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2.
J Womens Health (Larchmt) ; 31(4): 487-494, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1806232

ABSTRACT

Background: The coronavirus pandemic accelerated academic medicine into the frontline of research and clinical work, leaving some faculty exhausted, and others with unanticipated time off. Women were particularly vulnerable, having increased responsibilities in both academic work and caregiving. Methods: The authors sought to determine faculty's responses to the pandemic, seeking predictors of accelerated versus decelerated academic productivity and work-life balance. In this survey of 424 faculty from a private Midwest academic medical center completed in August-September 2020, faculty rated multiple factors both "pre-COVID" and "during the COVID-19 lockdown," and a change score was calculated. Results: In a binary logistic regression model comparing faculty whose self-rated academic productivity increased with those whose productivity decreased, the authors found that controlling for multiple factors, men were more than twice as likely to be in the accelerated productivity group as women. In a similar model comparing partnered faculty whose self-rated work-life balance increased with partnered faculty whose work-life balance decreased, being in the positive work-life balance group was predicted by increased academic productivity, increased job stress, and having higher job priority than your partner. Conclusions: While the COVID-19 pandemic placed huge stressors on academic medical faculty, pandemic placed huge stressors on academic medical faculty, some experienced gains in productivity and work-life balance, with potential to widen the gender gap. As academic medicine evolves post-COVID, leaders should be aware that productivity and work-life balance predict each other, and that these factors have connections to work location, stress, and relationship dynamics, emphasizing the inseparable connections between work and life success.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control , Faculty, Medical , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Sex Factors
3.
N Engl J Med ; 386(14): 1363-1371, 2022 04 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1778680

ABSTRACT

The 2020 U.S. Census data show a rapidly diversifying U.S. population. We sought to evaluate whether clinical faculty and leadership representation at academic medical schools reflects the diversifying population over time. Using data from the Association of American Medical Colleges for the period of 1977 through 2019, we found notable progress in female representation among clinical faculty, with smaller gains among department chairs and medical school deans. Racial and ethnic groups that are underrepresented in medicine are designated as such because their presence within the medical profession is disproportionate to the U.S. Census data. Even with accounting for this underrepresentation, clinical faculty and leadership positions show even starker disparities. Thoughtful policy implementation could help address this persistent underrepresentation among medical school faculty and leadership positions.


Subject(s)
Faculty, Medical , Cultural Diversity , Faculty, Medical/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Leadership , Male , Schools, Medical/statistics & numerical data , United States/epidemiology
4.
Med Educ Online ; 27(1): 2058314, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1764361

ABSTRACT

The inequities faced by women in academic Medicine before the COVID-19 pandemic are well established. However, there is little formal data regarding exactly how the pandemic has affected faculty. This cross-sectional study investigated the impact of the pandemic on responsibilities at home, work, and mental health according to gender identification, faculty rank, and faculty appointment. In February 2021, an online questionnaire was broadly distributed to academic medicine faculty. Respondents were asked to provide demographic data, answer questions about their responsibilities at home and work, mental health, and how the pandemic has influenced these. Respondents were also asked to document what their institution(s) can do to help faculty through the pandemic. Responses were analyzed via Pearson's chi-square tests and thematic analysis. Women faculty were more likely to be responsible for the care of others (70%, p = 0.014), and the impact was negative, especially for early career faculty (p = 0.019). Productivity in research, teaching, and clinical practice were negatively impacted, with women feeling this in clinical practice (p = 0.005), increased teaching load (p = 0.042), and inadequate work environment (p = 0.013). In the areas of self-care and mental health, women (p < 0.001), early career-faculty (p < 0.001), and clinical faculty (p = 0.029) were more negatively impacted. Early-career women were more likely to fear retribution. Five themes emerged, including Flexible Expectations, Support, Mental Health, Compensation, and Communication. Pre-pandemic stress and burnout were rampant, and this study demonstrates that academic medicine faculty are still suffering. It is the authors' hope that administrations can utilize these data to make informed decisions regarding policies enacted to assist populations who are most vulnerable to the effects of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Efficiency , Faculty, Medical , Female , Humans , Pandemics , United States/epidemiology
5.
BMJ Open ; 12(3): e056364, 2022 Mar 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1741636

