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1.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0261509, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1604723

ABSTRACT

The COVID Pandemic may affect fertility behaviour and intentions in many ways. Restrictions on service provision reduce access to family planning services and increase fertility in the short term. By contrast, the economic uncertainty brought about by the pandemic and its impact on mental health and well-being may reduce fertility. These various pathways have been explored in the context of high income countries such as the United States and Western Europe, but little is known about middle income countries. In this paper we asses the impact of the COVID pandemic on fertility intentions and behaviour in the Republic of Moldova, a middle income country in Eastern Europe, using the Generations and Gender Survey. This survey was conducted partially before and partially after the onset of the pandemic in 2020, allowing for detailed comparisons of individual circumstances. The results indicate that the pandemic reduced the used of intrauterine devices, and increased the use of male condoms, but with no overall decrease in contraceptive use. Conversely individuals interviewed after the onset of the pandemic were 34.5% less likely to be trying to conceive, although medium term fertility intentions were unchanged. Indicators therefore suggest that in the medium term fertility intentions may not be affected by the pandemic but restricted access to contraception requiring medical consultation and a decrease in short-term fertility intentions could disrupt short term family planning.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Fertility/physiology , Reproductive Behavior/psychology , Adult , COVID-19/metabolism , Condoms/trends , Contraception/trends , Contraception Behavior/trends , Family Characteristics , Family Planning Services/supply & distribution , Family Planning Services/trends , Female , Humans , Income , Intrauterine Devices/trends , Male , Moldova/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Surveys and Questionnaires
2.
Am J Public Health ; 112(1): 38-42, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1594448

ABSTRACT

We conducted a community seroprevalence survey in Arizona, from September 12 to October 1, 2020, to determine the presence of antibodies to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We used the seroprevalence estimate to predict SARS-CoV-2 infections in the jurisdiction by applying the adjusted seroprevalence to the county's population. The estimated community seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infections was 4.3 times greater (95% confidence interval = 2.2, 7.5) than the number of reported cases. Field surveys with representative sampling provide data that may help fill in gaps in traditional public health reporting. (Am J Public Health. 2022;112(1):38-42. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2021.306568).


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Serological Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Arizona/epidemiology , Child , Family Characteristics , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Public Health Practice , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies
3.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0260658, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1592754

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As advocated by WHO in "Closing the Health Gap in a Generation", dramatic differences in child health are closely linked to degrees of social disadvantage, both within and between communities. Nevertheless, research has not examined whether child health inequalities include, but are not confined to, worse acute respiratory infection (ARI) symptoms among the socioeconomic disadvantaged in Pakistan. In addition to such disadvantages as the child's gender, maternal education, and household poverty, the present study also examined the linkages between the community environment and ARI symptoms among Pakistan children under five. Furthermore, we have assessed gender contingencies related to the aforementioned associations. METHODS: Using data from the nationally representative 2017-2018 Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey, a total of 11,908 surviving preschool age children (0-59 months old) living in 561 communities were analyzed. We employed two-level multilevel logistic regressions to model the relationship between ARI symptoms and individual-level and community-level social factors. RESULTS: The social factors at individual and community levels were found to be significantly associated with an increased risk of the child suffering from ARI symptoms. A particularly higher risk was observed among girls who resided in urban areas (AOR = 1.42; p<0.01) and who had a birth order of three or greater. DISCUSSIONS: Our results underscore the need for socioeconomic interventions in Pakistan that are targeted at densely populated households and communities within urban areas, with a particular emphasis on out-migration, in order to improve unequal economic underdevelopment. This could be done by targeting improvements in socio-economic structures, including maternal education.


Subject(s)
Health Surveys , Respiratory Tract Infections/pathology , Socioeconomic Factors , Child, Preschool , Educational Status , Family Characteristics , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Logistic Models , Male , Multilevel Analysis , Pakistan/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Urban Population
4.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261277, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581755

ABSTRACT

This paper analyzes the dynamics of the labor market in Latin America during the COVID-19 pandemic. After a decade of a virtuous circle of growth with the creation of formal jobs, the pandemic has had an considerable impact on the region's labor market, generating an unparalleled increase in the proportion of the inactive population, considerable reductions in informality, and, in contrast, smaller fluctuations in formal jobs. In this context, the formal sector, given its lower flexibility, became a "social safety net" that preserved the stability of employment and wages. Based on the findings presented in this paper, it is projected that, starting in 2021, informality will grow to levels higher than those of the pre-COVID-19 era-with 7.56 million additional informal jobs-as a result of the population returning to the labor market to compensate for the declines in incomes. According to the simulations presented, postponing or forgiving income tax payments and social security contributions conditional on the generation of formal jobs could reduce the growth of informality by 50 to 75 percent. Achieving educational improvements has the potential to reduce it by 50 percent.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Employment/trends , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Employment/statistics & numerical data , Family Characteristics , Female , Humans , Latin America/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Occupations , Public Policy , Salaries and Fringe Benefits , Social Class , Socioeconomic Factors , Young Adult
5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(1)2021 12 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580788

