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1.
BMC Neurol ; 22(1): 309, 2022 Aug 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2002129

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To prevent the spread of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection, various vaccines have been developed and used in a large number of people worldwide. One of the most commonly used vaccines is the mRNA vaccine developed by Moderna. Although several studies have shown this vaccine to be safe, the full extent of its side effects has not yet been known. Miller-Fisher syndrome (MFS) is a rare condition that manifests ophthalmoplegia, ataxia, and loss of tendon reflexes. It is a subtype of Guillain-Barré syndrome and an immune-mediated disease related to serum IgG anti-GQ1b antibodies. Several vaccines including those for COVID-19 have been reported to induce MFS. However, there have been no reports of MFS following Moderna COVID-19 vaccine administration. CASE PRESENTATION: A 70-year-old man was referred to our hospital due to diplopia that manifested 1 week after receiving the second Moderna vaccine dose. The patient presented with restricted abduction of both eyes, mild ataxia, and loss of tendon reflexes. He was diagnosed with MFS based on his neurological findings and detection of serum anti-GQ1b antibodies. The patient was administered intravenous immunoglobulin, and his symptoms gradually improved. Five days after admission, the patient showed peripheral facial paralysis on the right side. This symptom was suggested to be a delayed onset of peripheral facial nerve palsy following MFS that gradually improved by administration of steroids and antiviral drugs. CONCLUSION: There have been no previous reports of MFS after Moderna COVID-19 vaccination. This case may provide new information about the possible neurological side effects of COVID-19 vaccines.


Subject(s)
2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , COVID-19 , Facial Paralysis , Miller Fisher Syndrome , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/adverse effects , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Facial Nerve/physiopathology , Facial Paralysis/chemically induced , Humans , Male , Miller Fisher Syndrome/chemically induced , Miller Fisher Syndrome/diagnosis , Vaccination/adverse effects
2.
Intern Med ; 61(15): 2327-2332, 2022 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1968932

ABSTRACT

A 41-year-old Japanese man was admitted to our hospital with acute perimyocarditis 4 weeks after coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. Ten days after admission, the patient showed bilateral facial nerve palsy in the course of improvement of perimyocarditis under treatment with aspirin and colchicine. After prednisolone therapy, perimyocarditis completely improved, and the facial nerve palsy gradually improved. Acute perimyocarditis and facial nerve palsy can occur even 4 weeks after contracting COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Facial Paralysis , Adult , COVID-19/complications , Facial Nerve , Facial Paralysis/etiology , Humans , Male , Prednisolone/therapeutic use
3.
Ideggyogy Sz ; 75(5-06): 199-205, 2022 May 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1918218

ABSTRACT

Background and purpose: Neurological symptoms and complications associated with coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) are well known. It was aimed to evaluate the brainstem and trigeminal/facial nerves and the pathways between these structures in COVID-19 using the blink reflex test. Methods: Thirty patients with post COVID-19 (16 males, 14 females) and 30 healthy individuals (17 males, 13 females) were included in this prospective study. Individuals who previously had a positive nose swap polymerase chain reaction test for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and whose previously clinical features were compatible with COVID-19 were included in the post COVID-19 patient group. Neurological examination of the participants should be normal. Blink reflex test was performed on all participants. R1, ipsilateral R2 (IR2), and contralateral R2 (CR2) waves obtained from the test were analyzed. Results: The mean ages of healthy individuals and post COVID-19 patients were 34.0±6.4 and 38.4±10.6 years, respectively. Both age and gender were matched between the groups. R1, IR2, and CR2 latencies/amplitudes were not different between the two groups. The side-to-side R1 latency difference was 0.5±0.3 and 1.0±0.8 ms in healthy individuals and post COVID-19 patients, respectively (p=0.011). One healthy individual and 12 patients with post COVID-19 had at least one abnormal blink reflex parameter (p=0.001). Conclusion: This study showed that COVID-19 may cause subclinical abnormalities in the blink reflex, which includes the trigeminal nerve, the seventh nerve, the brainstem, and pathways between these structures.


