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1.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277201, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2197029

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Respiratory tract infection (RTI) incidence varies between people, but little is known about why. The aim of this study is therefore to identify risk factors for acquiring RTIs. METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of 16,908 participants in the PRIMIT study, a pre-pandemic randomised trial showing handwashing reduced incidence of RTIs in the community. Data was analysed using multivariable logistic regression analyses of self-reported RTI acquisition. RESULTS: After controlling for handwashing, RTI in the previous year (1 to 2 RTIs: adjusted OR 1.96, 95% CI 1.79 to 2.13, p<0.001; 3 to 5 RTIs: aOR 3.89, 95% CI 3.49 to 4.33, p<0.001; ≥6 RTIs: OR 5.52, 95% CI 4.37 to 6.97, p<0.001); skin conditions that prevent handwashing (aOR 1.39, 95% CI 1.24 to 1.55, p<0.001); children under 16 years in the household (aOR 1.27, 95% CI 1.12, 1.43, p<0.001); chronic lung condition (aOR 1.16, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.32, p = 0.026); female sex (aOR 1.10, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.18, p = 0.005), and post-secondary education (aOR 1.09, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.17, p = 0.01) increased the likelihood of RTI. Those over the age of 65 years were less likely to develop an infection (aOR 0.89, 95% CI 0.82 to 0.97, p = 0.009). Household crowding and influenza vaccination do not influence RTI acquisition. A post-hoc exploratory analysis found no evidence these subgroups differentially benefited from handwashing. CONCLUSIONS: Previous RTIs, chronic lung conditions, skin conditions that prevent handwashing, and the presence of household children predispose to RTI acquisition. Further research is needed to understand how host and microbial factors explain the relationship between previous and future RTIs.


Subject(s)
Community-Acquired Infections , Respiratory Tract Infections , Aged , Child , Female , Humans , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Community-Acquired Infections/prevention & control , Crowding , Family Characteristics , Respiratory System , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/prevention & control , Risk Factors
2.
Lancet Respir Med ; 10(11): 1074-1085, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2184772

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In the UK, during the study period (April to July, 2021), all contacts of people with COVID-19 were required to self-isolate for 10 days, which had adverse impacts on individuals and society. Avoiding the need to self-isolate for those who remain uninfected would be beneficial. We investigated whether daily use of lateral flow devices (LFDs) to test for SARS-CoV-2, with removal of self-isolation for 24 h if negative, could be a safe alternative to self-isolation as a means to minimise onward transmission of the virus. METHODS: We conducted a randomised, controlled, non-inferiority trial in adult contacts identified by COVID-19 contact tracing in England. Consenting participants were randomly assigned to self-isolation (single PCR test, 10-day isolation) or daily contact testing (DCT; seven LFD tests, two PCR tests, no isolation if negative on LFD); participants from a single household were assigned to the same group. Participants were prospectively followed up, with the effect of each intervention on onward transmission established from routinely collected NHS Test and Trace contact tracing data for participants who tested PCR-positive for SARS-CoV-2 during the study period and tertiary cases arising from their contacts (ie, secondary contacts). The primary outcome of the study was the attack rate, the percentage of secondary contacts (close contacts of SARS-CoV-2-positive study participants) who became COVID-19 cases (tertiary cases) in each group. Attack rates were derived from Bernoulli regression models using Huber-White (robust) sandwich estimator clustered standard errors. Attack rates were adjusted for household exposure, vaccination status, and ability to work from home. The non-inferiority margin was 1·9%. The primary analysis was a modified intention-to-treat analysis excluding those who actively withdrew from the study as data from these participants were no longer held. This study is registered with the Research Registry (number 6809). Data collection is complete; analysis is ongoing. FINDINGS: Between April 29 and July 28, 2021, 54 923 eligible individuals were enrolled in the study, with final group allocations (following withdrawals) of 26 123 (52·6%) participants in the DCT group and 23 500 (47·4%) in the self-isolation group. Overall, 4694 participants tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 by PCR (secondary cases), 2364 (10·1%) in the self-isolation group and 2330 (8·9%) in the DCT group. Adjusted attack rates (among secondary contacts) were 7·5% in the self-isolation group and 6·3% in the DCT group (difference of -1·2% [95% CI -2·3 to -0·2]; significantly lower than the non-inferiority margin of 1·9%). INTERPRETATION: DCT with 24 h exemption from self-isolation for essential activities appears to be non-inferior to self-isolation. This study, which provided evidence for the UK Government's daily lateral flow testing policy for vaccinated contacts of COVID-19 cases, indicated that daily testing with LFDs could allow individuals to reduce the risk of onward transmission while minimising the adverse effects of self-isolation. Although contacts in England are no longer required to isolate, the findings will be relevant for future policy decisions around COVID-19 or other communicable infections. FUNDING: UK Government Department of Health and Social Care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Contact Tracing , Incidence , Family Characteristics
3.
BMJ Glob Health ; 7(9)2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2152982

