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1.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 23(1): 575, 2023 Jun 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20232350

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since March 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic has shocked health systems worldwide. This analysis investigated the effects of the pandemic on basic health services utilization in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and examined the variability of COVID effects in the capital city Kinshasa, in other urban areas, and in rural areas. METHODS: We estimated time trends models using national health information system data to replicate pre-COVID-19 (i.e., January 2017-February 2020) trajectories of health service utilization, and then used those models to estimate what the levels would have been in the absence of COVID-19 during the pandemic period, starting in March 2020 through March 2021. We classified the difference between the observed and predicted levels as the effect of COVID-19 on health services. We estimated 95% confidence intervals and p-values to examine if the effect of the pandemic, nationally and within specific geographies, was statistically significant. RESULTS: Our results indicate that COVID-19 negatively impacted health services and subsequent recovery varied by service type and by geographical area. COVID-19 had a lasting impact on overall service utilization as well as on malaria and pneumonia-related visits among young children in the DRC. We also found that the effects of COVID-19 were even more immediate and stronger in the capital city of Kinshasa compared with the national effect. Both nationally and in Kinshasa, most affected services had slow and incomplete recovery to expected levels. Therefore, our analysis indicates that COVID-19 continued to affect health services in the DRC throughout the first year of the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: The methodology used in this article allows for examining the variability in magnitude, timing, and duration of the COVID effects within geographical areas of the DRC and nationally. This analytical procedure based on national health information system data could be applied to surveil health service disruptions and better inform rapid responses from health service managers and policymakers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Information Systems , Child , Humans , Child, Preschool , Democratic Republic of the Congo/epidemiology , Facilities and Services Utilization , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology
2.
J Subst Use Addict Treat ; 150: 209047, 2023 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2304840

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Many outpatient substance use programs have experienced in-person, remote/telehealth, and hybrid models of care since the 2020 Covid-19 Pandemic. Changes in treatment models naturally affect service utilization and may affect treatment trajectories. Currently, limited research examines the implications of different health care models on service utilization and patient outcomes in substance use treatment. Here, we reflect on the implications of each model from a patient-centered care approach and review the implications on service utilization and outcomes. METHODS: We employed a retrospective, observational, longitudinal, cohort design to explore differences in demographic characteristics and service utilization among patients receiving in-person, remote, or hybrid services across four substance use clinics in New York. We reviewed admission (N = 2238) and discharge (N = 2044) data from four outpatient SUD clinics within the same health care system across three cohorts (2019, in-person; 2020, remote; 2021, hybrid). RESULTS: Patients discharged in 2021 (hybrid) had significantly more median total treatment visits (M = 26, p ≤ 0.0005), a longer course of treatment (M = 154.5 days, p ≤ 0.0001), and more individual counseling sessions (M = 9, p ≤ 0.0001) compared to the other two cohorts. Demographic analyses indicate more ethnoracial diversity (p = 0.0006) among patients admitted in 2021, compared to the other two cohorts. Over time, the proportion of individuals being admitted with a co-existing psychiatric disorder (2019, 49 %; 2020; 55.4 %, 2021, 54.9 %) and no prior mental health treatment (2019, 49.4 %; 2020, 46.0 %; 2021, 69.3 %) increased (p = 0.0001). Admissions in 2021 were more likely to be self-referred (32.5 %, p < 0.0001), employed full-time (39.5 %, p = 0.01), and have higher educational attainment (p = 0.0008). CONCLUSION: During hybrid treatment in 2021, patients from a wider range of ethnoracial backgrounds were admitted and retained in care, patients with higher socioeconomic status (who were previously less likely to enter treatment) were admitted, and fewer individuals left against clinical advice (compared to the remote 2020 cohort). More patients successfully completed treatment in 2021. Service utilization, demographic, and outcome trends support a hybrid model of care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Substance-Related Disorders , Telemedicine , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Demography , Facilities and Services Utilization , New York/epidemiology , Outpatients , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology
3.
Med Care ; 61(Suppl 1): S39-S46, 2023 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2278483