Subject(s)
Blinking , COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/complications , Facial Nerve/physiology , Female , Humans , Male , Neurologic Examination , Prospective Studies
4.
Rev Neurol ; 74(11): 361-366, 2022 06 01.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1876527

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: During the COVID-19 pandemic, an increased frequency of peripheral facial nerve palsy has been described in adults and children. The etiology of the disease during this time remains unclear, since most cases occurred in patients who tested negative for SARS-CoV-2 infection. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Retrospective study of pediatric cases of facial nerve palsy treated during the first year of the pandemic in the emergency department of a children´s hospital located in one of the areas with the highest prevalence of COVID-19 in Spain. Data from this period are compared with cases from the previous three years. RESULTS: Twenty-nine patients with Bell's palsy were included. Over the previous three years combined, 24 patients presented with the same condition, a more than threefold increase. No clinical differences were found between the groups apart from the fact that fewer patients received corticosteroids during the pandemic (13.8% vs 41.6%; p = 0.022). Fourteen children underwent microbiologic testing for active SARS-CoV-2 infection (12 polymerase chain reaction, two rapid antigen test); all were negative. Thirteen patients received serologic testing, two with a positive IgG (15.3%). CONCLUSION: A substantial increase in hospital presentations for facial nerve palsy was observed among children and adolescents during the first year of the pandemic, though findings of microbiologic testing cannot confirm a direct link with SARS-CoV-2 infection in most cases. Patient characteristics did not change between the two time periods. Difficulty accessing primary-care facilities during the pandemic in Spain may have played a role in this increase.


TITLE: Parálisis facial periférica en población pediátrica durante la pandemia de la COVID-19.Objetivos. Durante la pandemia de la COVID-19 se ha descrito una mayor frecuencia de parálisis facial periférica en adultos y niños. La etiología no está clara, ya que la mayoría de los casos ocurrió en pacientes negativos en las pruebas microbiológicas para confirmar infección por el SARS-CoV-2. Pacientes y métodos. Es un estudio retrospectivo de casos pediátricos de parálisis facial periférica atendidos el primer año de la pandemia en el servicio de urgencias de un hospital pediátrico ubicado en una de las zonas con mayor prevalencia de COVID-19 en España. Los casos de este período se comparan con los casos de los tres años anteriores. Resultados. Se incluyó a 29 pacientes. En los tres años anteriores, 24 pacientes presentaron la misma enfermedad, lo que supone que los casos se triplicaron. No se encontraron diferencias entre períodos, salvo que menos pacientes recibieron corticoides durante la pandemia (13,8 frente a 41,6%; p = 0,022). Catorce niños se sometieron a pruebas microbiológicas para detectar infección activa por el SARS-CoV-2 (12 reacciones en cadena de la polimerasa y dos test rápidos de antígenos), y todas fueron negativas. En 13 pacientes se realizó serología, y dos presentaron inmunoglobulina G positiva (15,3%). Conclusión. Se observó un aumento significativo de los casos de parálisis facial periférica en niños y adolescentes durante el primer año de la pandemia, aunque las pruebas microbiológicas no pueden confirmar un vínculo directo con la infección por el SARS-CoV-2 en la mayoría de los casos. Las características de los pacientes no cambiaron entre los dos períodos. La dificultad para acceder a los centros de atención primaria durante la pandemia pudo influir en este aumento.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Facial Paralysis , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Facial Nerve , Facial Paralysis/epidemiology , Facial Paralysis/etiology , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Ital J Pediatr ; 48(1): 75, 2022 May 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1846856

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pediatric facial nerve palsy is acute and mostly idiopathic; other causes are post-infectious forms. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe a rare case of facial nerve palsy associated with COVID-19 in a 5-year-old boy. The diagnosis of post-infectious COVID-19-related facial paralysis was made by serology positivity for a previous infection (IgG positive, IgM and IgA weakly positive), in the presence of a negative molecular nasopharyngeal swab and in the absence of other etiologies. Early treatment with steroids (1 mg/day for 7 days followed by tapering) and supportive care solved the problem. CONCLUSION: In a child with facial paralysis, COVID-19 must be considered as the cause and both nasopharyngeal swab and serology must be performed.


Subject(s)
Bell Palsy , COVID-19 , Facial Paralysis , Bell Palsy/complications , Bell Palsy/diagnosis , Bell Palsy/therapy , COVID-19/complications , Child , Child, Preschool , Facial Nerve , Facial Paralysis/diagnosis , Facial Paralysis/drug therapy , Facial Paralysis/etiology , Humans , Male
6.
Am J Med Sci ; 364(3): 264-273, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1797252

ABSTRACT

The primary target of SARS-CoV-2 is the respiratory tract; nevertheless, the virus can invade extrapulmonary organs, such as the nervous system. Peripheral facial nerve palsy has been reported in COVID-19 cases as isolated, unilateral, or bilateral in the context of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). In the present study, online databases, including PubMed and Google Scholar, were searched. Studies without focusing on isolated peripheral facial nerve palsy and SARS-CoV-2 were excluded. Finally, 36 patients with facial nerve palsy were included in our study using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) or antibody SARS-CoV-2 positive test. Interestingly, 23 (63.8%) of these patients had no typical history of COVID-19, and facial nerve palsy was their first clinical manifestation. The present study concludes that there is enough evidence to suggest that SARS-CoV-2 infection may present with facial nerve palsy as the initial clinical manifestation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Facial Paralysis , Guillain-Barre Syndrome , COVID-19/complications , Facial Nerve , Facial Paralysis/diagnosis , Facial Paralysis/etiology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/diagnosis , Humans , Paralysis , SARS-CoV-2
7.
J Laryngol Otol ; 136(4): 349-353, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1721320