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Targeted vaccination promotion efforts aimed at building vaccine confidence require an in-depth understanding of how and by whom decisions about vaccinating children are made. While several studies have highlighted how parents interact with other stakeholders when discussing childhood vaccination, less is known about the way in which vaccination uptake is negotiated within households. METHODS: We conducted 44 in-depth interviews with caregivers of children under five in the Philippines who had delayed or refused vaccination. Interviews were conducted between August 2020 and March 2021 and were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and translated into English. Notions of intra-household vaccination bargaining emerged early during systematic debriefings and were probed more pointedly throughout data collection. RESULTS: Parents as well as paternal and maternal families proved to be dominant stakeholders in intra-household bargaining for childhood vaccination. Although bargaining among these stakeholders was based on engrained, gender-based power imbalances, disadvantaged stakeholders could draw on a range of interrelated sources of bargaining power to nevertheless shape decision-making. Sources of bargaining power included, in descending order of their relevance for vaccination, (1) physical presence at the household (at the time of vaccination decision-making), (2) interest in the topic of vaccination and conviction of one's own position, (3) previous vaccination and caregiving experience, and (4) access to household resources (including finances). The degree to which each household member could draw on these sources of bargaining power varied considerably over time and across households. CONCLUSION: Our findings highlight how bargaining due to intra-household disagreement coins decisions regarding childhood vaccination. Considering the risks for public health associated with vaccine hesitancy globally, we advocate for acknowledging intra-household dynamics in research and practice, such as by purposefully targeting household members with decision-making capacity in vaccination promotion efforts, aligning promotion efforts with available bargaining capacity or further empowering those convinced of vaccination.


Subject(s)
Family Characteristics , Vaccination , Child , Humans , Negotiating , Parents , Philippines
4.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(9): e30406, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141343

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Data on how SARS-CoV-2 enters and spreads in a population are essential for guiding public policies. OBJECTIVE: This study seeks to understand the transmission dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 in small Brazilian towns during the early phase of the epidemic and to identify core groups that can serve as the initial source of infection as well as factors associated with a higher risk of COVID-19. METHODS: Two population-based seroprevalence studies, one household survey, and a case-control study were conducted in two small towns in southeastern Brazil between May and June 2020. In the population-based studies, 400 people were evaluated in each town; there were 40 homes in the household survey, and 95 cases and 393 controls in the case-control study. SARS-CoV-2 serology testing was performed on participants, and a questionnaire was applied. Prevalence, household secondary infection rate, and factors associated with infection were assessed. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated by logistic regression. Logistics worker was defined as an individual with an occupation focused on the transportation of people or goods and whose job involves traveling outside the town of residence at least once a week. RESULTS: Higher seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 was observed in the town with a greater proportion of logistics workers. The secondary household infection rate was 49.1% (55/112), and it was observed that in most households (28/40, 70%) the index case was a logistics worker. The case-control study revealed that being a logistics worker (OR 18.0, 95% CI 8.4-38.7) or living with one (OR 6.9, 95% CI 3.3-14.5) increases the risk of infection. In addition, having close contact with a confirmed case (OR 13.4, 95% CI 6.6-27.3) and living with more than four people (OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.1-7.1) were also risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows a strong association between logistics workers and the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and highlights the key role of these workers in the viral spread in small towns. These findings indicate the need to focus on this population to determine COVID-19 prevention and control strategies, including vaccination and sentinel genomic surveillance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Communicable Diseases, Imported/epidemiology , Occupations/statistics & numerical data , Transportation/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Brazil/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Child , Child, Preschool , Cities/epidemiology , Family Characteristics , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Young Adult
5.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277108, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2140629