ABSTRACT

Numerous nations have implemented lockdown measures in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. As a consequence of the lockdown on daily living, social participation, and health service accessibility, vulnerable people, for example, new mothers, may experience an increase in mental health problems. This cross-sectional survey was conducted to investigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown on Thai new mothers and the variables affecting their mental health. The survey data were collected from 903 Thai mothers with infants aged 0-12 months using an online platform and a face-to-face interview questionnaire survey between 17 July and 17 October 2020, during the first nationwide COVID-19 lockdown period. For the final analysis, there were 862 participants who completed all of the questions. The full exploratory analysis was performed by multivariable linear regression to identify the variables influencing maternal mental health. Our study demonstrated that new mothers reported feeling a high extent to some extent of worry (44.9%), increased appetite (40.4%), becoming easily annoyed or irritable (39.1%), and feeling down (33.5%), whereas 82.7% felt able to cope with the first lockdown situation. Practiced relaxation techniques were associated with positive maternal mental health (adjusted ß = 1.05, 95% CI 0.57 to 1.52, p < 0.001). The perceived impact of the COVID-19 lockdown was on the household's ability to pay for rent, to make mortgage payments (adjusted ß = -1.59, 95% CI -2.87 to -0.36, p = 0.011), the household's ability to pay for other essentials, such as utilities and medication (adjusted ß = -1.99, 95% CI -3.16 to -0.81, p = 0.001), household crowding after lockdown (adjusted ß = -3.46, 95% CI -4.86 to -2.06, p < 0.001), and not going outside or doing outdoor activities (adjusted ß = -2.22, 95% CI -3.35 to -1.08, p < 0.001). These impacts were significantly associated with negative mental health. In conclusion, our results emphasize the critical need for continuous monitoring of maternal mental health and developing an effective response strategy and activity for promoting maternal mental health under the stress of repetitive lockdowns and increased economic pressures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Crowding , Family Characteristics , Female , Humans , Infant , Mental Health , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Thailand/epidemiology
6.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0259097, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575776

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) poses a high risk of transmission in close-contact indoor settings, which may include households. Prior studies have found a wide range of household secondary attack rates and may contain biases due to simplifying assumptions about transmission variability and test accuracy. METHODS: We compiled serological SARS-CoV-2 antibody test data and prior SARS-CoV-2 test reporting from members of 9,224 Utah households. We paired these data with a probabilistic model of household importation and transmission. We calculated a maximum likelihood estimate of the importation probability, mean and variability of household transmission probability, and sensitivity and specificity of test data. Given our household transmission estimates, we estimated the threshold of non-household transmission required for epidemic growth in the population. RESULTS: We estimated that individuals in our study households had a 0.41% (95% CI 0.32%- 0.51%) chance of acquiring SARS-CoV-2 infection outside their household. Our household secondary attack rate estimate was 36% (27%- 48%), substantially higher than the crude estimate of 16% unadjusted for imperfect serological test specificity and other factors. We found evidence for high variability in individual transmissibility, with higher probability of no transmissions or many transmissions compared to standard models. With household transmission at our estimates, the average number of non-household transmissions per case must be kept below 0.41 (0.33-0.52) to avoid continued growth of the pandemic in Utah. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that crude estimates of household secondary attack rate based on serology data without accounting for false positive tests may underestimate the true average transmissibility, even when test specificity is high. Our finding of potential high variability (overdispersion) in transmissibility of infected individuals is consistent with characterizing SARS-CoV-2 transmission being largely driven by superspreading from a minority of infected individuals. Mitigation efforts targeting large households and other locations where many people congregate indoors might curb continued spread of the virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Family Characteristics , Humans , Incidence , Likelihood Functions , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Sensitivity and Specificity , Serologic Tests/methods , Utah/epidemiology
7.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248072, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1573852