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to explore the barriers and facilitators to career progression for female medical clinical academics from the perspectives of female associate professors and professors, with a particular focus on women with caring responsibilities. DESIGN: An exploratory qualitative approach was adopted. Data from semistructured interviews conducted via video calls were analysed using thematic analysis. SETTING: Two major universities in the East Midlands of England. PARTICIPANTS: The sample consisted of 13 female medical clinical academic associate professors and professors representing a range of medical specialties. RESULTS: Female medical clinical academics experienced barriers and facilitators to progress at individual, interpersonal, institutional/procedural and societal levels. CONCLUSIONS: Many barriers experienced at an individual level by female medical clinical academics are heavily influenced by their interpersonal relationships, the academic environment in which they work and broader institutional and procedural issues which, in turn, are influenced by stereotypical societal views on gender roles. Facilitating factors, including measures to increase the numbers of female leaders, may lead to a change of culture that is supportive to aspiring female clinical academics as well as enabling a healthy work/life balance for women and men with caring responsibilities.


Subject(s)
Faculty, Medical , Medicine , England , Female , Humans , Male , Qualitative Research , Universities
6.
Med Educ Online ; 27(1): 2044635, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1740618

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated the pre-existing global crisis of physician burnout. Physician and particularly medical educator well-being, has come into focus as educators can influence their own and learners' well-being. Measuring this construct is one important step towards promoting well-being in the work and learning environments. The 5-item World Health Organization Well-Being Index (WHO-5) has been validated in different populations worldwide for assessing well-being. Yet, its psychometric acceptability remains unexplored among medical educators in Asia including Hong Kong (HK). This study evaluates the validity of the WHO-5 when used among HK medical educators. METHOD: Using data from 435 medical educators, we employed combined within-network (confirmatory factor analysis; CFA) and between-network approaches (correlation and regression) to scale validation. RESULTS: CFA results indicated that our data fit the a priori WHO-5 model, suggesting structural validity. Results of comparison of means indicated no gender differences, but there were significant differences when participants were compared by age and professional backgrounds. Resilience predicted well-being as measured by the WHO-5, suggesting construct criterion validity. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings extend the validity evidence for the WHO-5 to HK medical educators examined in this study. This enables their well-being to be assessed when evaluating the impact of future well-being programmes.


Subject(s)
Faculty, Medical , Mental Health , Surveys and Questionnaires , COVID-19/epidemiology , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Faculty, Medical/psychology , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Reproducibility of Results , World Health Organization
7.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 226(3): 327-334, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1734133
8.
J Surg Res ; 275: 129-136, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1729956

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The lack of guidelines for videoconferencing etiquette elucidated frustrations during the COVID-19 pandemic. The authors aimed to assess the perceptions of faculty educators and residents regarding videoconferencing etiquette. METHODS: In 2021, a survey assessing perceptions regarding the formality of various meeting types and the importance of various videoconferencing etiquette practices (Likert scale of 1-5) was created and disseminated to all faculty educators and residents at a single institution. Responses of faculty versus residents were analyzed in general and by procedural and mixed/nonprocedural subspecialties. RESULTS: The faculty response rate was 53.5% (38/71). The resident response rate was 7.3% (115/1569). A total of 19 departments were represented. Faculty respondents reported having significantly more hours of weekly formal meetings than residents, 4 (3-10) versus 2 (1-4) h (P < 0.05), and no difference in informal meeting hours, with 3 (2-6) versus 3 (1.6-5) h (P = 0.210). Faculty and residents concurred on the formality of all meeting types except for didactics, which residents regarded more frequently as informal (80.9% versus 57.9%; P < 0.01). Faculty rated wearing professional attire and keeping one's video on as mattering more, and that videoconferencing from bed was more inappropriate (P < 0.05). Furthermore, faculty and residents in mixed/nonprocedural specialties had more significantly discordant perceptions between them than did those in procedural specialties. CONCLUSIONS: The data demonstrated that faculty educators and residents have differing perceptions regarding the formality of meeting types and etiquette practices. These should be addressed to prevent future frustrations and improve engagement in ongoing virtual conferencing education.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Internship and Residency , COVID-19/epidemiology , Faculty, Medical , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Surveys and Questionnaires , Videoconferencing
9.
Mol Biol Cell ; 33(3): vo1, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1709244