ABSTRACT

Pet ownership is an integral part of a modern-day family. It provides a wide range of benefits to humans. However, data on pet ownership are relatively limited from rural regions, Southern Asia and low-middle-income countries. We aim to report the prevalence and associated factors for pet ownership and veterinary visits in Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka. A community-based, cross-sectional study was conducted. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used. Binary logistic regression was performed to determine significant associations between variables of interest and pet ownership (p < 0.05). Out of the 532 households, 57% currently owned a pet. The most common pet was the dog owned by 41% of the households and the cat was the second most owned by 17%. Security (69% - 152/220) was the most common role for dogs at home while it was companionship for cats (31% - 27/88) and hobby for both birds (64% - 18/28) and fish (54% - 14/26). Most dogs (54% - 118/220) had one veterinary visit within the last year. Households with >1 adult female [p = 0.02; OR = 1.61 (95% CI 1.09 to 2.36)], participants living alone [p = 0.03; OR = 0.24 (95% CI 0.07 to 0.86)] and Buddhists [p = 0.02; OR = 2.56 (95% CI 1.16 to 5.63)] were significantly associated with pet ownership. Pet ownership is common among people in Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka, with a few demographic factors having a significant association with pet ownership. Dogs are the most common type of pet and highlight the opportunity for research related to canine companionship and human health. Future research on such topics should consider the above-mentioned socio-demographic predictors as potential confounders.


Subject(s)
Family Characteristics , Ownership , Adult , Dogs , Humans , Animals , Female , Cross-Sectional Studies , Sri Lanka , Surveys and Questionnaires
6.
Malar J ; 21(1): 293, 2022 Oct 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139303

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In 2020-2021, long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) were distributed nationwide in Uganda during the COVID-19 pandemic. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 12 districts to evaluate the impact of the campaign 1-5 months after LLIN distribution. METHODS: During April-May 2021, households were randomly selected from target areas (1-7 villages) surrounding 12 government-run health facilities established as Malaria Reference Centres; at least 50 households were enrolled per cluster. Outcomes included household ownership of LLINs distributed through the universal coverage campaign (UCC) (at least one UCC LLIN), adequate coverage of UCC LLINs (at least one UCC LLIN per 2 residents), and use of LLINs (resident slept under a LLIN the previous night). Multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify household- and individual-level factors associated with outcomes, controlling for clustering around health facilities. RESULTS: In total, 634 households, with 3342 residents and 1631 bed-nets, were included. Most households (93.4%) owned at least 1 UCC LLIN, but only 56.8% were adequately covered by UCC LLINs. In an adjusted analysis, the factor most strongly associated with adequate coverage by UCC LLINs was fewer household residents (1-4 vs 7-14; adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 12.96, 95% CI 4.76-35.26, p < 0.001; 5-6 vs 7-14 residents; aOR 2.99, 95% CI 1.21-7.42, p = 0.018). Of the 3166 residents of households that owned at least one UCC LLIN, only 1684 (53.2%) lived in adequately covered households; 89.9% of these used an LLIN the previous night, compared to 1034 (69.8%) of 1482 residents living in inadequately covered households. In an adjusted analysis, restricted to residents of inadequately covered households, LLIN use was higher in children under-five than those aged 5-15 years (aOR 3.04, 95% CI 2.08-4.46, p < 0.001), and higher in household heads than distantly-related residents (aOR 3.94, 95% CI 2.38-6.51, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Uganda's 2021-21 campaign was successful, despite the COVID-19 pandemic. In future campaigns, strategies should be adopted to ensure high LLIN coverage, particularly for larger households. A better understanding of the drivers of LLIN use within households is needed to guide future interventions, educational messages, and behaviour change communication strategies; school-aged children and distantly-related residents appear vulnerable and could be targeted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Insecticide-Treated Bednets , Child , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pandemics , Uganda/epidemiology , Family Characteristics , Child, Preschool , Adolescent
7.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277754, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119349