ABSTRACT

The spread of COVID-19 and resulting local and national lockdowns have a host of potential consequences for demographic trends. While impacts on mortality and, to some extent, short-term migration flows are beginning to be documented, it is too early to measure actual consequences for family demography. To gain insight into potential future consequences of the lockdown for family demography, we use cross-national Google Trends search data to explore whether trends in searches for words related to fertility, relationship formation, and relationship dissolution changed following lockdowns compared to average, pre-lockdown levels in Europe and the United States. Because lockdowns were not widely anticipated or simultaneous in timing or intensity, we exploit variability over time and between countries (and U.S. states). We use a panel event-study design and difference-in-differences methods, and account for seasonal trends and average country-level (or state-level) differences in searches. We find statistically significant impacts of lockdown timing on changes in searches for terms such as wedding and those related to condom use, emergency contraception, pregnancy tests, and abortion, but little evidence of changes in searches related to fertility. Impacts for union formation and dissolution tended to only be statistically significant at the start of a lockdown with a return to average-levels about 2 to 3 months after lockdown initiation, particularly in Europe. Compared to Europe, returns to average search levels were less evident for the U.S., even 2 to 3 months after lockdowns were introduced. This may be due to the fact, in the U.S., health and social policy responses were less demarcated than in Europe, such that economic uncertainty was likely of larger magnitude. Such pandemic-related economic uncertainty may therefore have the potential to slightly increase already existing polarization in family formation behaviours in the U.S. Alongside contributing to the wider literature on economic uncertainty and family behaviors, this paper also proposes strategies for efficient use of Google Trends data, such as making relative comparisons and testing sensitivity to outliers, and provides a template and cautions for their use in demographic research when actual demographic trends data are not yet available.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/prevention & control , Europe , Family Characteristics , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Public Policy , Quarantine/psychology , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , United States
8.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(2): e22197, 2021 02 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1573649

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To control the COVID-19 pandemic, people should adopt protective behaviors at home (self-isolation, social distancing, putting shopping and packages aside, wearing face coverings, cleaning and disinfecting, and handwashing). There is currently limited support to help individuals conduct these behaviors. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to report current household infection control behaviors in the United Kingdom and examine how they might be improved. METHODS: This was a pragmatic cross-sectional observational study of anonymous participant data from Germ Defence between May 6-24, 2020. Germ Defence is an open-access fully automated website providing behavioral advice for infection control within households. A total of 28,285 users sought advice from four website pathways based on household status (advice to protect themselves generally, to protect others if the user was showing symptoms, to protect themselves if household members were showing symptoms, and to protect a household member who is at high risk). Users reported current infection control behaviors within the home and intentions to change these behaviors. RESULTS: Current behaviors varied across all infection control measures but were between sometimes (face covering: mean 1.61, SD 1.19; social distancing: mean 2.40, SD 1.22; isolating: mean 2.78, SD 1.29; putting packages and shopping aside: mean 2.75, SD 1.55) and quite often (cleaning and disinfecting: mean 3.17, SD 1.18), except for handwashing (very often: mean 4.00, SD 1.03). Behaviors were similar regardless of the website pathway used. After using Germ Defence, users recorded intentions to improve infection control behavior across all website pathways and for all behaviors (overall average infection control score mean difference 0.30, 95% CI 0.29-0.31). CONCLUSIONS: Self-reported infection control behaviors other than handwashing are lower than is optimal for infection prevention, although handwashing is much higher. Advice using behavior change techniques in Germ Defence led to intentions to improve these behaviors. Promoting Germ Defence within national and local public health and primary care guidance could reduce COVID-19 transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Infection Control/methods , Internet-Based Intervention , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Family Characteristics , Health Behavior , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , United Kingdom/epidemiology
9.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(10): 1840-1848, 2021 11 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1522143

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Within-household transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has been identified as one of the main sources of spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) after lockdown restrictions and self-isolation guidelines are implemented. Secondary attack rates among household contacts are estimated to be 5-10 times higher than among non-household contacts, but it is unclear which individuals are more prone to transmit infection within their households. METHODS: Using address matching, a cohort was assembled of all individuals with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 residing in private households in Ontario, Canada. Descriptive analyses were performed to compare characteristics of cases in households that experienced secondary transmission versus those that did not. Logistic regression models were fit to determine index case characteristics and neighborhood characteristics associated with transmission. RESULTS: Between January and July 2020, there were 26 714 individuals with COVID-19 residing in 21 226 households. Longer testing delays (≥5 vs 0 days; odds ratio [OR], 3.02; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.53-3.60) and male gender (OR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.18-1.38) were associated with greater odds of household secondary transmission, while being a healthcare worker (OR, .56; 95% CI, .50-.62) was associated with lower odds of transmission. Neighborhoods with larger average family size and a higher proportion of households with multiple persons per room were also associated with greater odds of transmission. CONCLUSIONS: It is important for individuals to get tested for SARS-CoV-2 infection as soon as symptoms appear, and to isolate away from household contacts; this is particularly important in neighborhoods with large family sizes and/or crowded households.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Cohort Studies , Communicable Disease Control , Family Characteristics , Humans , Male , Ontario/epidemiology
10.
J Dev Behav Pediatr ; 42(8): 672-676, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1517916