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: In recent years, 2 circumstances changed provider-patient interactions in primary care: the substitution of virtual (eg, video) for in-person visits and the COVID-19 pandemic. We studied whether access to care might affect patient fulfillment of ancillary services orders for ambulatory diagnosis and management of incident neck or back pain (NBP) and incident urinary tract infection (UTI) for virtual versus in-person visits. METHODS: Data were extracted from the electronic health records of 3 Kaiser Permanente Regions to identify incident NBP and UTI visits from January 2016 through June 2021. Visit modes were classified as virtual (Internet-mediated synchronous chats, telephone visits, or video visits) or in-person. Periods were classified as prepandemic [before the beginning of the national emergency (April 2020)] or recovery (after June 2020). Percentages of patient fulfillment of ancillary services orders were measured for 5 service classes each for NBP and UTI. Differences in percentages of fulfillments were compared between modes within periods and between periods within the mode to assess the possible impact of 3 moderators: distance from residence to primary care clinic, high deductible health plan (HDHP) enrollment, and prior use of a mail-order pharmacy program. RESULTS: For diagnostic radiology, laboratory, and pharmacy services, percentages of fulfilled orders were generally >70-80%. Given an incident NBP or UTI visit, longer distance to the clinic and higher cost-sharing due to HDHP enrollment did not significantly suppress patients' fulfillment of ancillary services orders. Prior use of mail-order prescriptions significantly promoted medication order fulfillments on virtual NBP visits compared with in-person NBP visits in the prepandemic period (5.9% vs. 2.0%, P=0.01) and in the recovery period (5.2% vs. 1.6%, P=0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Distance to the clinic or HDHP enrollment had minimal impact on the fulfillment of diagnostic or prescribed medication services associated with incident NBP or UTI visits delivered virtually or in-person; however, prior use of mail-order pharmacy option promoted fulfillment of prescribed medication orders associated with NBP visits.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Telemedicine , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Facilities and Services Utilization , Ambulatory Care , Cost Sharing
4.
Int J Infect Dis ; 128: 3-10, 2023 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2236200

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Data on the economic burden of long COVID are scarce. We aimed to examine the prevalence and medical costs of treating long COVID. METHODS: We conducted this historical cohort study using data from patients with COVID-19 among members of a large health provider in Israel. Cases were defined according to physician diagnosis (definite long COVID) or suggestive symptoms given ≥ 4 weeks from infection (probable cases). Healthcare resource utilization and direct healthcare costs (HCCs) in the period before infection and afterward were compared across study groups. RESULTS: Between March 2020, and March 2021, a total of 180,759 COVID-19 patients (mean [SD] age = 32.9 years [19.0 years]; 89,665 [49.6%] females) were identified. Overall, 14,088 (7.8%) individuals developed long COVID (mean [SD] age = 40.0 years [19.0 years]; 52.4% females). Among them, 1477(10.5%) were definite long COVID and 12,611(89.5%) were defined as probable long COVID. Long COVID was associated with age (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.058 per year, 95% CI: 1.053-1.063), female sex (AOR = 1.138; 95% CI: 1.098-1.180), smoking (AOR = 1.532; 95% CI: 1.358-1.727), and symptomatic acute phase (AOR = 1.178; 95% CI: 1.133-1.224), primarily muscle pain and cough. Hypertension was an important risk factor for long COVID among younger adults. Compared with patients with non-long COVID, definite and probable cases were associated with AORs of 2.47 (2.22-2.75) and 1.76 (1.68-1.84) for post-COVID hospitalization, respectively. Although among patients with non-long COVID HCCs decreased from $1400 during 4 months before the infection to $1021 and among patients with long COVID, HCCs increased from $2435 to $2810. CONCLUSION: Long COVID is associated with a substantial increase in the utilization of healthcare services and direct medical costs. Our findings underline the need for timely planning and allocating resources for patient-centered care for patients with long COVID as well as for its secondary prevention in high-risk patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , Female , Male , Cohort Studies , Facilities and Services Utilization , Health Care Costs , Risk Factors , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Retrospective Studies
5.
PeerJ ; 10: e14376, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2145067