ABSTRACT

Despite substantial investment and effort by federal agencies and institutions to improve the diversity of the professoriate, progress is excruciatingly slow. One program that aims to enhance faculty diversity is the Institutional Research and Academic Career Development Award (IRACDA) funded by the National Institutes of Health/National Institute of General Medical Sciences. IRACDA supports the training of a diverse cohort of postdoctoral scholars who will seek academic research and teaching careers. The San Diego IRACDA program has trained 109 postdoctoral scholars since its inception in 2003; 59% are women and 63% are underrepresented (UR) Black/African-American, Latinx/Mexican-American, and Indigenous scientists. Sixty-four percent obtained tenure-track faculty positions, including a substantial 32% at research-intensive institutions. However, the COVID-19 pandemic crisis threatens to upend IRACDA efforts to improve faculty diversity, and academia is at risk of losing a generation of diverse, talented scholars. Here, a group of San Diego IRACDA postdoctoral scholars reflects on these issues and discusses recommendations to enhance the retention of UR scientists to avoid a "lost generation" of promising UR faculty scholars.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cultural Diversity , Education, Graduate , Faculty, Medical/statistics & numerical data , Fellowships and Scholarships/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Universities/statistics & numerical data , California , Education, Graduate/economics , Faculty, Medical/economics , Female , Humans , Male , Minority Groups/statistics & numerical data , National Institute of General Medical Sciences (U.S.) , National Institutes of Health (U.S.) , Research Personnel/economics , Research Personnel/education , Research Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Salaries and Fringe Benefits/statistics & numerical data , United States , Universities/economics , Women/education
10.
Ann Surg ; 275(3): 435-437, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1707712

ABSTRACT

Sex inequity in academic achievement was well documented before the COVID-19 pandemic, and evolving data suggest that women in academic surgery are disproportionately disadvantaged by the pandemic. This perspective piece reviews currently accepted solutions to the sex achievement gap, with their associated shortcomings. We also propose innovative strategies to overcoming barriers to sex equity in academic medicine that broadly fall into three categories: strategies to mitigate inequitable caregiving responsibilities, strategies to reduce cognitive load, and strategies to value uncompensated, impactful work. These approaches address inequities at the system-level, as opposed to the individual-level, lifting the burden of changing the system from women.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Faculty, Medical , Physicians, Women , Specialties, Surgical , Female , Humans , Sex Distribution
11.
J Womens Health (Larchmt) ; 31(5): 631-639, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1684478

ABSTRACT

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has affected both home and work routines and may have exacerbated existing inequities. The objectives of this study were to describe pediatric faculty work productivity and caregiving responsibilities during the pandemic, identify groups at risk, and better understand mitigation strategy preferences. Materials and Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional electronic survey of Department of Pediatric faculty. Responses were analyzed by demographic data as well as academic context. Results: Women (p = 0.003) and junior faculty (p = 0.02) reported greater increases in caregiving responsibilities than men and senior faculty during the pandemic compared with the previous year. Faculty perceived a worse one-year outlook for their research than for their teaching or clinical responsibilities (p < 0.01). More than a third (37%) of faculty reported wellness concerns affecting job performance, which was more common among those with increased caregiving responsibility (p = 0.01). Junior faculty (p = 0.01) and those whose increased caregiving (p = 0.01) were two and threefold more likely to report that their caregiving responsibilities would affect promotion, for those likely to go up for promotion within 10 years. Preferred mitigation strategies included clear communication of expectations by leadership, acknowledging the need for adjustments in expectations, flexible work hours, and allowances for an off-line day. Conclusion: Pediatric faculty with increased caregiving responsibilities and junior faculty are at highest risk for the pandemic, affecting their readiness for promotion. Wellness concerns by faculty could affect work performance. Researchers report a worse 1-year outlook than the other groups. Faculty identified preferred strategies to potentially assist in maintaining their productivity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Work Performance , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Faculty, Medical , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics
12.
Fam Med ; 54(2): 107-113, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1675505

