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1.
Front Public Health ; 10: 832904, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785444

ABSTRACT

Under the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), green, low-carbon, and sustainable development has become a global consensus, and the world will enter a low-carbon and intelligent production mode faster. As the largest contributor to world economic growth and an active participant in global environmental governance, achieving green recovery and the high-quality economic and social development of China is of great significance to promote the global sustainable development strategy. The green transformation of resource-based cities in Western China is the key factor for China to build a high-quality modern economic system and promote long-term sustainable development. This article used the Super Efficiency Slack Based Model (Super-SBM) model and Malmquist index model of the Data Envelope Analysis (DEA) method to measure the static and dynamic green transformation efficiency of resource-based cities in Western China. It investigated the impact of different factors on the static and dynamic efficiency by constructing panel Tobit and dynamic panel models. The research found that the static efficiency of the green transformation of resource-based cities in Western China is low, and the development is uneven. The dynamic efficiency of green transformation showed a fluctuating upward trend first and an accelerating upward trend later. Different factors have different effects on green transformation efficiency. This article holds that the combination of post-epidemic economic recovery and green transformation is expected to promote the green transformation of western resource-based cities while injecting new vitality into China's green sustainable development in the post-COVID-19 era.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Carbon , China/epidemiology , Cities , Conservation of Natural Resources , Environmental Policy , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Humans
2.
J Gen Intern Med ; 37(5): 1108-1114, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1782927

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Trust in healthcare providers is associated with important outcomes, but has primarily been assessed in the outpatient setting. It is largely unknown how hospitalized patients conceptualize trust in their providers. OBJECTIVE: To examine the dimensionality of a measure of trust in the inpatient setting. DESIGN: Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). PARTICIPANTS: Hospitalized patients (N = 1756; 76% response rate) across six hospitals in the midwestern USA. The sample was randomly split such that approximately one half was used in the EFA, and the other half in the CFA. MAIN MEASURES: The Trust in Physician Scale, adapted for inpatient care. KEY RESULTS: Based on the Kaiser-Guttman criterion and parallel analysis, EFAs were inconclusive, indicating that trust may be comprised of either one or two factors in this sample. In follow-up CFAs, a 2-factor model fit best based on a chi-squared difference test (Δχ2 = 151.48(1), p < .001) and a Comparative Fit Index (CFI) difference test (CFI difference = .03). The overall fit for the 2-factor CFA model was good (χ2 = 293.56, df = 43, p < .01; CFI = .95; RMSEA = .081 [90% confidence interval = .072-.090]; TLI = .93; SRMR = .04). Items loaded onto two factors related to cognitive (i.e., whether patients view providers as competent) and affective (i.e., whether patients view that providers care for them) dimensions of trust. CONCLUSIONS: While measures of trust in the outpatient setting have been validated as unidimensional, in the inpatient setting, trust appears to be composed of two factors: cognitive and affective trust. This provides initial evidence that inpatient providers may need to work to ensure patients see them as both competent and caring in order to gain their trust.


Subject(s)
Inpatients , Trust , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Humans , Psychometrics , Reproducibility of Results , Surveys and Questionnaires
3.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0266200, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779762

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Effective migration often requires supports for new arrivals, referred to as settlement services. Settlement services literacy (SSL) is key to ensuring new migrants have the capability to access and utilise the information and services designed to support the resettlement process and achieve positive settlement outcomes. To date, however, no research has sought to empirically validate measures of SSL or to assess individual migrants' levels of SSL. The aim of this study was to establish the psychometric properties of constructs from the conceptual SSL framework. DESIGN: Using a snowball sampling approach, trained multilingual research assistants collected data on 653 participants. The total sample was randomly divided into two split-half samples: one for the exploratory factor analysis (EFA; N = 324) and the other for the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA; N = 329) and scale validation. The final SSL scale included 30 questions. The full data set was used to test the nomological validity of the scale regarding whether the components of SSL impact on migrants' level of acculturative stress. RESULTS: The EFA yielded five factors: knowledge (eight items, α = 0.88), empowerment (five items, α = 0.89), competence (four items, α = 0.86), community influence (four items, α = 0.82), and political (two items, α = 0.81). In the CFA, the initial model demonstrated a poor to marginal fit model. Its re-specification by examining modification indices resulted in a good model fit: CMIN/DF = 3.07, comparative fit index = 0.92, root mean square error of approximation = 0.08 and standardised root mean square residual = 0.07, which are consistent with recommendations. All the path coefficients between the second-order construct (SSL) and its five dimensions (knowledge, empowerment, competence, community influence and political) were significant at an α = .05 level, giving evidence for the validity of different SSL dimensions. We found that SSL is significantly related to migrants' acculturative stress (ß = - 0.39, p < 0.05) in the nomological model. CONCLUSIONS: The study provides evidence of the construct validity and reliability of the SSL tool. It provides the basis for integrating the measures of SSL into evaluation of settlement services. This will allow for more effective decision-making in designing and implementing settlement services as well as funding and service agreements to address any deficiencies.