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Family clusters offer a good opportunity to study viral transmission in a stable setting. We aimed to analyze the specific role of children in transmission of SARS-CoV-2 within households. METHODS: A prospective, longitudinal, observational study, including children with documented acute SARS-CoV-2 infection attending 22 summer-schools in Barcelona, Spain, was performed. Moreover, other patients and families coming from other school-like environments that voluntarily accessed the study were also studied. A longitudinal follow-up (5 weeks) of the family clusters was conducted to determine whether the children considered to be primary cases were able to transmit the virus to other family members. The household reproduction number (Re*) and the secondary attack rate (SAR) were calculated. RESULTS: 1905 children from the summer schools were screened for SARS-CoV-2 infection and 22 (1.15%) tested positive. Moreover, 32 additional children accessed the study voluntarily. Of these, 37 children and their 26 households were studied completely. In half of the cases (13/26), the primary case was considered to be a child and secondary transmission to other members of the household was observed in 3/13, with a SAR of 14.2% and a Re* of 0.46. Conversely, the SAR of adult primary cases was 72.2% including the kids that gave rise to the contact tracing study, and 61.5% without them, and the estimated Re* was 2.6. In 4/13 of the paediatric primary cases (30.0%), nasopharyngeal PCR was persistently positive > 1 week after diagnosis, and 3/4 of these children infected another family member (p<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Children may not be the main drivers of the infection in household transmission clusters in the study population. A prolonged positive PCR could be associated with higher transmissibility.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Humans , Child , Spain/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Family Characteristics
8.
Front Public Health ; 10: 862461, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099254

ABSTRACT

Wasting among children under-5 years remains a public health problem in Malawi, despite the quest to improve food availability through Farm Input Subsidy Program (FISP). As such, the study examined the link between FISP and child wasting. Using Malawi Integrated Household Panel Surveys for 2013, 2016, and 2019, two-stage least squares approach was employed to run a Cobb Douglas production function and a correlated Random Effects (CRE) Model to account for endogeneity challenges and an unbalanced panel dataset. The study hypothesized the role of FISP to dietary diversity at the household level on child wasting [weight-for-height (WHZ)]. Based on the analysis, the study found that household access to FISP coupons was not a stand-alone predictor for low wasting among children under-5 years. However, increased maize production due to FISP coupon access significantly correlated with lower wasting likelihood incidences at the household level. Worth to note, that in 2015/16, households that had accessed FISP coupons and were in the central region had higher wasting probabilities among the children under-5 years in Malawi compared to other counterparts panels. This implies challenges to addressing wasting among children under-5 years- which can be attributed to higher redemption costs of the FISP coupon. Therefore, the current study suggests that input subsidies can improve the reduction of wasting among children under-5 years through specific pathways, among them, increased maize production and considering appropriate targeted approaches to ensure households access the inputs for sustained food availability, which in turn enhances improved the children under-5 years health dividends in Malawi.


Subject(s)
Diet , Food Supply , Child , Family Characteristics , Farms , Humans , Malawi
10.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(12): 2425-2434, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089724

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 likely emerged from an animal reservoir. However, the frequency of and risk factors for interspecies transmission remain unclear. We conducted a community-based study in Idaho, USA, of pets in households that had >1 confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infections in humans. Among 119 dogs and 57 cats, clinical signs consistent with SARS-CoV-2 were reported for 20 dogs (21%) and 19 cats (39%). Of 81 dogs and 32 cats sampled, 40% of dogs and 43% of cats were seropositive, and 5% of dogs and 8% of cats were PCR positive. This discordance might be caused by delays in sampling. Respondents commonly reported close human‒animal contact and willingness to take measures to prevent transmission to their pets. Reported preventive measures showed a slightly protective but nonsignificant trend for both illness and seropositivity in pets. Sharing of beds and bowls had slight harmful effects, reaching statistical significance for sharing bowls and seropositivity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cat Diseases , Humans , Animals , Dogs , Cats , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/veterinary , Idaho/epidemiology , Washington/epidemiology , Family Characteristics , Pets , Cat Diseases/epidemiology
11.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1969, 2022 10 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089186