ABSTRACT

Background: The worldwide transmission of SARS CoV-2 caused the COVID-19 pandemic and had an impact on healthcare provision. The disruption of reliance on the health system during the COVID-19 pandemic posed a clear threat to public trust. Religiosity, like spirituality, is believed to have a positive influence on people's lives, enabling them to cope with illness, stress, and sudden life changes. In practice, although the terms religiosity and spirituality have similar meanings and are related, they are not identical concepts. The aim of this study is to compare the perceptions of the accessibility and quality of healthcare services provided before and during the COVID-19 pandemic in Poland by religious/spiritual people compared to those for whom religion and spirituality have little or no importance in their lives. Methodology: This cross-sectional study was based on the authors' questionnaire, carried out during the third wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Poland. Participants in the study were people living in various regions of Poland over 18 who were willing to complete the questionnaire voluntarily. The number of people sampled was two hundred and sixty-four. Convenience sampling method was used for this study. Statistical calculations were performed using Statistica 13 software from TIBCO and PQStat from PQStat Software and were based on the Kruskal-Wallis test, multiple regression model, the chi2 test of independence or the Mann-Whitney test. The result was considered statistically significant when p < α. The significance level was taken as α = 0.05. Results: Two hundred and sixty-three respondents answered the questionnaire. Among them, 181 (69%) were women, and 82 (31%) were men. It was shown that religion is more important for women than for men and women who report a high role of religion in their lives rated the quality of healthcare services better before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. It was also concluded that religious people for whom religion played a major role and those who were helped by spiritual life rated accessibility and quality higher both before and during the pandemic. Conclusions: Religious/spiritual people, through their more positive attitudes towards the world, were thought to rate access and quality of healthcare services better. Regardless of religious affiliation, the help of spiritual life during the pandemic or the importance of religion in life in all respondents, perception of healthcare services utilisation were decreased by the pandemic. This prompts thoughts on the implementation of spiritual assistance as a supportive measure to mitigate the effects of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Spirituality , Male , Humans , Female , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Poland/epidemiology , Facilities and Services Utilization , Religion , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Perception
6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(23)2022 Nov 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2143140

ABSTRACT

Timely access to essential health services is a concern as COVID-19 continues. This study aimed to investigate health services utilization during the first wave of the pandemic in China. A cross-sectional online survey was conducted using a self-administrated questionnaire in March 2020. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were used for data analysis. A total of 4744 respondents were included, with 52.00% reporting affected services utilization. Clinical testing (68.14%) and drug purchase (49.61%) were the most affected types. Higher education level, being married, chronic disease, frequently visiting a provincial medical institution, spending more time on pandemic-related information, perception of high-risk of infection, perception of large health impact of the pandemic, and anxiety/depression were significant predictors for reporting affected services utilization. For the 431 chronic disease respondents, 62.18% reported interruption, especially for drug purchase (58.58%). Affected health services utilization was reported during the first wave of the pandemic in China, especially for those with higher education level, chronic diseases, and COVID-19 related concerns. Enhancing primary healthcare, use of telehealth, extended prescription, and public communication were countermeasures undertaken by China during the rapid rise period. As COVID-19 progresses, the changing disease characteristics, adapted health system, along with enhanced public awareness/knowledge should be considered for the evolution of health services utilization, and further investigation is needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Facilities and Services Utilization , China/epidemiology
7.
Psychiatry Res ; 317: 114778, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1977747

ABSTRACT

With the significant impact of COVID-19 pandemic on the health, and the functioning of health care system, it has become increasingly important to understand changes in the ways health services were utilized and the factors influencing it. Drop in psychiatric admissions was seen during the pandemic, but also an increase in acute hospitalizations and emergency visits. Our aim was to analyze changes in out- and in-patient services utilization in the largest Croatian psychiatric institution during the first year of the pandemic, observed through the lens of the stringency index, and compare it to the pre-pandemic year. Along with an overall drop in hospitalizations, but a unit-specific rise in hospitalization, we have observed a non-significant overall drop in regular outpatient visits, and a significant drop coinciding with strictest epidemiological measures. There was also a significant increase in emergency visits coinciding with epidemiological measures that failed to return to pre-pandemic values, pointing to an expected significant and prolonged burden on emergency services. Simultaneous analysis of changing dynamics of mental health care service utilization during the pandemic helps us identify specific points of increased burden, and help us plan for early and flexible resources shift in order to adequately respond to evolving challenges.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Health Services , Humans , Pandemics , Hospitalization , Facilities and Services Utilization , Emergency Service, Hospital , Retrospective Studies
8.
Psychiatr Serv ; 73(11): 1202-1209, 2022 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1861753