Subject(s)
Literacy , Transients and Migrants , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Humans , Psychometrics , Reproducibility of Results , Surveys and Questionnaires
4.
BMC Psychol ; 10(1): 92, 2022 Apr 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1777452

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to assess the factorial validity and reliability of the Pandemic Stressor Scale (PaSS), a new measure to assess the severity of distress for different stressors relevant during a pandemic or epidemic. METHODS: The PaSS was administered in N = 2760 German participants. Exploratory factor analysis was used to extract factors. The factor structure obtained in the German sample was examined in N = 1021 Austrian participants using confirmatory factor analysis. χ2, RMSEA, SRMR, CFI, TLI were assessed as global goodness of fit indices for two models (Model 1: nine-factor model; Model 2: nine-factor model combined with a second-order general factor). We additionally assessed factor loadings, communalities, factor reliability, discriminant validity as local fit indices. Internal consistency, item discrimination, and item difficulty were assessed as additional test quality criteria. RESULTS: The results of the exploratory factor analysis suggested a nine-factor solution with factor loadings accounting for 50.4% of the total variance (Factor 1 'Problems with Childcare', Factor 2 'Work-related Problems', Factor 3 'Restricted Face-to-Face Contact', Factor 4 'Burden of Infection ', Factor 5 'Crisis Management and Communication', Factor 6 'Difficult Housing Condition', Factor 7 'Fear of Infection', Factor 8 'Restricted Access to Resources', Factor 9 'Restricted Activity'). The confirmatory factor analysis showed a sufficient global fit for both tested models (Model 1: χ2 (369, N = 1021) = 1443.28, p < .001, RMSEA = .053, SRMR = .055, CFI = .919, TLI = .904; Model 2: χ2 (396, N = 1021) = 1948.51, p < .001, RMSEA = .062, SRMR = .074, CFI = .883, TLI = .871). The results of the chi-square difference test indicated a significantly better model-fit of Model 1 compared to Model 2 (∆χ2 (27, N = 1021) = 505.23, p < .001). Local goodness of fit indices were comparable for both tested models. We found good factor reliabilities for all factors and moderate to large factor loadings of the items as indicators. In Model 2, four first-order factors showed small factor loadings on the second-order general factor. CONCLUSION: The Pandemic Stressor Scale showed sufficient factorial validity for the nine measured domains of stressors during the current COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Humans , Psychometrics , Reproducibility of Results , Surveys and Questionnaires
5.
Front Public Health ; 10: 852612, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776073

ABSTRACT

The risk factors affecting workers' unsafe acts were comprehensively identified by Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) and grounded theory based on interview data and accident reports from deep coal mines. Firstly, we collected accident case and field interview data from deep coal mines issued by authoritative institutions. Then, the data were coded according to grounded theory to obtain relevant concepts and types. The HFACS model was used to classify the concepts and categories. Finally, the relationship between core and secondary categories was sorted out by applying a story plot. The results show that risk factors of unsafe acts of deep coal mine workers include environmental factors, organizational influence, unsafe supervision and unsafe state of miners, and the main manifestations of unsafe acts are errors and violations. Among them, the unsafe state of miners is the intermediate variable, and other factors indirectly affect risky actions of coal miners through unsafe sates. Resource management, organizational processes and failure to correct problems are the top three risk factors that occur more frequently in unsafe acts. The three most common types of unsafe act are unreasonable labor organization, failure to enforce rules, and inadequate technical specifications. By combining grounded theory and the HFACS framework to analyze data, risk factors for deep coal miners can be quickly identified, and more precise and comprehensive conceptual models of risk factors in unsafe acts of deep coal miners can be obtained.


