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1.
J Community Health ; 48(3): 390-397, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2326732

ABSTRACT

The more than one million COVID-19 deaths in the United States include parents, grandparents, and other caregivers for children. These losses can disrupt the social, emotional, and economic well-being of children, their families, and their communities, and understanding the number and characteristics of affected children is a critical step in responding. We estimate the number of children who lost a parent or other co-residing caregiver to COVID-19 in the U.S. and identify racial, ethnic, and geographic disparities by aligning COVID-19 death counts through mid-May 2022 with household information from a representative sample of individuals. We estimate that 216,617 children lost a co-residing caregiver to COVID-19; 77,283 lost a parent and more than 17,000 children lost the only caregiver with whom they lived. Non-White children were more than twice as likely as White children to experience caregiver loss, and children under 14 years old experienced 70% of caregiver loss. These losses are a salient threat to the functioning of families and the communities in which COVID-19 deaths are concentrated, compounding additional challenges to physical and mental health and economic stability disproportionately imposed by the pandemic on historically disadvantaged populations. Policymakers and systems should take steps to ensure access to appropriate supports.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Child , United States/epidemiology , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Caregivers/psychology , Prevalence , Parents , Family Characteristics
2.
J Theor Biol ; 557: 111331, 2023 01 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2315357

ABSTRACT

The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 saw severe detriments to public health being inflicted by COVID-19 disease throughout 2020. In the lead up to Christmas 2020, the UK Government sought an easement of social restrictions that would permit spending time with others over the Christmas period, whilst limiting the risk of spreading SARS-CoV-2. In November 2020, plans were published to allow individuals to socialise within 'Christmas bubbles' with friends and family. This policy involved a planned easing of restrictions in England between 23-27 December 2020, with Christmas bubbles allowing people from up to three households to meet throughout the holiday period. We estimated the epidemiological impact of both this and alternative bubble strategies that allowed extending contacts beyond the immediate household. We used a stochastic individual-based model for a synthetic population of 100,000 households, with demographic and SARS-CoV-2 epidemiological characteristics comparable to England as of November 2020. We evaluated five Christmas bubble scenarios for the period 23-27 December 2020, assuming our populations of households did not have symptomatic infection present and were not in isolation as the eased social restrictions began. Assessment comprised incidence and cumulative infection metrics. We tested the sensitivity of the results to a situation where it was possible for households to be in isolation at the beginning of the Christmas bubble period and also when there was lower adherence to testing, contact tracing and isolation interventions. We found that visiting family and friends over the holiday period for a shorter duration and in smaller groups was less risky than spending the entire five days together. The increases in infection from greater amounts of social mixing disproportionately impacted the eldest. We provide this account as an illustration of a real-time contribution of modelling insights to a scientific advisory group, the Scientific Pandemic Influenza Group on Modelling, Operational sub-group (SPI-M-O) for the Scientific Advisory Group for Emergencies (SAGE) in the UK, during the COVID-19 pandemic. This manuscript was submitted as part of a theme issue on "Modelling COVID-19 and Preparedness for Future Pandemics".


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Contact Tracing/methods , Family Characteristics
3.
Euro Surveill ; 28(18)2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2320933

ABSTRACT

BackgroundMeta-analyses and single-site studies have established that children are less infectious than adults within a household when positive for ancestral SARS-CoV-2. In addition, children appear less susceptible to infection when exposed to ancestral SARS-CoV-2 within a household. The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOC) has been associated with an increased number of paediatric infections worldwide. However, the role of children in the household transmission of VOC, relative to the ancestral virus, remains unclear.AimWe aimed to evaluate children's role in household transmission of SARS-CoV-2 VOC.MethodsWe perform a meta-analysis of the role of children in household transmission of both ancestral SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV-2 VOC.ResultsUnlike with the ancestral virus, children infected with VOC spread SARS-CoV-2 to an equivalent number of household contacts as infected adults and were equally as likely to acquire SARS-CoV-2 VOC from an infected family member. Interestingly, the same was observed when unvaccinated children exposed to VOC were compared with unvaccinated adults exposed to VOC.ConclusionsThese data suggest that the emergence of VOC was associated with a fundamental shift in the epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2. It is unlikely that this is solely the result of age-dependent differences in vaccination during the VOC period and may instead reflect virus evolution over the course of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Child , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccination , Family Characteristics
4.
JAMA ; 329(6): 482-489, 2023 02 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2310661