ABSTRACT

Objective: This study aimed to examine changes in child emergency department (ED) discharges and hospitalizations for primary general medical (GM) and primary psychiatric disorders; prevalence of psychiatric disorders among acute care encounters; and change in acute mental health (MH) care encounters by disorder type and, within these categories, by child sociodemographic characteristics before and after statewide COVID-19­related school closure orders. Methods: This retrospective, cross-sectional cohort study used the Pediatric Health Information System database to assess percent changes in ED discharges and hospitalizations (N=2,658,474 total encounters) among children ages 3­17 years in 44 U.S. children's hospitals in 2020 compared with 2019, by using matched data for 36- and 12-calendar-week intervals. Results: Decline in MH ED discharges accounted for about half of the decline in ED discharges and hospitalizations for primary GM disorders (−24.8% vs. −49.1%), and MH hospitalizations declined 3.4 times less (−8.0% vs. −26.8%) in 2020. Suicide attempt or self-injury and depressive disorders accounted for >50% of acute MH care encounters before and after the statewide school closures. The increase in both ED discharges and hospitalizations for suicide attempt or self-injury was 5.1 percentage points (p<0.001). By fall 2020, MH hospitalizations for suicide attempt or self-injury rose by 41.7%, with a 43.8% and 49.2% rise among adolescents and girls, respectively. Conclusions: Suicide or self-injury and depressive disorders drove acute MH care encounters in 44 U.S. children's hospitals after COVID-19­related school closures. Research is needed to identify continuing risk indicators (e.g., sociodemographic characteristics, psychiatric disorder types, and social determinants of health) of acute child MH care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control , Facilities and Services Utilization , Hospitals, Pediatric , Mental Health Services , Schools , Child , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Hospitals, Pediatric/statistics & numerical data , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Schools/statistics & numerical data , Patient Care/statistics & numerical data , Mental Health Services/statistics & numerical data , United States/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Communicable Disease Control/statistics & numerical data , Facilities and Services Utilization/statistics & numerical data
9.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(3): e222933, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1748800

ABSTRACT

Importance: The association of the COVID-19 pandemic with the quality of ambulatory care is unknown. Hospitalizations for ambulatory care-sensitive conditions (ACSCs) are a well-studied measure of the quality of ambulatory care; however, they may also be associated with other patient-level and system-level factors. Objective: To describe trends in hospital admissions for ACSCs in the prepandemic period (March 2019 to February 2020) compared with the pandemic period (March 2020 to February 2021). Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study of adults enrolled in a commercial health maintenance organization in Michigan included 1 240 409 unique adults (13 011 176 person-months) in the prepandemic period and 1 206 361 unique adults (12 759 675 person-months) in the pandemic period. Exposure: COVID-19 pandemic (March 2020 to February 2021). Main Outcomes and Measures: Adjusted relative risk (aRR) of ACSC hospitalizations and intensive care unit stays for ACSC hospitalizations and adjusted incidence rate ratio of the length of stay of ACSC hospitalizations in the prepandemic (March 2019 to February 2020) vs pandemic (March 2020 to February 2021) periods, adjusted for patient age, sex, calendar month of admission, and county of residence. Results: The study population included 1 240 409 unique adults (13 011 176 person-months) in the prepandemic period and 1 206 361 unique adults (12 759 675 person-months) in the pandemic period, in which 51.3% of person-months (n = 6 547 231) were for female patients, with a relatively even age distribution between the ages of 24 and 64 years. The relative risk of having any ACSC hospitalization in the pandemic period compared with the prepandemic period was 0.72 (95% CI, 0.69-0.76; P < .001). This decrease in risk was slightly larger in magnitude than the overall reduction in non-ACSC, non-COVID-19 hospitalization rates (aRR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.81-0.83; P < .001). Large reductions were found in the relative risk of respiratory-related ACSC hospitalizations (aRR, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.50-0.58; P < .001), with non-statistically significant reductions in diabetes-related ACSCs (aRR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.83-1.00; P = .05) and a statistically significant reduction in all other ACSC hospitalizations (aRR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.74-0.85; P < .001). Among ACSC hospitalizations, no change was found in the percentage that included an intensive care unit stay (aRR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.94-1.04; P = .64), and no change was found in the length of stay (adjusted incidence rate ratio, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.98-1.06; P = .33). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cross-sectional study of adults enrolled in a large commercial health maintenance organization plan, the COVID-19 pandemic was associated with reductions in both non-ACSC and ACSC hospitalizations, with particularly large reductions seen in respiratory-related ACSCs. These reductions were likely due to many patient-level and health system-level factors associated with hospitalization rates. Further research into the causes and long-term outcomes associated with these reductions in ACSC admissions is needed to understand how the pandemic has affected the delivery of ambulatory and hospital care in the US.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Facilities and Services Utilization , Female , Humans , Male , Michigan , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
10.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 311, 2022 Mar 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731529