Subject(s)
Accidents, Occupational , Coal Mining , Miners , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Grounded Theory , Humans , Risk Factors
6.
Front Public Health ; 10: 838606, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776043

ABSTRACT

Background: Social unrest affects people's health and well-being. People's health-related needs during social unrest are concerns in both research and clinical practice. This study aimed to build and test a framework to describe and understand the health status and needs of people with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) during social unrest. Methods: This study was a cross-sectional survey. A total of 460 people who had experienced post-traumatic distress as a result of the social unrest in 2019 and 2020 were included. A conceptual model comprised four essential areas, namely posttraumatic distress symptoms, participation restrictions, perceived stigma and functional disability, was built from literature. Part 1 validated four instruments that evaluate and define the factor structure of these four areas, In Part II, structural equation modeling was used to test and validate a combined model. Results: Factors underlying the four areas were defined. Analysis using structural equation modeling confirmed a best fit of the model. PTSD symptoms, perceived stigma and participation restriction during social unrest contributed significantly to functional disability; PTSD symptoms exerted a direct effect on participation restriction and perceived stigma; and the effect of PTSD symptoms on functional disability was mediated through its influence on perceived stigma during social unrest. Conclusions: A community-based inclusive approach is essential to understand the holistic needs of people with PTSD during social unrest. To improve health and well-being in addition to evaluating mental health impacts, considering interactions with the rapid change and stressful social environment is essential.


Subject(s)
Civil Disorders , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Cross-Sectional Studies , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Humans , Latent Class Analysis
7.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 632, 2022 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1770517

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Two years after the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic on December 29, 2021, there have been 281,808,270 confirmed cases of COVID-19, including 5,411,759 deaths. This information belongs to almost 216 Countries, areas, or territories facing COVID-19. The disease trend was not homogeneous across these locations, and studying this variation is a crucial source of information for policymakers and researchers. Therefore, we address different patterns in mortality and incidence of COVID-19 across countries using a clustering approach. METHODS: The daily records of new cases and deaths of 216 countries were available on the WHO online COVID-19 dashboard. We used a three-step approach for identifying longitudinal patterns of change in quantitative COVID-19 incidence and mortality rates. At the first, we calculated 27 summary measurements for each trajectory. Then we used factor analysis as a dimension reduction method to capture the correlation between measurements. Finally, we applied a K-means algorithm on the factor scores and clustered the trajectories. RESULTS: We determined three different patterns for the trajectories of COVID-19 incidence and the three different ones for mortality rates. According to incidence rates, among 206 countries the 133 (64.56) countries belong to the second cluster, and 15 (7.28%) and 58 (28.16%) belong to the first and 3rd clusters, respectively. All clusters seem to show an increased rate in the study period, but there are several different patterns. The first one exhibited a mild increasing trend; however, the 3rd and the second clusters followed the severe and moderate increasing trend. According to mortality clusters, the frequency of sets is 37 (18.22%) for the first cluster with moderate increases, 157 (77.34%) for the second one with a mild rise, and 9 (4.34%) for the 3rd one with severe increase. CONCLUSIONS: We determined that besides all variations within the countries, the pattern of a contagious disease follows three different trajectories. This variation looks to be a function of the government's health policies more than geographical distribution. Comparing this trajectory to others declares that death is highly related to the nature of epidemy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cluster Analysis , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Humans , Incidence , Pandemics
8.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0264784, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742009

ABSTRACT

Vaccines are highly effective in minimizing serious cases of COVID-19 and pivotal to managing the COVID-19 pandemic. Despite widespread availability, vaccination rates fall short of levels required to bring about widespread immunity, with low rates attributed to vaccine hesitancy. It is therefore important to identify the beliefs and concerns associated with vaccine intentions and uptake. The present study aimed to develop and validate, using the AMEE Guide, the Vaccination Concerns in COVID-19 Scale (VaCCS), a comprehensive measure of beliefs and concerns with respect to COVID-19 vaccines. In the scale development phase, samples of Australian (N = 53) and USA (N = 48) residents completed an initial open-response survey to elicit beliefs and concerns about COVID-19 vaccines. A concurrent rapid literature review was conducted to identify content from existing scales on vaccination beliefs. An initial pool of items was developed informed by the survey responses and rapid review. The readability and face validity of the item pool was assessed by behavioral science experts (N = 5) and non-experts (N = 10). In the scale validation phase, samples of Australian (N = 522) and USA (N = 499) residents completed scaled versions of the final item pool and measures of socio-political, health beliefs and outcomes, and trait measures. Exploratory factor analysis yielded a scale comprising 35 items with 8 subscales, and subsequent confirmatory factor analyses indicated acceptable fit of the scale structure with the data in each sample and factorial invariance across samples. Concurrent and predictive validity tests indicated a theoretically and conceptually predictable pattern of relations between the VaCCS subscales with the socio-political, health beliefs and outcomes, and trait measures, and key subscales predicted intentions to receive the COVID-19 vaccine. The VaCCS provides a novel measure to assess beliefs and concerns toward COVID-19 vaccination that researchers and practitioners can use in its entirety or select specific sub-scales to use according to their needs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , /statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Australia/epidemiology , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
9.
Med Educ Online ; 27(1): 2044635, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1740618