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the aetiopathogenesis of facial neuritis in coronavirus disease 2019 associated mucormycosis. METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted of coronavirus disease 2019 associated mucormycosis patients who presented with peripheral facial nerve palsy from January 2021 to July 2021. The clinico-radiological details of four patients were assessed to examine the potential mechanism of facial nerve involvement. RESULTS: Serial radiological evaluation with contrast-enhanced computed tomography and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging revealed infratemporal fossa involvement in all cases, with the inflammation extending along fascial planes to reach the stylomastoid foramen. Ascending neuritis with an enhancement of the facial nerve was demonstrated in all cases. CONCLUSION: The likely explanation for facial palsy in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 associated mucormycosis, backed by radiology, is the disease abutting the facial nerve at the stylomastoid foramen and causing ascending neuritis of the facial nerve.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Facial Nerve Diseases , Facial Paralysis , Mucormycosis , Neuritis , Radiology , COVID-19/complications , Facial Nerve/diagnostic imaging , Facial Nerve/pathology , Facial Paralysis/etiology , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/adverse effects , Mucormycosis/complications , Mucormycosis/diagnostic imaging , Neuritis/complications , Neuritis/pathology
8.
Intern Med ; 61(2): 241-243, 2022 Jan 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1633473

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients have been increasingly reported to develop various neurological manifestations. We herein present a rare case of bilateral facial nerve palsy in a patient that occurred 5 weeks after the onset of COVID-19. The patient had no motor or sensory deficits in his extremities, and there were no other diseases that may have resulted in bilateral facial palsy. Based on these findings, we concluded that the facial palsy in this case may have been triggered by COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Facial Paralysis , Facial Nerve , Facial Paralysis/diagnosis , Facial Paralysis/etiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Intern Med ; 60(21): 3477-3480, 2021 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572221

ABSTRACT

The clinical characteristics of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) after coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remain unclear due to the small number of cases. We herein report a case of a Japanese patient with post-COVID-19 GBS who presented with facial and limb muscle weakness, sensory deficits, and autonomic dysfunction. Nerve conduction studies revealed demyelination. Head magnetic resonance imaging showed contrast enhancement in the bilateral facial nerves. Systemic management, including intubation, intravenous immunoglobulin therapy, and rehabilitation, improved the patient's condition. This was the first Japanese case of acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy after COVID-19 and was characterized by autonomic dysfunction and facial nerve enhancement.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Guillain-Barre Syndrome , Primary Dysautonomias , Facial Nerve , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/complications , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/diagnosis , Humans , Primary Dysautonomias/etiology , SARS-CoV-2
14.
J Med Case Rep ; 15(1): 558, 2021 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526658

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The new coronavirus, known as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) owing to its similarity to the previous severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), is characterized by causing, in most patients, nonspecific symptoms similar to those of the common flu. It has been reported that many coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients presented neurological symptoms that involve the central and peripheral nervous systems. In addition, there have been several reports of patients who presented Guillain-Barré syndrome related to  COVID-19 , with sensory and motor compromise in the extremities. CASE PRESENTATION: In this report, we describe a rare case of Guillain-Barré syndrome in a 50-year-old Hispanic male with bilateral facial palsy as the only neurological manifestation, following SARS-CoV-2 infection. A complete neurophysiological study showed severe axonal neuropathy of the right and left facial nerves. CONCLUSION: Regardless of severity, clinicians must to be aware of any neurological manifestation generated by COVID-19 and start performing more neurophysiological tests to determine if the infection induces an axonal, myelin, or mixed involvement of the peripheral nervous system.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Guillain-Barre Syndrome , Facial Nerve , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/complications , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/diagnosis , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
15.
BMC Pediatr ; 21(1): 470, 2021 10 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1484305