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In recent decades, there has been a significant focus towards the improvement of maternal mortality indicators in low-and middle-income countries. Though progress has been made around the world, West Africa has maintained an elevated burden of diseases. One proposed solution to increasing access to primary care services is health insurance coverage. As limited evidence exists, we sought to understand the relationship between health insurance coverage and at least four antenatal care (ANC) visits in West Africa. METHODS: Demographic and Health Survey data from 10 West African countries were weighted, cleaned, and analysed. The total sample was 79,794 women aged 15 to 49 years old were considered for the analysis. Health insurance coverage was the explanatory variable, and the outcome variable was number of ANC visits. The data were analysed using binary logistic regression. The results were presented using crude and adjusted odds ratio (aOR) at 95% confidence interval. RESULTS: Approximately 86.73% of women who were covered by health insurance had four or more ANC visits, compared to 55.15% for women without insurance. In total, 56.91% of the total sample attended a minimum of four ANC visits. Women with health insurance coverage were more likely to make the minimum recommended number of ANC visits than their non-insured-peers (aOR [95% CI] =1.55 [1.37-1.73]). CONCLUSION: Health insurance is a significant determinant in accessing primary care services for pregnant women. Yet, very few in the region are covered by an insurance scheme. In the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic, policy makers should prioritize rapid solutions to provide primary care while setting the infrastructure for long-term and sustainable options such as publicly run health insurance schemes.


Subject(s)
Facilities and Services Utilization , Insurance Coverage , Insurance, Health , Prenatal Care , Adolescent , Adult , Africa, Western/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Facilities and Services Utilization/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Insurance Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Insurance, Health/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Prenatal Care/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
11.
South Med J ; 115(3): 175-180, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1718124

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has resulted in unprecedented hospitalizations, ventilator use, and deaths. Because of concerns for resource utilization and surges in hospital capacity use, Texas Executive Order GA-29 required statewide mask wear beginning July 3, 2020. Our objective was to compare COVID-19 case load, hospital bed use, and deaths before and after implementation of this mask order. METHODS: This was a retrospective observational study using publicly reported statewide data to perform a mixed-methods interrupted time series analysis. We compared outcomes before and after the statewide mask wear mandate per Executive Order GA-29. The preorder period was from June 19 to July 2, 2020. The postorder period was July 17 to September 17, 2020. Outcomes included daily COVID-19 case load, hospitalizations, and mortality. RESULTS: The daily case load before the mask order per 100,000 individuals was 187.5 (95% confidence interval [CI] 157.0-217.0) versus 200.7 (95% CI 179.8-221.6) after GA-29. The number of daily hospitalized patients with COVID-19 was 171.4 (95% CI 143.8-199.0) before GA-29 versus 225.1 (95% CI 202.9-247.3) after. Daily mortality was 2.4 (95% CI 1.9-2.9) before GA-29 versus 5.2 (95% CI 4.6-5.8). There was no material impact on our results after controlling for economic activity. CONCLUSIONS: In both adjusted and unadjusted analyses, we were unable to detect a reduction in case load, hospitalization rates, or mortality associated with the implementation of an executive order requiring a statewide mask order. These results suggest that during a period of rapid virus spread, additional public health measures may be necessary to mitigate transmission at the population level.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Mandatory Programs , Masks , Workload/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , Facilities and Services Utilization , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Interrupted Time Series Analysis , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate , Texas
12.
J Med Life ; 15(1): 7-14, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1709142

ABSTRACT

Indonesia is currently experiencing the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, impacting maternal health services and maternal mortality. This research aims to investigate the use of antenatal care (ANC) during the COVID-19 second wave and the factors that play a role in this situation. A cross-sectional study was conducted during July 2021 on 344 pregnant women in primary, secondary, and tertiary maternal health care facilities in Pasuruan Regency, Indonesia. The data collection technique was simple random sampling, with face-to-face interviews assisted by questionnaires. Logistic regression and adjusted odds ratio with 95% CI and p<0.05 were performed to identify a significant relationship. 136 (39.5%) pregnant women did not use ANC services during the second wave of the COVID-19 outbreak. Husband's support (AOR=13.814, 95% CI: 8.090-23.588), believing that pregnant women are not afraid of contracting COVID-19 (AOR=6.501, 95% CI: 3.904-10.825), easy access to transportation (AOR=12.145, 95% CI: 6.186-23.846), ease of ANC fees (AOR=4.105, 95% CI: 2.424-6.950), no lockdown policy (AOR=3.130, 95% CI: 1.983-4.940), knowledge regarding COVID-19 (AOR=2.975, 95% CI: 1.793-4.938), COVID-19 information on social media (AOR=3.035, 95% CI: 1.179-7.815), COVID-19 prevention protocols in health facilities (AOR=8.478, 95% CI: 3.611-19.903) were predictors of ANC utilization. This encourages the importance of prioritizing health services for pregnant women during the pandemic, overcoming the fear of contracting COVID-19 through maternal education, husband support, easy access to ANC, and improving the quality of ANC service facilities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Prenatal Care , Cross-Sectional Studies , Facilities and Services Utilization , Female , Humans , Indonesia/epidemiology , Pandemics , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Pregnancy , Prenatal Care/methods , SARS-CoV-2
13.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(8): 313-318, 2022 Feb 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1702098