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated the pre-existing global crisis of physician burnout. Physician and particularly medical educator well-being, has come into focus as educators can influence their own and learners' well-being. Measuring this construct is one important step towards promoting well-being in the work and learning environments. The 5-item World Health Organization Well-Being Index (WHO-5) has been validated in different populations worldwide for assessing well-being. Yet, its psychometric acceptability remains unexplored among medical educators in Asia including Hong Kong (HK). This study evaluates the validity of the WHO-5 when used among HK medical educators. METHOD: Using data from 435 medical educators, we employed combined within-network (confirmatory factor analysis; CFA) and between-network approaches (correlation and regression) to scale validation. RESULTS: CFA results indicated that our data fit the a priori WHO-5 model, suggesting structural validity. Results of comparison of means indicated no gender differences, but there were significant differences when participants were compared by age and professional backgrounds. Resilience predicted well-being as measured by the WHO-5, suggesting construct criterion validity. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings extend the validity evidence for the WHO-5 to HK medical educators examined in this study. This enables their well-being to be assessed when evaluating the impact of future well-being programmes.


Subject(s)
Faculty, Medical , Mental Health , Surveys and Questionnaires , COVID-19/epidemiology , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Faculty, Medical/psychology , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Reproducibility of Results , World Health Organization
10.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(5)2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736913

ABSTRACT

Health literacy is a determinant factor for population health. It is important both for the prevention of health problems and the better management of those problems and unexpected situations that happen. Low health literacy has been consistently associated with poor health outcomes. This study aimed to develop a health literacy indicator for Angola and to analyze pertinent demographic characteristics related to it. Data were obtained from the first Angola Demographic and Health Survey conducted in 2015/16; we included 10 questions related to the American National Academy of Medicine definition of health literacy. Using factor analysis, we extracted one i indicator corresponding to four dimensions of health literacy. The indicator was dichotomized, and we used Logistic Regression to estimate factors associated with health literacy level: we obtained data from 19,785 adolescents and adults, aged 15-49 years. The internal consistency of the i indicator was reliable (Cronbach's α = 0.83). Adjusting for other variables, males with complete secondary education or above and living in urban areas were more likely to have a high level of health literacy. There were substantial differences between the 18 regions. This is the first study evaluating health literacy in Angola using the American National Academy of Medicine definition and a Demographic and Health survey. Our study shows unfavorable results for women, individuals living in rural areas and those less educated.


Subject(s)
Health Literacy , Adolescent , Adult , Angola , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Female , Health Status , Humans , Male , Surveys and Questionnaires
11.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(5)2022 02 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736904

ABSTRACT

The International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) of the World Health Organization (WHO) was established as an international framework for monitoring rehabilitation outcomes and the impacts of health interventions since, as the term "functioning" implies, it emphasizes a person's "lived health" in addition to their biological health status. Equine-assisted therapy (EAT) represents a holistic intervention approach that aims to improve both biomedical functioning and the patient's lived health in relation to performing activities and participating in social situations. In this study, the psychometric properties of an ICF-based digital assessment tool for the measurement of the rehabilitation impacts of EAT were analyzed via simultaneous confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) and reliability and sensitivity tests. In total, 265 patients from equine-assisted therapy centers in Germany were included for CFA. Change sensitivity was assessed via multi-level analyses based on 876 repeated assessments by 30 therapists. Results show satisfactory model-fit statistics; McDonald's omega (ML) showed excellent scores for the total scale (ω = 0.96) and three subscales (ω = 0.95; ω = 0.95, ω = 0.93). The tool proved itself to be change sensitive and reliable (change sensitivity p ≤ 0.001), retest r = 0.745 **, p ≤ 0.001). Overall, the developed assessment tool satisfactorily fulfills psychometric requirements and can be applied in therapeutic practice.


Subject(s)
Disabled Persons , Equine-Assisted Therapy , Animals , Disability Evaluation , Disabled Persons/rehabilitation , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Horses , Humans , International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health , Reproducibility of Results
12.
Nihon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi ; 59(1): 39-48, 2022.
Article in Japanese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736704