ABSTRACT

Importance: Influenza virus infections declined globally during the COVID-19 pandemic. Loss of natural immunity from lower rates of influenza infection and documented antigenic changes in circulating viruses may have resulted in increased susceptibility to influenza virus infection during the 2021-2022 influenza season. Objective: To compare the risk of influenza virus infection among household contacts of patients with influenza during the 2021-2022 influenza season with risk of influenza virus infection among household contacts during influenza seasons before the COVID-19 pandemic in the US. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective study of influenza transmission enrolled households in 2 states before the COVID-19 pandemic (2017-2020) and in 4 US states during the 2021-2022 influenza season. Primary cases were individuals with the earliest laboratory-confirmed influenza A(H3N2) virus infection in a household. Household contacts were people living with the primary cases who self-collected nasal swabs daily for influenza molecular testing and completed symptom diaries daily for 5 to 10 days after enrollment. Exposures: Household contacts living with a primary case. Main Outcomes and Measures: Relative risk of laboratory-confirmed influenza A(H3N2) virus infection in household contacts during the 2021-2022 season compared with prepandemic seasons. Risk estimates were adjusted for age, vaccination status, frequency of interaction with the primary case, and household density. Subgroup analyses by age, vaccination status, and frequency of interaction with the primary case were also conducted. Results: During the prepandemic seasons, 152 primary cases (median age, 13 years; 3.9% Black; 52.0% female) and 353 household contacts (median age, 33 years; 2.8% Black; 54.1% female) were included and during the 2021-2022 influenza season, 84 primary cases (median age, 10 years; 13.1% Black; 52.4% female) and 186 household contacts (median age, 28.5 years; 14.0% Black; 63.4% female) were included in the analysis. During the prepandemic influenza seasons, 20.1% (71/353) of household contacts were infected with influenza A(H3N2) viruses compared with 50.0% (93/186) of household contacts in 2021-2022. The adjusted relative risk of A(H3N2) virus infection in 2021-2022 was 2.31 (95% CI, 1.86-2.86) compared with prepandemic seasons. Conclusions and Relevance: Among cohorts in 5 US states, there was a significantly increased risk of household transmission of influenza A(H3N2) in 2021-2022 compared with prepandemic seasons. Additional research is needed to understand reasons for this association.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Female , Humans , Male , COVID-19/epidemiology , Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype/isolation & purification , Influenza Vaccines/therapeutic use , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Influenza, Human/transmission , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Prospective Studies , Seasons , Family Characteristics , United States/epidemiology , Contact Tracing/statistics & numerical data , Self-Testing
5.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0279414, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2310482