ABSTRACT

Emergency departments (EDs) in the United States remain a frontline resource for pediatric health care emergencies during the COVID-19 pandemic; however, patterns of health-seeking behavior have changed during the pandemic (1,2). CDC examined changes in U.S. ED visit trends to assess the continued impact of the pandemic on visits among children and adolescents aged 0-17 years (pediatric ED visits). Compared with 2019, pediatric ED visits declined by 51% during 2020, 22% during 2021, and 23% during January 2022. Although visits for non-COVID-19 respiratory illnesses mostly declined, the proportion of visits for some respiratory conditions increased during January 2022 compared with 2019. Weekly number and proportion of ED visits increased for certain types of injuries (e.g., drug poisonings, self-harm, and firearm injuries) and some chronic diseases, with variation by pandemic year and age group. Visits related to behavioral concerns increased across pandemic years, particularly among older children and adolescents. Health care providers and families should remain vigilant for potential indirect impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic, including health conditions resulting from delayed care, and increasing emotional distress and behavioral health concerns among children and adolescents.


Subject(s)
Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Emergency Treatment/classification , Facilities and Services Utilization/statistics & numerical data , Facilities and Services Utilization/trends , Adolescent , Age Distribution , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Sentinel Surveillance , United States
14.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(8): 319-324, 2022 Feb 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1702097

ABSTRACT

In 2021, a national emergency* for children's mental health was declared by several pediatric health organizations, and the U.S. Surgeon General released an advisory† on mental health among youths. These actions resulted from ongoing concerns about children's mental health in the United States, which was exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic (1,2). During March-October 2020, among all emergency department (ED) visits, the proportion of mental health-related visits increased by 24% among U.S. children aged 5-11 years and 31% among adolescents aged 12-17 years, compared with 2019 (2). CDC examined changes in U.S. pediatric ED visits for overall mental health conditions (MHCs) and ED visits associated with specific MHCs (depression; anxiety; disruptive behavioral and impulse-control disorders; attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder; trauma and stressor-related disorders; bipolar disorders; eating disorders; tic disorders; and obsessive-compulsive disorders [OCD]) during 2019 through January 2022 among children and adolescents aged 0-17 years, overall and by sex and age. After declines in weekly visits associated with MHCs among those aged 0-17 years during 2020, weekly numbers of ED visits for MHCs overall and for specific MHCs varied by age and sex during 2021 and January 2022, when compared with corresponding weeks in 2019. Among adolescent females aged 12-17 years, weekly visits increased for two of nine MHCs during 2020 (eating disorders and tic disorders), for four of nine MHCs during 2021 (depression, eating disorders, tic disorders, and OCD), and for five of nine MHCs during January 2022 (anxiety, trauma and stressor-related disorders, eating disorders, tic disorders, and OCD), and overall MHC visits during January 2022, compared with 2019. Early identification and expanded evidence-based prevention and intervention strategies are critical to improving children's and adolescents' mental health (1-3), especially among adolescent females, who might have increased need.


Subject(s)
Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Emergency Treatment/trends , Facilities and Services Utilization/trends , Mental Disorders/psychology , Mental Health , Adolescent , Age Distribution , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Mental Disorders/classification , SARS-CoV-2 , Sentinel Surveillance , Sex Distribution , United States/epidemiology
16.
Turk J Gastroenterol ; 33(2): 145-152, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1669244