ABSTRACT

AIM: This study aimed to clarify the construct validity of the Questionnaire for medical checkup of old-old (QMCOO). METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, questionnaires including the QMCOO were distributed to 1,953 older adults, and responses were returned by mail. We conducted an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) for the QMCOO among older participants (age ≥75 years) and extracted the relevant factors. Next, we structured the model for the QMCOO based on these factors and conducted a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) using structural equation modeling. We conducted a CFA among young-older participants (age 65 to <75 years) for the same model. RESULTS: Of the 1,110 (53.5%) adults who responded, data from the 994 respondents who provided complete answers were analyzed. Five factors were extracted from the results of the EFA: physical and mental condition, relationship with society, eating and smoking, chance for exercise, and cognitive function. The results of the CFA were as follows: comparative fit index (CFI) = 0.899, adjusted goodness of fit index (AGFI) = 0.965, root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = 0.034, and standardized root mean square residual (SRMR) = 0.040. Meanwhile, the results for young-older participants were as follows: CFI = 0.886, AGFI = 0.942, RMSEA = 0.035, and SRMR = 0.048. CONCLUSIONS: The QMCOO assessed health condition and was composed of multiple factors associated with frailty. The CFA results indicated that the model fit was good. The QMCOO showed sufficient structural validity. Therefore, the construct validity of the QMCOO was shown.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Independent Living , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Humans , Pilot Projects , Psychometrics , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
13.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263888, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690705

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID Stress Scales (CSS) assess health- and contamination-related distress in the face of a medical outbreak like the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Though the CSS is translated into 21 languages, it has not been validated in a Swedish national sample. AIM: Our general objective is to provide a translation, replication, and validation of the CSS and test its convergent- and discriminant validity in relation to anxiety, health anxiety, depression, and stress in the general Swedish population. We also present latent psychometric properties by modelling based on item response theory. METHODS: Participants consisted of 3044 Swedish adults (> 18 years) from a pre-stratified (gender, age, and education) sample from The Swedish Citizen Panel. Mental health status was assessed by validated instruments, including the CSS, PHQ-4, SHAI-14, and PSS-10. RESULTS: Results indicate that our Swedish translation of CSS has good psychometric properties and consists of 5 correlated factors. DISCUSSION: The CSS is useful either as a unidimensional or multidimensional construct using the CSS scales to measure key facets of pandemic-related stress. CONCLUSIONS: The findings support the cross-cultural validity of the CSS and its potential utility in understanding many of the emotional challenges posed by the current and future pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Discriminant Analysis , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Female , Humans , Least-Squares Analysis , Male , Middle Aged , Regression Analysis , Socioeconomic Factors , Sweden , Young Adult
14.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 292, 2022 02 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690932

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Work fatigue is a work-related condition that affects physicians' health, work attitude safety and performance. Work fatigue affects not only medical workers but can also leave a negative impact on patients. With the burden of the COVID-19 pandemic as well as the economic crisis Lebanese doctors have been facing in the last 2 years, the aim of our study was to validate the 3D-Work Fatigue Inventory (3D-WFI) among Lebanese physicians and assess the rate and correlates of work fatigue (physical, mental and emotional). METHODS: A cross-sectional study was undertaken through an anonymous self-administered questionnaire between October 2020 and January 2021. The SPSS AMOS software v.24 was used to conduct confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). To validate the 3D-WFI, multiple indices of goodness-of-fit were described: the Relative Chi-square (χ2/df) (cut-off values:< 2-5), the Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA) (close and acceptable fit are considered for values < 0.05 and < 0.11 respectively), the Tucker Lewis Index (TLI) and the Comparative Fit Index (CFI) (acceptable values are ≥0.90). RESULTS: A total of 401 responses was collected; 66.1, 64.8 and 65.1% respondents had an intermediate to high level of emotional, mental and physical work fatigue respectively. The fit indices obtained in the CFA of the 3D-WFI items fitted well: CFI =0.98, TLI =0.98, RMSEA = 0.05; 95% CI 0.046-0.063; pclose = 0.20) and χ2(136) = 295.76. The correlation coefficients between the three factors (Factor 1 = Physical work fatigue, Factor 2 = Mental work fatigue, Factor 3 = Emotional work fatigue) were adequate as well: Factor 1-Factor 2 (r = 0.70), Factor 1-Factor 3 (r = 0.52) and Factor 2-Factor 3 (r = 0.65). In addition, feeling pressured by long working hours during the pandemic, having more hours of night duty per month, more stressful events in life, and higher depression were significantly associated with more physical and mental work fatigue. Higher depression and having more stressful events in life were significantly associated with more emotional work fatigue. CONCLUSION: Work fatigue in Lebanese physicians seems to be associated with higher level of everyday stress, high work load and depression. Hospitals and local health authorities can use these results for early interventions that aim to reduce work fatigue and ensure the wellbeing of Lebanese physicians.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Physicians , Cross-Sectional Studies , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Fatigue/diagnosis , Fatigue/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Psychometrics , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2 , Students , Surveys and Questionnaires
15.
Acta Paul. Enferm. (Online) ; 34: eAPE001725, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1687915