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Handwashing is fundamentally an inexpensive means of reducing the spread of communicable diseases. In developing countries, many people die due to infectious diseases that could be prevented by proper hand hygiene. The recent coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic is a threat to people who are living in resource-limited countries including sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Effective hand hygiene requires sufficient water from reliable sources, preferably accessible on premises, and access to handwashing facility (water and or soap) that enable hygiene behaviors. Therefore, this study aims to determine the prevalence of limited handwashing facility and its associated factors in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: Data from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) were used, which have been conducted in 29 sub-Saharan African countries since January 1, 2010. A two-stage stratified random cluster sampling strategy was used to collect the data. This study comprised a total of 237,983 weighted samples. The mixed effect logistic regression model with a cluster-level random intercept was fitted. Meta-analysis and sub-group analysis were performed to establish the pooled prevalence. RESULTS: The pooled prevalence of limited handwashing facility was found to be 66.16% (95% CI; 59.67%-72.65%). Based on the final model, household head with age group between 35 and 60 [AOR = 0.89, 95% CI; 0.86-0.91], households with mobile type of hand washing facility [AOR = 1.73, 95% CI; 1.70-1.77], unimproved sanitation facility [AOR = 1.58, 95% CI; 1.55-1.62], water access more than 30 min round trip [AOR = 1.16, 95% CI; 1.13-1.19], urban residential area [AOR = 2.08, 95% CI; 2.04-2.13], low media exposure [AOR = 1.47, 95% CI; 1.31-1.66], low educational level [AOR = 1.30, 95% CI; 1.14-1.48], low income level [AOR = 2.41, 95% CI; 2.33-2.49] as well as lower middle-income level [AOR = 2.10, 95% CI; 2.14-2.17] and households who had more than three children [AOR = 1.25, 95% CI; 1.20-1.31] were associated with having limited handwashing facility. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION: The pooled coverage of limited handwashing facility was high in sub-Saharan Africa. Raising awareness of the community and promoting access to handwashing materials particularly in poorer and rural areas will reduce its coverage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hand Disinfection , Child , Humans , Multilevel Analysis , Prevalence , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Africa South of the Sahara/epidemiology , Health Surveys , Family Characteristics , Water
12.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0276507, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2079771

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to estimate associations between COVID-19 incidence and mortality with neighbourhood-level immigration, race, housing, and socio-economic characteristics. METHODS: We conducted a population-based study of 28,808 COVID-19 cases in the provincial reportable infectious disease surveillance systems (Public Health Case and Contact Management System) which includes all known COVID-19 infections and deaths from Ontario, Canada reported between January 23, 2020 and July 28, 2020. Residents of congregate settings, Indigenous communities living on reserves or small neighbourhoods with populations <1,000 were excluded. Comparing neighbourhoods in the 90th to the 10th percentiles of socio-demographic characteristics, we estimated the associations between 18 neighbourhood-level measures of immigration, race, housing and socio-economic characteristics and COVID-19 incidence and mortality using Poisson generalized linear mixed models. RESULTS: Neighbourhoods with the highest proportion of immigrants (relative risk (RR): 4.0, 95%CI:3.5-4.5) and visible minority residents (RR: 3.3, 95%CI:2.9-3.7) showed the strongest association with COVID-19 incidence in adjusted models. Among individual race groups, COVID-19 incidence was highest among neighbourhoods with the high proportions of Black (RR: 2.4, 95%CI:2.2-2.6), South Asian (RR: 1.9, 95%CI:1.8-2.1), Latin American (RR: 1.8, 95%CI:1.6-2.0) and Middle Eastern (RR: 1.2, 95%CI:1.1-1.3) residents. Neighbourhoods with the highest average household size (RR: 1.9, 95%CI:1.7-2.1), proportion of multigenerational families (RR: 1.8, 95%CI:1.7-2.0) and unsuitably crowded housing (RR: 2.1, 95%CI:2.0-2.3) were associated with COVID-19 incidence. Neighbourhoods with the highest proportion of residents with less than high school education (RR: 1.6, 95%CI:1.4-1.8), low income (RR: 1.4, 95%CI:1.2-1.5) and unaffordable housing (RR: 1.6, 95%CI:1.4-1.8) were associated with COVID-19 incidence. Similar inequities were observed across neighbourhood-level sociodemographic characteristics and COVID-19 mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Neighbourhood-level inequities in COVID-19 incidence and mortality were observed in Ontario, with excess burden experienced in neighbourhoods with a higher proportion of immigrants, racialized populations, large households and low socio-economic status.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Incidence , Ontario/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Residence Characteristics , Family Characteristics , Socioeconomic Factors
13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(19)2022 Oct 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066089

ABSTRACT

China launched the "critical battle against poverty" nationwide in 2012. As its main battlefield, Yunnan province promulgated the "triple medical security" (TMS) policy in 2017. This study, based on the pooled cross-section database of 2015-2020 of registered poor households in Yunnan province, employed the logit model to examine the effect of TMS on the vulnerability as expected poverty (VEP) of these households. It found that increasing the reimbursement rates for overall medical expenses and inpatient expenses and decreasing the proportion of out-of-pocket medical payment to income reduced the VEP; increases in the number of sick people in the family increased its VEP, and although the increase in the reimbursement rate for overall medical expenses or for inpatient expenses partially offset the VEP caused by the increase in the number of chronically ill people in the family, the VEP caused by the increase in the number of critically ill people would increase in the short term with the increase in the reimbursement rate for overall medical expenses or for inpatient expenses. The findings help improve policies concerning the medical security and health of the rural poor population, providing theoretical reference and practical guidance for future research.