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To present the struggle of a high volume liver transplant center against coronavirus infectious disease-2019 pandemic. METHODS: Between March 2020 and December 2020, the demographic and clinical data of staff and liver transplant candidates diagnosed with coronavirus infectious disease-2019 in our Liver Transplant Institute were prospectively analyzed. RESULTS: First, 32 healthcare staff were diagnosed with coronavirus infectious disease-2019, and 6 of them were surgeons. Six staff were asymptomatic, while 24 staff had mild or moderate and 2 staff had severe coronavirus infectious disease-2019. All the staff recovered from the disease without any permanent sequela and returned to duty after 2 consecutive negative polymerase chain reaction results within 24-hour intervals. Second, during the preoperative investigation, 6 living liver donor candidates and 13 recipients were tested positive for coronavirus infectious disease-2019 (son = 6, unrelated = 3, cousin = 3, daughter = 2, cadaveric = 1). Eleven patients received favipiravir and 8 did not receive any treatment because they were asymptomatic. Only one recipient who had severe coronavirus infectious disease-2019 died due to multiple organ failure syndrome. One recipient died in the early postoperative period. The median duration from the initial diagnosis of the patients till the transplant procedure was 21 days (min-max: 14-105 days). During the time of operation, the polymerase chain reaction tests of the donors and the recipients were negative, and the thorax tomography images showed no signs of viral pneumonia. CONCLUSION: Meticulous precautions, multidisciplinary approach, team effort, and organization of facilities can increase the quality of care of these patients in the coronavirus infectious disease-2019 era. Healthcare workers have shown tremendous effort and are the true heroes of this era.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Facilities and Services Utilization , Liver Transplantation , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Facilities and Services Utilization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control
17.
BMJ ; 376: e066809, 2022 01 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1627540

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To explore whether and for how long use of healthcare services is increased among children and adolescents after covid-19. DESIGN: Before and after register based study. SETTING: General population of Norway. PARTICIPANTS: Norwegians aged 1-19 years (n=706 885) who were tested for SARS-CoV-2 from 1 August 2020 to 1 February 2021 (n=10 279 positive, n=275 859 negative) or not tested (n=420 747) and were not admitted to hospital, by age groups 1-5, 6-15, and 16-19 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Monthly percentages of all cause and cause specific healthcare use in primary care (general practitioner, emergency ward) and specialist care (outpatient, inpatient) from six months before to about six months after the week of being tested for SARS-CoV-2, using a difference-in-differences approach. RESULTS: A substantial short term relative increase in primary care use was observed for participants during the first month after a positive SARS-CoV-2 test result compared with those who tested negative (age 1-5 years: 339%, 95% confidence interval 308% to 369%; 6-15 years: 471%, 450% to 491%; 16-19 years: 401%, 380% to 422%). Use of primary care for the younger age groups was still increased at two months (1-5 years: 22%, 4% to 40%; 6-15 years: 14%, 2% to 26%) and three months (1-5 years: 26%, 7% to 46%, 6-15 years: 15%, 3% to 28%), but not for the oldest group (16-19 years: 11%, -2% to 24% and 6%, -7% to 19%, respectively). Children aged 1-5 years who tested positive also showed a minor long term (≤6 months) relative increase in primary care use (13%, -0% to 26%) that was not observed for the older age groups, compared with same aged children who tested negative. Results were similar yet the age differences less pronounced compared with untested controls. For all age groups, the increase in primary care visits was due to respiratory and general or unspecified conditions. No increased use of specialist care was observed. CONCLUSION: Covid-19 among children and adolescents was found to have limited impact on healthcare services in Norway. Preschool aged children might take longer to recover (3-6 months) than primary or secondary school students (1-3 months), usually because of respiratory conditions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Facilities and Services Utilization , Primary Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Age Factors , Ambulatory Care/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infant , Male , Norway , Pandemics , Registries , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Time Factors
18.
Ann Vasc Surg ; 80: 104-112, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1596282