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivo Adaptar culturalmente para o português do Brasil a Face Mask Use Scale e avaliar suas propriedades psicométricas. Métodos Estudo metodológico, transversal, com abordagem quantitativa, que compreendeu as etapas de: tradução; consenso da versão em português; avaliação por comitê de especialistas; retrotradução e comparação com a versão original; teste piloto e avaliação psicométrica da Face Mask Use Scale (FMUS). Resultados A versão original da FMUS foi traduzida para o português do Brasil. A validade de conteúdo foi realizada por um painel de cinco especialistas. O índice de validade de conteúdo para a escala (IVC-S/Ave) foi 0,87 e para os itens (IVC-I) variou de 0,6 a 1,0. A versão para o português do Brasil da FMUS (FMUS-PB) foi aplicada em 4822 adultos com idade média de 30 anos (DP = 11,7). Na consistência interna, o Alfa de Cronbach foi de 0,86. O modelo original de dois fatores da FMUS não se mostrou adequado para a população brasileira pelo uso da análise fatorial confirmatória e exploratória. Assim, realizou-se uma análise fatorial exploratória para investigar a estrutura fatorial da FMUS-PB novamente e um novo modelo potencial da FMUS-PB para melhor explicação. A FMUS-PB apresentou estrutura fatorial diferente do modelo original. Os itens foram alinhados em um único fator, criando um instrumento unidimensional que explicou 59,7% da variância total. A validade de construto por grupos conhecidos foi satisfatória (p <0,001). Conclusão A FMUS-PB é confiável e válida para medir a prática do uso de máscaras entre a população brasileira, sobretudo na pandemia da COVID-19.


Resumen Objetivo Adaptar culturalmente la Face Mask Use Scale al portugués de Brasil y evaluar sus propiedades psicométricas. Métodos Estudio metodológico, transversal, con enfoque cualitativo, que comprendió las siguientes etapas: traducción, consenso de la versión en portugués, evaluación de comité de especialistas, retrotraducción y comparación con la versión original, prueba piloto y evaluación psicométrica de la Face Mask Use Scale (FMUS). Resultados La versión original de la FMUS fue traducida al portugués de Brasil. La validez de contenido fue realizada por un panel de cinco especialistas. El índice de validez de contenido de la escala (IVC-S/Ave) fue 0,87 y el de los ítems (IVC-I) varió de 0,6 a 1,0. La versión en portugués de Brasil de la FMUS (FMUS-PB) fue aplicada a 4.822 adultos de edad promedio de 30 años (DP = 11,7). En la consistencia interna, el Alfa de Cronbach fue de 0,86. El modelo original de dos factores de la FMUS demostró no ser adecuado para la población brasileña mediante el uso del análisis factorial confirmatorio y exploratorio. De esta forma, se realizó un análisis factorial exploratorio para investigar la estructura factorial de la FMUS-PB nuevamente y un nuevo modelo posible de la FMUS-PB para una mejor explicación. La FMUS-PB presentó una estructura factorial diferente al modelo original. Los ítems fueron alineados en un único factor y se creó un instrumento unidimensional que explicó el 59,7 % de la varianza total. La validez del constructo por grupos conocidos fue satisfactoria (p < 0,001). Conclusión La FMUS-PB es confiable y válida para medir la práctica del uso de mascarillas en la población brasileña, sobre todo durante la pandemia de COVID-19.


Abstract Objective To culturally adapt the Face Mask Use Scale to Brazilian Portuguese and assess its psychometric properties. Methods This is a methodological, cross-sectional, quantitative study, which comprised the following steps: translation; Portuguese version consensus; assessment by an expert committee; back-translation and comparison with the original version; pilot test; and psychometric assessment of the Face Mask Use Scale (FMUS). Results The original version of FMUS was translated into Brazilian Portuguese. Content validity was performed by a panel of five experts.The Content Validity Index for the scale (CVI-S/Ave) was 0.87 and for the items (CVI-I) it ranged from 0.6 to 1.0. The FMUS - Brazilian Portuguese version (FMUS-BP) was applied to 4822 adults with a mean age of 30 years (SD = 11.7).For internal consistency, Cronbach's alpha was 0.86. The original two-factor model of the FMUS was not suitable for the Brazilian population due to the use of Exploratory Factor Analysis and Confirmatory Factor Analysis. Thus, an Exploratory Factor Analysis was carried out to investigate the factor structure of the FMUS-BP again and a new potential model of the FMUS-BP for better explanation.The FMUS-BP presented a factor structure different from the original model. Items were aligned on a single factor, creating a one-dimensional instrument that explained 59.7% of the total variance. Construct validity by known-groups was satisfactory (p <0.001). Conclusion The FMUS-BP is reliable and valid to measure the practice of using masks among the Brazilian population, especially in the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Masks/statistics & numerical data , Cross-Sectional Studies , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Validation Study , Evaluation Studies as Topic
16.
J Med Internet Res ; 24(1): e31920, 2022 01 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662518