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study examines the media use of children from low-income homes during school closings during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Caregivers of 151 kindergarteners from low-income homes completed questionnaires as part of a larger study. Caregivers reported how much time children spent watching television/videos and using apps on the most recent weekday and weekend days. Caregivers also reported how their child's current use of media for several different purposes compared with how much the child usually uses media for that purpose. RESULTS: Weekly average media use was 46.3 hours or 6.6 hours per day. Counter to previous research, weekday media use was higher than weekend media use, suggesting that media was likely used as a replacement for time usually spent in school. Caregivers reported increased child media use for positive purposes, such as education and maintaining relationships with family and friends outside of the home, and potentially useful but less socially valued purposes, such as occupying the child's time while caregivers were completing other tasks. Having more children in the household was related to higher media use, and girls used media for maintaining remote relationships more than boys. CONCLUSION: These findings provide reason for both concern and optimism for the impacts of pandemic closures on low-income children. High levels of media use seem to be prevalent in this population. However, the diverse purposes for media use suggest that caregivers relied on media to supplement children's academic and social growth at a time when school and socializing were not safe in their typical forms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Poverty , Television , Caregivers , Child, Preschool , Family Characteristics , Female , Humans , Male , Ohio , Pandemics , Television/statistics & numerical data
11.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(11): e2132777, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1516694

ABSTRACT

Importance: A slow or incomplete civil registry makes it impossible to determine excess mortality due to COVID-19 and difficult to inform policy. Objective: To quantify the association of the COVID-19 pandemic with excess mortality and household income in rural Bangladesh in 2020. Design, Setting, and Participants: This repeated survey study is based on an in-person census followed by 2 rounds of telephone calls. Data were collected from a sample of 135 villages within a densely populated 350-km2 rural area of Bangladesh. Household data were obtained first in person and subsequently over the telephone. For the analysis, mortality data were stratified by month, age, sex, and household education. Mortality rates were modeled by bayesian multilevel regression, and the strata were aggregated to the population by poststratification. Data analysis was performed from February to April 2021. Exposures: Date and cause of any changes in household composition, as well as changes in income and food availability. Main Outcomes and Measures: Mortality rates were compared for 2019 and 2020, both without adjustment and after adjustment for nonresponse and differences in demographic variables between surveys. Income and food availability reported for January, May, and November 2020 were also compared. Results: Enumerators collected data from an initial 16 054 households in January 2020; 14 551 households (91%) responded when contacted again by telephone in May 2020, and 11 933 households (74%)responded when reached again over the telephone in November 2020, for a total of 58 806 individuals (29 726 female participants [50.5%]; mean [SD] age, 26.4 [19.8] years). A total of 276 deaths were reported between February and the end of October 2020 for the subset of the population that could be contacted twice over the telephone, slightly below the 289 deaths reported for the same population over the same period in 2019. After adjustment for survey nonresponse and poststratification, 2020 mortality changed by -8% (95% CI, -21% to 7%) compared with an annualized mortality of 6.1 deaths per 1000 individuals in 2019. However, in May 2020, salaried primary income earners reported a 40% decrease in monthly income (from 17 485 to 10 835 Bangladeshi Taka), and self-employed earners reported a 60% decrease in monthly income (23 083 to 8521 Bangladeshi Taka), with only a small recovery observed by November 2020. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study of households in rural Bangladesh, all-cause mortality was lower in 2020 compared with 2019. Restrictions imposed by the government may have limited the scale of the COVID-19 pandemic in rural areas, although economic data suggest that these restrictions need to be accompanied by expanded welfare programs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cause of Death , Family Characteristics , Income , Pandemics , Rural Population , Adolescent , Adult , Bangladesh , Bayes Theorem , COVID-19/mortality , Child , Educational Status , Employment , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors , Young Adult
13.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0259580, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1505862