Subject(s)
Family Characteristics , Rural Population , China/epidemiology , Health Expenditures , Humans , Policy , Poverty
14.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(19)2022 Sep 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065983

ABSTRACT

This paper aims to analyse factors affecting financial stress among the Bottom 40 Percent (B40) group of Malaysian households, reflecting overall financial well-being. Data were collected through questionnaires from 1008 respondents across five major regions in Malaysia. The data were analysed using Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and Partial Least Squares-Structural Equation Modelling (PLS-SEM). This study provides evidence that financial behaviour, financial vulnerability (debt and income), and locus of control (luck and self-confidence) significantly affect financial stress among B40 households. The results show a significantly positive relationship between financial stress with financial vulnerability (debt and income) and locus of control (self-confidence). On the contrary, financial behaviour and locus of control (luck) show a significant negative relationship with financial stress. The result also indicates that financial stress affects financial well-being. Overall, the findings indicate that policy-makers should invent more effective and substantial stimulus packages or other measures to reduce the financial burden on B40 households. The findings could eventually provide insights for future research to delve into the social impact of financial stress. This study also has established a valid and reliable instrument to measure financial stress involving B40 households in Malaysia that eventually reflects the financial well-being of this group of people.


Subject(s)
Family Characteristics , Financial Stress , Humans , Income , Malaysia , Surveys and Questionnaires
15.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(19)2022 Sep 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065917

ABSTRACT

Cultural practices and development level can influence a population's household structures and mixing patterns. Within some populations, households can be organized across multiple dwellings. This likely affects the spread of infectious disease through these communities; however, current demographic data collection tools do not record these data. METHODS: Between June and October 2018, the Contact And Mobility Patterns in remote Aboriginal Australian communities (CAMP-remote) pilot study recruited Aboriginal mothers with infants in a remote northern Australian community to complete a monthly iPad-based contact survey. RESULTS: Thirteen mother-infant pairs (participants) completed 69 study visits between recruitment and the end of May 2019. Participants reported they and their other children slept in 28 dwellings during the study. The median dwelling occupancy, defined as people sleeping in the same dwelling on the previous night, was ten (range: 3.5-25). Participants who completed at least three responses (n = 8) slept in a median of three dwellings (range: 2-9). Each month, a median of 28% (range: 0-63%) of the participants travelled out of the community. Including these data in disease transmission models amplified estimates of infectious disease spread in the study community, compared to models parameterized using census data. CONCLUSIONS: The lack of data on mixing patterns in populations where households can be organized across dwellings may impact the accuracy of infectious disease models for these communities and the efficacy of public health actions they inform.


Subject(s)
Family Characteristics , Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander , Australia/epidemiology , Child , Female , Humans , Indigenous Peoples , Infant , Pilot Projects
16.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(19)2022 Sep 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065916

ABSTRACT

Communities in major cities in developing countries may experience economic vulnerability, which has detrimental consequences for maternal and child health. This study investigated individual-, household-, and community-level factors associated with child growth and resilience of early-grade learners aged 6 to 8 years. Demographic characteristics, depression scale, child wellbeing, and anthropometric measurements were collected on a sample of 162 caregiver-child pairs (children 46% female) who receive the child support grant (cash transfer programme) from five low-income urban communities in the City of Johannesburg, South Africa. Height and weight were converted to z-scores using the WHO Anthroplus software. Multiple linear regression was used to assess factors associated with child health outcomes and multi-level regression to account for community-level factors. Higher income vulnerability was associated with lower weight- and height-for-age z-scores (WAZ and HAZ). Not completing secondary schooling and higher household size were associated with lower HAZ but higher BAZ. Child male sex and caregiver with depression were associated with lower child resilience. Caregiver's level of schooling and household size remained independent predictors of child growth, while the caregiver's mental health status independently predicted child resilience. Thus, notwithstanding systemic constraints, there may be modifiable drivers that can help in developing targeted intervention.