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: eHealth and telehealth play a crucial role in assisting older adults who visit hospitals frequently or who live in nursing homes and can benefit from staying at home while being cared for. Adapting to new technologies can be difficult for older people. Thus, to better apply these technologies to older adults' lives, many studies have analyzed the acceptance factors for this particular population. However, there is not yet a consensual framework that can be used in further development and to search for solutions. OBJECTIVE: This paper aims to present an integrated acceptance framework (IAF) for older users' acceptance of eHealth based on 43 studies selected through a systematic review. METHODS: We conducted a 4-step study. First, through a systematic review in the field of eHealth from 2010 to 2020, the acceptance factors and basic data for analysis were extracted. Second, we conducted a thematic analysis to group the factors into themes to propose an integrated framework for acceptance. Third, we defined a metric to evaluate the impact of the factors addressed in the studies. Finally, the differences among the important IAF factors were analyzed according to the participants' health conditions, verification time, and year. RESULTS: Through a systematic review, 731 studies were found in 5 major databases, resulting in 43 (5.9%) selected studies using the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Item for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) methodology. First, the research methods and acceptance factors for eHealth were compared and analyzed, extracting a total of 105 acceptance factors, which were grouped later, resulting in an IAF. A total of 5 dimensions (ie, personal, user-technology relational, technological, service-related, and environmental) emerged, with a total of 23 factors. In addition, we assessed the quality of evidence and then conducted a stratification analysis to reveal the more appropriate factors depending on the health condition and assessment time. Finally, we assessed the factors and dimensions that have recently become more important. CONCLUSIONS: The result of this investigation is a framework for conducting research on eHealth acceptance. To elaborately analyze the impact of the factors of the proposed framework, the criteria for evaluating the evidence from the studies that have the extracted factors are presented. Through this process, the impact of each factor in the IAF has been presented, in addition to the framework proposal. Moreover, a meta-analysis of the current status of research is presented, highlighting the areas where specific measures are needed to facilitate eHealth acceptance.


Subject(s)
Telemedicine , Aged , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Humans , Nursing Homes , Research Design , Technology , Telemedicine/methods
17.
J Pediatr Psychol ; 47(3): 259-269, 2022 03 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1593124

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The COVID-19 Exposure and Family Impact Scales (CEFIS) were developed in Spring 2020 to assess effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on families and caregivers. Initial psychometric properties were promising. The current study examined the factor structure and evaluated convergent and criterion validity of the CEFIS in a new sample. METHODS: In October and November 2020, caregivers (N = 2,531) of youth (0-21 years) scheduled for an ambulatory care visit at Nemours Children's Hospital, Delaware completed the CEFIS and measures of convergent (PROMIS Global Mental Health Scale, Family Assessment Device) and criterion validity (PTSD Checklist-Civilian). Confirmatory factor analysis was used to examine the factor structure of the CEFIS. Bivariate correlations and logistic regression were used to examine convergent and criterion validity. RESULTS: Factor analysis supported the original six- and three-factor structures for the Exposure and Impact scales, respectively. Second-order factor analyses supported the use of Exposure, Impact, and Distress total scores. Higher scores on the CEFIS Exposure, Impact, and Distress scales were associated with increased mental health concerns and poorer family functioning. Higher scores on all CEFIS scales were also associated with greater odds of having clinically significant posttraumatic stress symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: The CEFIS is a psychometrically sound measure of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on family and caregiver functioning and may also be useful in identifying families who would benefit from psychological supports.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Child , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Humans , Pandemics , Psychometrics , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Front Immunol ; 12: 794642, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581317

ABSTRACT

Background: The relationships of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination with reactogenicity and the humoral immune response are important to study. The current study aimed to assess the reactogenicity and immunogenicity of the Pfizer and AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccines among adults in Madinah, Saudi Arabia. Methods: A cross-sectional study, including 365 randomly selected adult Pfizer or AstraZeneca vaccine recipients who received a homologous prime-boost vaccination between February 1st and June 30th, 2021. Data of height and weight were collected to assess the weight status of percipients. An evaluation of seropositivity for anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibodies was assessed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: Among the participants, 69% (n = 250) reported at least one vaccine-related symptom. Pain at the injection site was the most frequently reported vaccine-related symptom. The mean total score for vaccine-related symptoms was significantly higher among participants who received the AstraZeneca vaccine, women, and participants with no previous COVID-19 infection (p < 0.05). Spike-specific IgG antibodies were detected in 98.9% of participants after the receipt of two vaccine doses, including 99.5% of Pfizer vaccine recipients and 98.3% of AstraZeneca vaccine recipients. Significantly, higher proportions of participants in the <35-year age group developed a humoral immune response after the first vaccine dose compared with the participants in other age groups. Conclusion: Participants who received the Pfizer COVID-19 vaccine reported fewer vaccine-related complications compared with those who received the AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine, but no serious side effects were reported in response to either vaccine. Health status and age were factors that may influence COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness for the generation of antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/standards , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antibody Formation/immunology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Female , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Immunization, Secondary , Immunoglobulin G , Male , Middle Aged , Online Systems , Public Health Surveillance , Surveys and Questionnaires
19.
Front Immunol ; 12: 781161, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575929