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to examine the COVID-19 pandemic and its associated impact on the provision of vascular services, and the pattern of presentation and practice in a tertiary referral vascular unit. METHODS: This is a retrospective observational study from a prospectively maintained data-base comparing two time frames, Period 1(15th March-30th May 2019-P1) and Period 2(15th March-30th May 2020-P2)All the patients who presented for a vascular review in the 2 timeframes were included. Metrics of service and patient care episodes were collected and compared including, the number of emergency referrals, patient encounters, consultations, emergency admissions and interventions. Impact on key hospital resources such as critical care and imaging facilities during the two time periods were also examined. RESULTS: There was an absolute reduction of 44% in the number of patients who required urgent or emergency treatment from P1 to P2 (141 vs 79). We noted a non-significant trend towards an increase in the proportion of patients presenting with Chronic Limb Threatening Ischaemia (CLTI) Rutherford 5&6 (P=0.09) as well as a reduction in the proportion of admissions related to Aortic Aneurysm (P=0.21). There was a significant absolute reduction of 77% in all vascular interventions from P1 to P2 with the greatest reductions noted in Carotid (P=0.02), Deep Venous (P=0.003) and Aortic interventions (P=0.016). The number of lower limb interventions also decreased though there was a significant increase as a relative proportion of all vascular interventions in P2 (P=0.001). There was an absolute reduction in the number of scans performed for vascular pathology; Duplex scans reduced by 86%(P<0.002), CT scans by 68%(P<0.003) and MRIs by 74%(P<0.009). CONCLUSION: We report a decrease in urgent and emergency vascular presentations, admissions and interventions. The reduction in patients presenting with lower limb pathology was not as significant as other vascular conditions, resulting in a significant rise in interventions for CLTI and DFI as a proportion of all vascular interventions. These observations will help guide the provision of vascular services during future pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospital Units/statistics & numerical data , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Tertiary Healthcare/statistics & numerical data , Vascular Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Workload/statistics & numerical data , Ambulatory Care/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Facilities and Services Utilization , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/statistics & numerical data , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/statistics & numerical data , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/statistics & numerical data , United Kingdom
19.
Am Surg ; 88(1): 133-139, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574563

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has resulted in fewer emergency presentations of many acute medical and surgical conditions. The purpose of this study was to assess the severity of disease at presentation and quantify the change in number of presentations during this period. METHODS: This retrospective study includes all patients diagnosed with acute diverticulitis on abdominopelvic computerised tomography (CT) between March 1, 2020 and June 30, 2020, compared to the same period in 2019. Follow up scans on the index admission were excluded. Hinchey grade was assessed for all CT scans. Inflammatory markers were analysed, along with outcome measures including length of stay and mortality. RESULTS: Acute diverticulitis was diagnosed in 52 CT scans in the acute pandemic period - a decrease of 51.4%. Average age at presentation was unchanged (63.3 ± 14.3 vs. 62.8 ± 13.8, P = .848). The number of Hinchey II, III and IV presentations were significantly higher in the acute pandemic period (28.8% vs. 11.2%, P = .005) and significantly more emergency operations were carried out (7.69% vs. .93%, P = .04). Mortality was not significantly increased, nor were serum levels of C-reactive protein, white cell count and lactate. DISCUSSION: During the COVID-19 pandemic, fewer patients presented and were diagnosed with acute diverticulitis. A significantly greater proportion presented at a more advanced stage and required emergency surgery, suggesting late presentation. Our findings support the need for maintaining acute surgical services and the provision of early radiological and surgical input in patients presenting with signs and symptoms of acute diverticulitis in future pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diverticulitis, Colonic/diagnosis , Diverticulitis, Colonic/surgery , Emergency Medical Services/trends , Facilities and Services Utilization/trends , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Patient Acuity , Acute Disease , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Diverticulitis, Colonic/epidemiology , Emergencies , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , London/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
20.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0260399, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528730

ABSTRACT

Efforts to control the spread of the novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic include drastic measures such as isolation, social distancing, and lockdown. These restrictions are accompanied by serious adverse consequences such as forgoing of healthcare. The study aimed to assess the prevalence and correlates of forgone care for a variety of healthcare services during a two-month COVID-19 lockdown, using Andersen's Behavioral Model of Healthcare Utilization. A cross-sectional study using computerized phone interviews was conducted with 302 Israeli Jewish participants aged 40 and above. Almost half of the participants (49%) reported a delay in seeking help for at least one needed healthcare service during the COVID-19 lockdown period. Among the predisposing factors, we found that participants aged 60+, being more religious, and reporting higher levels of COVID-19 fear were more likely to report forgone care than younger, less religious and less concerned participants. Among need factors, a statistically significant association was found with a reported diagnosis of diabetes, with participants with the disease having a considerably higher likelihood of forgone care. The findings stress the importance of developing interventions aimed at mitigating the phenomenon of forgoing care while creating nonconventional ways of consuming healthcare services. In the short term, healthcare services need to adapt to the social distancing and isolation measures required to stanch the epidemic. In the long term, policymakers should consider alternative ways of delivering healthcare services to the public regularly and during crisis without losing sight of their budgetary consequences. They must recognize the possibility of having to align medical staff to the changing demand for healthcare services under conditions of health uncertainty.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Facilities and Services Utilization/trends , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Attitude , COVID-19/psychology , Culture , Female , Health Services/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Israel , Jews/psychology , Jews/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged
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