower doses, as used in rheumatic diseases, prove to be relatively safe. Data from the literature show that high dosage as recommended in COVID-19 treatment may pose a risk of toxicity and require precise management, but prophylactic, long-term use of lower, safe doses might be a promising solution.


Subject(s)
Antirheumatic Agents/adverse effects , Chloroquine/adverse effects , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Rheumatic Diseases/drug therapy , Adult , Aged , Antirheumatic Agents/administration & dosage , Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Chloroquine/administration & dosage , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Eye/drug effects , Female , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged
4.
Cutan Ocul Toxicol ; 40(2): 78-84, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1153034

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Benzalkonium chloride (BAK) is a widely used disinfectant and preservative which is effective against a wide range of viruses (e.g. SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2), bacteria and fungi. However, it is toxic to the eye and skin. This study investigated the neutralization of BAK using ultraviolet C (UVC) radiation as an effort to reduce BAK toxicity potential. METHODS: BAK solutions were irradiated with a germicidal UVC lamp at various doses. Human corneal epithelial cells (HCEC) were then exposed to the UVC-irradiated BAK solutions for 5 minutes. After exposure, the cultures were assessed for metabolic activity using PrestoBlue; for cell viability using confocal microscopy with viability dyes; and for tight junction proteins using immunofluorescence staining for zonula occludens (ZO)-1. RESULTS: UVC radiation reduced BAK toxicity on cell metabolic activity in a dose-dependent manner. When the solution depth of BAK was 1.7 mm, the UVC doses needed to completely neutralize the toxicity of BAK 0.005% and 0.01% were 2.093 J/cm2 and 8.374 J/cm2, respectively. The cultures treated with UVC-neutralized BAK showed similar cell metabolic activity and cell viability to those treated with phosphate buffered saline (PBS) (p = 0.806 ∼ 1.000). The expression of ZO-1 was greatly disturbed by untreated BAK; in contrast, ZO-1 proteins were well maintained after exposure to UVC-neutralized BAK. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrates that the cell toxicity of BAK can be neutralized by UVC radiation, which provides a unique way of detoxifying BAK residues. This finding may be of great value in utilizing the antimicrobial efficacy of BAK (e.g. fighting against SARS-CoV-2) while minimizing its potential hazards to human health and the environment.


Subject(s)
Benzalkonium Compounds/adverse effects , Eye/drug effects , Skin/drug effects , Benzalkonium Compounds/radiation effects , Benzimidazoles , Cell Survival/drug effects , Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation , Epithelium, Corneal/drug effects , Epithelium, Corneal/ultrastructure , Fluorescent Dyes , Humans , Microscopy, Confocal , Ultraviolet Rays
5.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(8): e20007, 2020 08 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-721428

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Rapid access to evidence is crucial in times of an evolving clinical crisis. To that end, we propose a novel approach to answer clinical queries, termed rapid meta-analysis (RMA). Unlike traditional meta-analysis, RMA balances a quick time to production with reasonable data quality assurances, leveraging artificial intelligence (AI) to strike this balance. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate whether RMA can generate meaningful clinical insights, but crucially, in a much faster processing time than traditional meta-analysis, using a relevant, real-world example. METHODS: The development of our RMA approach was motivated by a currently relevant clinical question: is ocular toxicity and vision compromise a side effect of hydroxychloroquine therapy? At the time of designing this study, hydroxychloroquine was a leading candidate in the treatment of coronavirus disease (COVID-19). We then leveraged AI to pull and screen articles, automatically extract their results, review the studies, and analyze the data with standard statistical methods. RESULTS: By combining AI with human analysis in our RMA, we generated a meaningful, clinical result in less than 30 minutes. The RMA identified 11 studies considering ocular toxicity as a side effect of hydroxychloroquine and estimated the incidence to be 3.4% (95% CI 1.11%-9.96%). The heterogeneity across individual study findings was high, which should be taken into account in interpretation of the result. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate that a novel approach to meta-analysis using AI can generate meaningful clinical insights in a much shorter time period than traditional meta-analysis.


Subject(s)
Artificial Intelligence , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Eye Diseases/etiology , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , COVID-19 , Eye/drug effects , Eye/pathology , Humans , Pandemics , Time Factors
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