ABSTRACT

Globally, vaccine hesitancy is a growing public health problem. It is detrimental to the consolidation of immunization program achievements and elimination of vaccine-targeted diseases. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy in China and explore its contributing factors. A national cross-sectional online survey among Chinese adults (≥18 years old) was conducted between August 6, 2021 and August 9 via a market research company. We collected sociodemographic information; lifestyle behavior; quality of life; the knowledge, awareness, and behavior of COVID-19; the knowledge, awareness, and behavior of COVID-19 vaccine; willingness of COVID-19 vaccination; accessibility of COVID-19 vaccination services; skepticism about COVID-19 and COVID-19 vaccine; doctor and vaccine developer scale; and so on. Odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used to estimate the associations by using logistic regression models. A total of 29,925 residents (48.64% men) were enrolled in our study with mean age of 30.99 years. We found an overall prevalence of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy at 8.40% (95% CI, 8.09-8.72) in primary vaccination and 8.39% (95% CI, 8.07-8.70) in booster vaccination. In addition, after adjusting for potential confounders, we found that women, higher educational level, married residents, higher score of health condition, never smoked, increased washing hands, increased wearing mask, increased social distance, lower level of vaccine conspiracy beliefs, disease risks outweigh vaccine risk, higher level of convenient vaccination, and higher level of trust in doctor and developer were more willing to vaccinate than all others (all p < 0.05). Age, sex, educational level, marital status, chronic disease condition, smoking, healthy behaviors, the curability of COVID-19, the channel of accessing information of COVID-19 vaccine, endorsement of vaccine conspiracy beliefs, weigh risks of vaccination against risks of the disease, making a positive influence on the health of others around you, and lower trust in healthcare system may affect the variation of willingness to take a COVID-19 vaccine (all p < 0.05). The prevalence of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy was modest in China, even with the slight resulting cascade of changing vaccination rates between the primary and booster vaccination. Urgent action to address vaccine hesitancy is needed in building trust in medical personnel and vaccine producers, promoting the convenience of vaccination services, and spreading reliable information of COVID-19 vaccination via the Internet and other media.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , /statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , China/epidemiology , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Female , Humans , Immunization Programs , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/psychology , Population Surveillance , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Young Adult
20.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(23)2021 11 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1559545

ABSTRACT

The challenging labor market conditions concomitant with economic globalization and advanced technology have made youth career development competency (YCDC)-young people's ability to navigate transitions through education into productive and meaningful employment-especially important. The present study aims to develop a holistic instrument to measure YCDC in Hong Kong, which has rarely been investigated in past studies. The sample consisted of 682 youths aged 15-29 years (387 male, mean age = 19.5 years) in Hong Kong. Exploratory factor analysis of the 17-item YCDC scale resulted in four competence factors-engagement, self-understanding, career and pathway exploration, and planning and career management-which accounted for 78.95% of the total variance. The final confirmatory factor analysis results indicated good model fit (CFI = 0.96, TLI = 0.95, RMSEA = 0.06, 90% CI (0.05, 0.07), SRMR = 0.03) and good factor loadings (0.78-0.91). Moreover, the results demonstrated a satisfactory internal consistency of subscales (0.89-0.93). Subgroup consistency across subsamples categorized by gender, age, and years of residence in Hong Kong was also demonstrated. In addition, correlations between the YCDC scale and subscales with other career-related and psychosocial outcomes (i.e., career outcome expectancy, career adaptability, civic engagement, social contribution, and social integration) showed good concurrent validity. The results indicated that the YCDC scale is a valid and reliable tool for measuring career development competence among youth in the Hong Kong context. Its development sheds light on how career professionals can holistically assess young people's navigation competence during their school-to-work transitions.


Subject(s)
Psychometrics , Adolescent , Adult , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Hong Kong , Humans , Male , Reproducibility of Results , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
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