ABSTRACT

A lockdown implies a shift from the public to the private sphere, and from market to non-market production, thereby increasing the volume of unpaid work. Already before the pandemic, unpaid work was disproportionately borne by women. This paper studies the effect of working from home for pay (WFH), due to a lockdown, on the change in the division of housework and childcare within couple households. While previous studies on the effect of WFH on the reconciliation of work and family life and the division of labour within the household suffered from selection bias, we are able to identify this effect by drawing upon the shock of the first COVID-19 lockdown in Austria. The corresponding legal measures left little choice over WFH. In any case, WFH is exogenous, conditional on a small set of individual and household characteristics we control for. We employ data from a survey on the gendered aspects of the lockdown. The dataset includes detailed information on time use during the lockdown and on the quality and experience of WFH. Uniquely, this survey data also includes information on the division, and not only magnitude, of unpaid work within households. Austria is an interesting case in this respect as it is characterized by very conservative gender norms. The results reveal that the probability of men taking on a larger share of housework increases if men are WFH alone or together with their female partner. By contrast, the involvement of men in childcare increased only in the event that the female partner was not able to WFH. Overall, the burden of childcare, and particularly homeschooling, was disproportionately borne by women.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Child Care , Employment , Quarantine , Teleworking , Austria , Child , Child, Preschool , Family Characteristics , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Models, Econometric , Social Class , Surveys and Questionnaires
14.
Euro Surveill ; 26(44)2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1503826

ABSTRACT

We estimated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine effectiveness against onward transmission by comparing secondary attack rates among household members for vaccinated and unvaccinated index cases, based on source and contact tracing data collected when the Delta variant was dominant. Effectiveness of full vaccination of the index case against transmission to unvaccinated and fully vaccinated household contacts, respectively, was 63% (95% confidence interval (CI): 46-75) and 40% (95% CI: 20-54), in addition to the direct protection of vaccination of contacts against infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , COVID-19 Vaccines , Family Characteristics , Humans , Netherlands/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
15.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0259050, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502071

ABSTRACT

Latin American governments swiftly implemented income assistance programs to sustain families' livelihoods during COVID-19 stay-at-home orders. This paper analyzes the potential coverage and generosity of these measures and assesses the suitability of current safety nets to deal with unexpected negative income shocks in 10 Latin American countries. The expansion of pre-existing programs (most notably conditional cash transfers and non-contributory pensions) during the COVID-19 crisis was generally insufficient to compensate for the inability to work among the poorest segments of the population. When COVID-19 ad hoc programs are analyzed, the coverage and replacement rates of regular labor income among households in the first quintile of the country's labor income distribution increase substantially. Yet, these programs present substantial coverage challenges among families composed of fundamentally informal workers who are non-poor, but are at a high risk of poverty. These results highlight the limitations of the fragmented nature of social protection systems in the region.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Welfare , Socioeconomic Factors , Developing Countries , Emergencies , Family Characteristics , Humans , Income , Latin America/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pensions , Physical Distancing , Public Policy
16.
Front Immunol ; 12: 741639, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1497078

ABSTRACT

Children have reduced severity of COVID-19 compared to adults and typically have mild or asymptomatic disease. The immunological mechanisms underlying these age-related differences in clinical outcomes remain unexplained. Here, we quantify 23 immune cell populations in 141 samples from children and adults with mild COVID-19 and their PCR-negative close household contacts at acute and convalescent time points. Children with COVID-19 displayed marked reductions in myeloid cells during infection, most prominent in children under the age of five. Recovery from infection in both children and adults was characterised by the generation of CD8 TCM and CD4 TCM up to 9 weeks post infection. SARS-CoV-2-exposed close contacts also had immunological changes over time despite no evidence of confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection on PCR testing. This included an increase in low-density neutrophils during convalescence in both exposed children and adults, as well as increases in CD8 TCM and CD4 TCM in exposed adults. In comparison to children with other common respiratory viral infections, those with COVID-19 had a greater change in innate and T cell-mediated immune responses over time. These findings provide new mechanistic insights into the immune response during and after recovery from COVID-19 in both children and adults.