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: COVID-19 has had an unprecedented effect on faculty of academic family medicine departments. We sought to characterize faculty's self-reported changes in engagement and productivity in clinical, education, and scholarly efforts during the COVID-19 pandemic, and to correlate the changes with age, gender, and level of COVID-19 exposure. We also sought to determine if differences in faculty engagement and productivity were related to departmental efforts to create virtual community, manage conflict, foster engagement with colleagues, and support faculty emotional well-being. METHODS: We surveyed family medicine department faculty nationally on the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on their engagement and productivity in clinical care, teaching and research, and on the effect of departmental efforts on well-being. RESULTS: Most respondents reported decreased engagement and productivity across clinical, teaching, and research domains. Older age and male gender were associated with higher clinical engagement. Most respondents were satisfied with their departments' virtual community but reported that social distancing had a negative impact on departmental ability to problem-solve and on personal emotional well-being. Higher engagement and productivity in all three domains of effort (clinical, teaching, and research) were associated with respondents' well-being and with positive perceptions of their department's efforts. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical, teaching, and research engagement and productivity for academic family physicians decreased during the COVID-19 pandemic. Faculty well-being and departmental interventions lessened the impact of diminished productivity and research engagement.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Efficiency , Faculty, Medical , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Surg Radiol Anat ; 44(1): 61-71, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616120

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the students' opinions about the distance anatomy education given in our faculty at the COVID-19 pandemic and present our department's experiences. METHODS: An online questionnaire designed for medical faculty students. The questionnaire was applied to 355 volunteer medical faculty students. The questionnaire consisted of demographics, five-point Likert items, and open-ended questions. The questionnaire was applied between August and September 2020. Distance anatomy education activities were evaluated during March and July 2020. RESULTS: Results showed face-to-face theoretical anatomy education was found to be more effective than distance anatomy education conducted with recorded lecture videos. Even though the positive aspects of distance anatomy education stand out in topics, such as time management, it has been stated that cadaver and laboratory education has been disrupted. Most of the students agreed that they spent more time on supplementary resources during distance anatomy education. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic has provided an unexpected experimental environment. The demand for a blended method, which consists of distance (supported by video recordings) theoretical anatomy education and face-to-face practical anatomy education for the post-pandemic period comes to the fore. Distance anatomy education brings some problems with it due to its nature, and it is essential to seek unique solutions to them. Evaluating the perceptions of the parties will play an essential role in solving the problems of distance anatomy education and in the formation of future anatomy education styles.


Subject(s)
Anatomy , COVID-19 , Students, Medical , Faculty, Medical , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Acad Med ; 97(5): 631-634, 2022 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1593938

ABSTRACT

The Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) in 2007 developed the Holistic Review Framework for medical school admissions to increase mission-aligned student diversity. This approach balances an applicant's experiences, attributes, and metrics during the screening, interview, and selection processes. Faculty recruitment provides its own set of challenges, and there is persistent underrepresentation of certain racial and ethnic minority groups and women in faculty and leadership positions in U.S. academic health centers (AHCs). In 2019, the AAMC initiated a pilot program to adapt and implement the framework for use in faculty recruitment at AHCs. In this Invited Commentary, the authors describe the pilot implementation of the Holistic Review Framework for Faculty Recruitment and Retention and share lessons learned to date. Although the pilot proceeded during 2020, institutional implementation was impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic and racial justice movement. Pilot institutions encountered hiring freezes, reductions in funding, and restrictions on in-person meetings due to COVID-19 that resulted in both barriers and opportunities in implementing the framework. Renewed commitment to racial justice was associated with increased momentum and urgency for the implementation of faculty holistic review at the majority of pilot institutions. Common themes from the pilot leads' experiences included the importance of achieving "buy in," having a dedicated implementation team, and being explicit about core values. Other themes included the importance of adaptability and flexibility to meet the needs of different institutions and mission areas. The faculty holistic review framework has shown promise as an approach to advancing faculty diversity goals. The pilot institutions will continue to share best practices, track outcomes, implement quality improvement, and disseminate findings to assist other institutions and health care communities with their endeavors to recruit and retain diverse faculty.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Faculty, Medical , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Minority Groups , Pandemics
16.
N Engl J Med ; 385(27): 2499-2501, 2021 Dec 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1592290
17.
Med Educ Online ; 26(1): 1897267, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575983