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is a disease of varying presentation and neurological sequelae of the disease are being studied. Following a cluster of paediatric facial nerve palsy (FNP) cases in an area of South Wales with a high prevalence of COVID-19, we conducted an opportunistic study to determine whether there has been an increase of incidence of FNP and if there is an association between the FNP and COVID-19 in children. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of the incidence of FNP between 2015 and 2020 across two hospitals within the health board. The incidence was compared with that in 2020 including a cluster of six children in 14 weeks, presenting to Royal Glamorgan Hospital between June and October. RESULTS: There were 48 cases of children with FNP across both hospital within the study years. Seven (7) cases in 2020. The incidence was not statistically different in comparison to other years. Five out of six of these children in 2020 had antibody testing for COVID-19. All serology testing (100%) returned negative for SARS-CoV- 2 antibodies. CONCLUSIONS: In high prevalence area for COVID-19, cases of children with FNP have not shown a commensurate increase. we have found no causal link between COVID-19 and FNP in children. While this is a small study, larger cohort studies are needed to support this finding. As new strains of COVID-19 are being reported in UK, South Africa and Brazil, physicians need to continue to be vigilant for consistent pattern of signs and symptoms, especially in children.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Facial Paralysis , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Facial Nerve , Facial Paralysis/epidemiology , Facial Paralysis/etiology , Humans , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
16.
J Laryngol Otol ; 135(10): 848-854, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1454702

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The Harmonic Scalpel and Ligasure (Covidien) devices are commonly used in head and neck surgery. Parotidectomy is a complex and intricate surgery that requires careful dissection of the facial nerve. This study aimed to compare surgical outcomes in parotidectomy using these haemostatic devices with traditional scalpel and cautery. METHOD: A systematic review of the literature was performed with subsequent meta-analysis of seven studies that compared the use of haemostatic devices to traditional scalpel and cautery in parotidectomy. Outcome measures included: temporary facial paresis, operating time, intra-operative blood loss, post-operative drain output and length of hospital stay. RESULTS: A total of 7 studies representing 675 patients were identified: 372 patients were treated with haemostatic devices, and 303 patients were treated with scalpel and cautery. Statistically significant outcomes favouring the use of haemostatic devices included operating time, intra-operative blood loss and post-operative drain output. Outcome measures that did not favour either treatment included facial nerve paresis and length of hospital stay. CONCLUSION: Overall, haemostatic devices were found to reduce operating time, intra-operative blood loss and post-operative drain output.


Subject(s)
Dissection/adverse effects , Facial Nerve/surgery , Hemostasis, Surgical/instrumentation , Parotid Gland/surgery , Blood Loss, Surgical/statistics & numerical data , Drainage/trends , Electrocoagulation/adverse effects , Facial Paralysis/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Middle Aged , Operative Time , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Postoperative Period , Surgical Instruments/adverse effects
17.
Int J Infect Dis ; 111: 310-312, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385719

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Facial nerve palsy (or Bell's palsy) has occasionally been reported following the administration of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) mRNA vaccines (BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273). Our study investigated such cases using a large self-reporting database from the USA (Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System [VAERS]). METHODS: A disproportionality analysis, adjusted for age and sex, was conducted for VAERS reports from individuals who were vaccinated at the age of 18 years or over, between January 2010 and April 2021. RESULTS: The analysis revealed that the adverse events following immunization (AEFI) of facial nerve palsy, after administration of COVID-19 mRNA vaccines, was significantly highly reported, both for BNT162b2 (reporting odds ratio [ROR] 1.84; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.65-2.06) and mRNA-1273 (ROR 1.54; 95% CI 1.39-1.70). These levels were comparable to that following influenza vaccination reported before the COVID-19 pandemic (ROR 2.04; 95% CI 1.76-2.36). CONCLUSIONS: Our pharmacovigilance study results suggest that the incidence of facial nerve palsy as a non-serious AEFI may be lower than, or equivalent to, that for influenza vaccines. This information might be of value in the context of promoting worldwide vaccination, but needs to be validated in future observational studies.


Subject(s)
Bell Palsy , COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Adolescent , Adult , Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems , Bell Palsy/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Facial Nerve , Humans , Influenza Vaccines/adverse effects , Pandemics , Paralysis , RNA, Messenger/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
20.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(7)2021 Jul 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318018

ABSTRACT

A 61-year-old man presented to the ENT emergency clinic with a history of unilateral facial nerve palsy occurring shortly after each dose of the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine. The first episode developed 5 hours after administration of the first dose and the second 2 days after administration of the second dose. Investigations at initial presentation to the emergency department were unremarkable, and the patient was diagnosed with Bell's palsy on both occasions. We describe the first case of Bell's palsy occurring after each dose of any UK-approved COVID-19 vaccine. Single episodes of unilateral facial nerve palsies have been reported in clinical trials and in subsequent case reports. There has been no evidence, however, of an episode after each dose. We also describe the earliest onset of symptoms from timing of administration of the vaccine, further suggesting the Bell's palsy was associated with the vaccine.


Subject(s)
Bell Palsy , COVID-19 , Facial Paralysis , Bell Palsy/chemically induced , COVID-19 Vaccines , Facial Nerve , Facial Paralysis/chemically induced , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/adverse effects
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