Subject(s)
Body Height , Poverty , Family Characteristics , Female , Humans , Income , Infant , Male , Socioeconomic Factors , South Africa
17.
Int J Equity Health ; 21(1): 146, 2022 10 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2064810

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has helped shine the spotlight on the role of women's leadership in tackling the world's health and health system challenges. The proportion of women occupying senior leadership positions in the health sector is less compared to males, even as they constitute a vast majority of the work force. The South Indian state of Kerala is an exception to this trend, a phenomenon that we sought to understand and contextualise. We undertook a study to understand the personal and professional journeys of some women leaders in the Kerala health sector to determine the antecedents of their leadership positions, the challenges that came their way in leadership, and strategies adopted to overcome these challenges. We also investigated into how these experiences shaped their styles and approaches to leadership. METHODS: We conducted a qualitative study involving semi-structured in-depth interviews with women leaders. Sixteen women leaders were identified from public records and through peer nomination and interviewed in their language of preference following written informed consent procedures. Interviews focused on participants' professional and personal trajectories, work-life balance, style of leadership, challenges, enablers, lessons learned in their path, and their vision for the health system. The interviews conducted in Malayalam were transliterated into English and thematically analysed using Atlas.Ti8 software by three researchers. RESULTS: Our study participants were aged 40 to around 80 years, from 8 out of 14 districts of the state. Women leaders in Kerala's health sector faced challenges through the life-course: during their early school education, in professional service as well as in their roles as leaders. There were myriad experiences - including gender stereotyping and discrimination at the intersection of gender and other social identities. Women developed manifold ways of overcoming them and evolve unique - and again myriad-leadership styles. CONCLUSIONS: Women leaders in Kerala have faced shared challenges through their life-course to climb up the ranks of leadership; each leader has adopted unique ways of overcoming them and developed similarly unique leadership styles. At each life stage there were bargains with patriarchy - involving family members (often as allies), against formal and informal institutional rules, managers, peers and subordinates., which in turn suggests a feminist consciousness on the part of Kerala women leaders as well as the society in which they are seeking to lead.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Family Characteristics , Female , Humans , Leadership , Male , Qualitative Research
18.
Ann Epidemiol ; 76: 121-127, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2060388

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Households are important for SARS-CoV-2 transmission due to high intensity exposure in enclosed spaces over prolonged durations. We quantified and characterized household clustering of COVID-19 cases in Fulton County, Georgia. METHODS: We used surveillance data to identify all confirmed COVID-19 cases in Fulton County. Household clustered cases were defined as cases with matching residential address. We described the proportion of COVID-19 cases that were clustered, stratified by age over time and explore trends in age of first diagnosed case within households and subsequent household cases. RESULTS: Between June 1, 2020 and October 31, 2021, 31,449(37%) of 106,233 cases were clustered in households. Children were the most likely to be in household clusters than any other age group. Initially, children were rarely (∼ 10%) the first cases diagnosed in the household but increased to almost 1 of 3 in later periods. DISCUSSION: One-third of COVID-19 cases in Fulton County were part of a household cluster. Increasingly children were the first diagnosed case, coinciding with temporal trends in vaccine roll-out among the elderly and the return to in-person schooling in Fall 2021. Limitations include restrictions to cases with a valid address and unit number and that the first diagnosed case may not be the infection source for the household.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Child , Humans , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Georgia/epidemiology , Family Characteristics , Cluster Analysis
19.
Ann Afr Med ; 21(3): 180-184, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2055681

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The COVID-19 epidemic is fast-evolving and restrictions to contain it changes quickly. The secondary attack rate (SAR) indicates the infectiousness at the household level, and it provides a clue of load of infections in the community. Rapid implementation of a large scale, but brief survey provides a nationally representative view of the pandemic's progression and impact as well as the effect of the measures taken to control the spread. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was done for a period of 2 months July-August 2020, in one of the rural health and demographic surveillance system (HDSS) site in India among 11,507 households having 46,571 individuals with the objective to determine the prevalence of the COVID-19 infection and to estimate the family SAR. The data were collected using the mobile phone by calling the head of the households registered under the HDSS. The research tool was created using questions based on the guidelines provided by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, India. The interviewers were first trained in data collection. Results: The households of 33,780 individuals were contacted and 33 patients were diagnosed as COVID positive, prevalence rate of 0.1% was thus documented through telephonic survey. The mean age of COVID patients was found to be 37 ± 16 years, and 63% of the diagnosed patients were males, majority of them belonged to above poverty line households. During the survey, 46 individuals reported to have the symptoms suggestive of COVID, fever and cough were the most commonly reported symptoms. The family SAR of 17.2% was documented. Conclusion: Thus to conclude a low COVID-19 prevalence rate of 0.1%, a higher family SAR of 17.2% was reported in the current study. Timely diagnosis and quarantine of close contacts should be continued to be implemented rigorously to prevent the spread of the COVID-19 virus. These efforts will be useful to contain the epidemic before it reaches an alarming level in the rural areas.