Subject(s)
CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Convalescence , Environmental Exposure , Family Characteristics , Female , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Immunologic Memory , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
17.
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc ; 10(9): 919-921, 2021 Oct 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493869

ABSTRACT

This is a single-center US retrospective study of infection patterns among household sick contacts (HHSCs) of children with confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 infection in an urban setting. An HHSC was identified in fewer than half (42%) of the patients, and no child-to-adult transmission was identified. This is a single center US retrospective study of infection patterns among household sick contacts of children with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. A household sick contact was identified in fewer than half (42%) of patients and no child-to-adult transmission was identified.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Contact Tracing , Family Characteristics , Humans , Retrospective Studies
18.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21054, 2021 10 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493209

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, evidence has accumulated that movement restrictions enacted to combat virus spread produce disparate consequences along socioeconomic lines. We investigate the hypothesis that people engaged in financially secure employment are better able to adhere to mobility restrictions, due to occupational factors that link the capacity for flexible work arrangements to income security. We use high-resolution spatial data on household internet traffic as a surrogate for adaptation to home-based work, together with the geographical clustering of occupation types, to investigate the relationship between occupational factors and increased internet traffic during work hours under lockdown in two Australian cities. By testing our hypothesis based on the observed trends, and exploring demographic factors associated with divergences from our hypothesis, we are left with a picture of unequal impact dominated by two major influences: the types of occupations in which people are engaged, and the composition of households and families. During lockdown, increased internet traffic was correlated with income security and, when school activity was conducted remotely, to the proportion of families with children. Our findings suggest that response planning and provision of social and economic support for residents within lockdown areas should explicitly account for income security and household structure. Overall, the results we present contribute to the emerging picture of the impacts of COVID-19 on human behaviour, and will help policy makers to understand the balance between public health and social impact in making decisions about mitigation policies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Internet , Quarantine , Socioeconomic Factors , Australia , Communicable Disease Control , Employment , Environment , Family Characteristics , Geography , Humans , Income , Occupations , Policy , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 5565549, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1476874

ABSTRACT

Objectives: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is an emerging virus causing substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide. We performed a cross-sectional investigation of SARS-CoV-2 clusters in Suzhou to determine the transmissibility of the virus among close contacts and to assess the demographic and clinical characteristics between index and secondary cases. Methods: We review the clustered patients with SARS-CoV-2 infections in Suzhou between 22 January and 29 February 2020. The demographic and clinical characteristics were compared between index and secondary cases. We calculated the basic reproduction number (R 0) among close contacts with SLI model. Results: By 22 February, 87 patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection were reported, including 50 sporadic and 37 clustered cases, who were generated from 13 clusters. On admission, 5 (20.8%) out of 24 secondary cases were asymptomatic. The male ratio of index cases was significantly higher than that of secondary cases. Additionally, the index cases were more likely to have fever and increased CRP levels than the secondary cases. The R 0 values of clusters displayed a significantly declining trend over time for all clusters. The relative risk of infection in blood-related contacts of cases versus unrelated contacts was 1.60 for SARS-CoV-2 (95% CI: 0.42-2.95). Conclusions: In conclusion, SARS-CoV-2 has great person-to-person transmission capability among close contacts. The secondary cases are more prone to have mild symptoms than index cases. There is no increased RR of secondary infection in blood relatives versus unrelated contacts. The high rate of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infections highlights the urgent need to enhance active case finding strategy for early detection of infectious patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Contact Tracing , Family Characteristics , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , COVID-19/transmission , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors
20.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(19)2021 09 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463652

ABSTRACT

Aside from specific environmental conditions, poor agricultural practices contribute to mold and thus the mycotoxin contamination of crops. This study investigated Bangladeshi farming households' (i) awareness of and experience with mold contamination of food crops; (ii) knowledge and awareness of the timing, causes, and consequences of mold and mycotoxin contamination; and (iii) knowledge of the recommended agricultural practices for controlling and preventing mold contamination of food crops. A survey was conducted with 1280 households in rural areas of Habiganj district, Bangladesh. Basic descriptive statistics were calculated, and mixed-effects linear regression analyses were performed to examine associations between household characteristics and overall knowledge scores. The awareness of mold contamination of food crops was very high (99%; 95% CI: 98-100%) and a shared experience among households (85%; 95% CI: 80-88%). Yet, the majority (80%; 95% CI: 76-84%) demonstrated a low level of knowledge of the timing, causes, and preventive practices regarding mold contamination of crops. Knowledge scores were similar over demographic groups and better for households with more arable land. The findings suggest a generally insufficient knowledge of the conditions that favor mold contamination and the measures for preventing mold contamination of food crops. These findings underline the need for tailored interventions to promote good agricultural practices and reduce mold contamination of food crops.


Subject(s)
Agriculture , Family Characteristics , Bangladesh , Crops, Agricultural , Cross-Sectional Studies , Food Contamination , Humans , Rural Population
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