ABSTRACT

During the spring semester of 2020, medical school anatomists in China were forced by the COVID-19 pandemic to transition from face-to-face educators or part-time online educators to full-time online educators. This nationwide survey was conducted to assess online anatomy education during the pandemic for medical students from nonclinical medicine and clinical medicine majors at medical schools in China via WeChat. The total of 356 responders included 293 responders from clinical medicine and 63 respondents from nonclinical medicine majors (i.e., 21 from preventive medicine, 13 from stomatology, and 29 from traditional Chinese medicine). The survey results showed that several aspects of online anatomy education were quite similar in clinical and nonclinical majors' classes, including theoretical and practical sessions, active learning, assessments and evaluations. However, there were statistically significant differences in class size, implementation of active learning activities prior to the pandemic, and the evaluation of the effectiveness of online learning during the pandemic, between clinical and nonclinical medicine majors. These results indicated that, compared with teachers of anatomy courses in clinical medicine, teachers of nonclinical medicine majors using online learning in medical schools in China had relatively poor preparation for online learning in response to the unforeseen pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Faculty, Medical/psychology , Pandemics , China , Education, Distance , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Male , Perception , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
18.
Med Educ Online ; 26(1): 1854066, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574662

ABSTRACT

Universities worldwide are pausing in an attempt to contain COVID-19's spread. In February 2019, universities in China took the lead, cancelling all in-person classes and switching to virtual classrooms, with a wave of other institutes globally following suit. The shift to online platform poses serious challenges to medical education so that understanding best practices shared by pilot institutes may help medical educators improve teaching. Provide 12 tips to highlight strategies intended to help on-site medical classes moving completely online under the pandemic. We collected 'best practices' reports from 40 medical schools in China that were submitted to the National Centre for Health Professions Education Development. Experts' review-to-summary cycle was used to finalize the best practices in teaching medical students online that can benefit peer institutions most, under the unprecedented circumstances of the COVID-19 outbreak. The 12 tips presented offer-specific strategies to optimize teaching medical students online under COVID-19, specifically highlighting the tech-based pedagogy, counselling, motivation, and ethics, as well as the assessment and modification. Learning experiences shared by pilot medical schools and customized properly are instructive to ensure a successful transition to e-learning.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Education, Distance/organization & administration , Education, Medical/organization & administration , China , Faculty, Medical/education , Faculty, Medical/organization & administration , Humans , Pandemics , Problem-Based Learning , SARS-CoV-2 , Staff Development/organization & administration , Teaching
19.
J Womens Health (Larchmt) ; 31(3): 321-330, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1541501

ABSTRACT

Background: For faculty in academic health sciences, the balance between research, education, and patient care has been impeded by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. This study aimed to identify personal and professional characteristics of faculty to understand the impact of the pandemic on faculty and consequent policy implications. Methods: A 93-question survey was sent to faculty at a large urban public university and medical center. Demographic, family, and academic characteristics, work distribution and productivity before and during the pandemic, stress, and self-care data information were collected. Latent class analysis (LCA) was performed to identify classes of faculty sharing similar characteristics. Comparisons between latent classes were performed using analysis of variance and chi-square analyses. Results: Of 497 respondents, 60% were women. Four latent classes of faculty emerged based on six significant indicator variables. Class 1 individuals were more likely women, assistant professors, nontenured with high work and home stress; Class 2 faculty were more likely associate professors, women, tenured, who reported high home and work stress; Class 3 faculty were more likely men, professors, tenured with moderate work, but low home stress; and Class 4 faculty were more likely adjunct professors, nontenured, and had low home and work stress. Class 2 reported significantly increased administrative and clinical duties, decreased scholarly productivity, and deferred self-care. Conclusions: The pandemic has not affected faculty equally. Early and mid-career individuals were impacted negatively from increased workloads, stress, and decreased self-care. Academic leaders need to acknowledge these differences and be inclusive of faculty with different experiences when adjusting workplace or promotion policies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Career Mobility , Faculty, Medical , Female , Humans , Latent Class Analysis , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Work-Life Balance
20.
Int J Med Educ ; 12: 179-180, 2021 Sep 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526943
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