Résumé Introduction: L'épidémie de COVID-19 évolue rapidement et les restrictions pour la contenir changent rapidement. Le taux d'attaque secondaire (SAR) indique l'infectiosité au niveau du ménage et fournit un indice de la charge d'infections dans la communauté. La mise en œuvre rapide d'une enquête à grande échelle mais brève fournit une vue représentative à l'échelle nationale de la progression et de l'impact de la pandémie ainsi que de l'effet des mesures prises pour contrôler la propagation. Matériels et Méthodes: cette étude transversale a été réalisée sur une période de 2 mois de juillet à août 2020, dans l'un des sites du système de surveillance sanitaire et démographique en milieu rural (HDSS) en Inde auprès de 11 507 ménages comptant 46 571 individus dans le but de déterminer prévalence de l'infection au COVID-19 et d'estimer le DAS familial. Les données ont été collectées à l'aide du téléphone mobile en appelant le chef de ménage inscrit au HDSS. L'outil de recherche a été créé à l'aide de questions basées sur les directives fournies par le ministère indien de la Santé et du Bien-être familial. Les enquêteurs ont d'abord été formés à la collecte de données. Résultats: les ménages de 33 780 individus ont été contactés et 33 patients ont été diagnostiqués positifs au COVID, un taux de prévalence de 0,1 % a ainsi été documenté par une enquête téléphonique. L'âge moyen des patients COVID était de 37 ± 16 ans, et 63 % des patients diagnostiqués étaient des hommes, la majorité d'entre eux appartenant à des ménages au-dessus du seuil de pauvreté. Au cours de l'enquête, 46 personnes ont déclaré avoir des symptômes évocateurs de COVID, la fièvre et la toux étaient les symptômes les plus fréquemment signalés. Le SAR familial de 17,2 % a été documenté. Conclusion: Ainsi, pour conclure à un faible taux de prévalence de la COVID-19 de 0,1 %, un DAS familial supérieur de 17,2 % a été rapporté dans la présente étude. Le diagnostic rapide et la mise en quarantaine des contacts étroits doivent être poursuivis et mis en œuvre de manière rigoureuse pour empêcher la propagation du virus COVID-19. Ces efforts seront utiles pour contenir l'épidémie avant qu'elle n'atteigne un niveau alarmant dans les zones rurales. Mots-clés: COVID 19, système de surveillance sanitaire et démographique, téléphone portable, prévalence, milieu rural, taux d'attaque secondaire.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Family Characteristics , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Rural Health , Young Adult
20.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 5760, 2022 09 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2050381

ABSTRACT

SARS coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) continues to evolve and new variants emerge. Using nationwide Danish data, we estimate the transmission dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron subvariants BA.1 and BA.2 within households. Among 22,678 primary cases, we identified 17,319 secondary infections among 50,588 household contacts during a 1-7 day follow-up. The secondary attack rate (SAR) was 29% and 39% in households infected with Omicron BA.1 and BA.2, respectively. BA.2 was associated with increased susceptibility of infection for unvaccinated household contacts (Odds Ratio (OR) 1.99; 95%-CI 1.72-2.31), fully vaccinated contacts (OR 2.26; 95%-CI 1.95-2.62) and booster-vaccinated contacts (OR 2.65; 95%-CI 2.29-3.08), compared to BA.1. We also found increased infectiousness from unvaccinated primary cases infected with BA.2 compared to BA.1 (OR 2.47; 95%-CI 2.15-2.84), but not for fully vaccinated (OR 0.66; 95%-CI 0.57-0.78) or booster-vaccinated primary cases (OR 0.69; 95%-CI 0.59-0.82). Omicron BA.2 is inherently more transmissible than BA.1. Its immune-evasive properties also reduce the protective effect of vaccination against infection, but do not increase infectiousness of breakthrough infections from vaccinated individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Denmark/epidemiology , Family Characteristics , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
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