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Food security is an important policy issue in India. As India recently ranked 107th out of 121 countries in the 2022 Global Hunger Index, there is an urgent need to dissect, and gain insights into, such a major decline at the national level. However, the existing surveys, due to small sample sizes, cannot be used directly to produce reliable estimates at local administrative levels such as districts. DESIGN: The latest round of available data from the Household Consumer Expenditure Survey (HCES 2011-12) done by the National Sample Survey Office of India used stratified multi-stage random sampling with districts as strata, villages as first stage and households as second stage units. SETTING: Our Small Area Estimation approach estimated food insecurity prevalence, gap, and severity of each rural district of the Eastern Indo-Gangetic Plain (EIGP) region by modeling the HCES data, guided by local covariates from the 2011 Indian Population Census. PARTICIPANTS: In HCES, 5915 (34429), 3310 (17534) and 3566 (15223) households (persons) were surveyed from the 71, 38 and 18 districts of the EIGP states of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and West Bengal respectively. RESULTS: We estimated the district-specific food insecurity indicators, and mapped their local disparities over the EIGP region. By comparing food insecurity with indicators of climate vulnerability, poverty and crop diversity, we shortlisted the vulnerable districts in EIGP. CONCLUSIONS: Our district-level estimates and maps can be effective for informed policy-making to build local resiliency and address systemic vulnerabilities where they matter most in the post-pandemic era. ADVANCES: Our study computed, for the Indian states in the EIGP region, the first area-level small area estimates of food insecurity as well as poverty over the past decade, and generated a ranked list of districts upon combining these data with measures of crop diversity and climatic vulnerability.


Subject(s)
Food Insecurity , Food Supply , Humans , Poverty , Family Characteristics , Surveys and Questionnaires
6.
Clin Infect Dis ; 76(12): 2126-2133, 2023 Jun 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2308514

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The impact of infection-induced immunity on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission has not been well established. Here we estimate the effects of prior infection induced immunity in adults and children on SARS-CoV-2 transmission in households. METHODS: We conducted a household cohort study from March 2020-November 2022 in Managua, Nicaragua; following a housheold SARS-CoV-2 infection, household members are closely monitored for infection. We estimate the association of time period, age, symptoms, and prior infection with secondary attack risk. RESULTS: Overall, transmission occurred in 70.2% of households, 40.9% of household contacts were infected, and the secondary attack risk ranged from 8.1% to 13.9% depending on the time period. Symptomatic infected individuals were more infectious (rate ratio [RR] 21.2, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 7.4-60.7) and participants with a prior infection were half as likely to be infected compared to naïve individuals (RR 0.52, 95% CI:.38-.70). In models stratified by age, prior infection was associated with decreased infectivity in adults and adolescents (secondary attack risk [SAR] 12.3, 95% CI: 10.3, 14.8 vs 17.5, 95% CI: 14.8, 20.7). However, although young children were less likely to transmit, neither prior infection nor symptom presentation was associated with infectivity. During the Omicron era, infection-induced immunity remained protective against infection. CONCLUSIONS: Infection-induced immunity is associated with decreased infectivity for adults and adolescents. Although young children are less infectious, prior infection and asymptomatic presentation did not reduce their infectivity as was seen in adults. As SARS-CoV-2 transitions to endemicity, children may become more important in transmission dynamics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Child , Adolescent , Humans , Child, Preschool , SARS-CoV-2 , Cohort Studies , Family Characteristics , Nicaragua/epidemiology
7.
J Nutr Sci ; 12: e53, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2293565

ABSTRACT

To assess the determinants of hunger among food pantry users, the present study used a cross-sectional survey that included a modified Household Hunger Scale to quantify hunger. Mixed-effects logistic regression models were used to assess the relationship between hunger categories and various household socio-demographic and economic characteristics, such as age, race, household size, marital status and experience of any economic hardship. The survey was administered to food pantry users from June 2018 to August 2018 at various food pantries across Eastern Massachusetts with 611 food pantry users completing the questionnaire at any of the 10 food pantry sites. One-fifth (20⋅13 %) of food pantry users experienced moderate hunger and 19⋅14 % experienced severe hunger. Food pantry users who were single, divorced or separated; had less than a high school education; working part-time, unemployed or retired; or, who earned incomes less than $1000 per month were most likely to experience severe or moderate hunger. Pantry users who experienced any economic hardship had 4⋅78 the adjusted odds of severe hunger (95 % CI 2⋅49, 9⋅19), which was much larger than the odds of moderate hunger (AOR 1⋅95; 95 % CI 1⋅10, 3⋅48). Younger age and participation in WIC (AOR 0⋅20; 95 % CI 0⋅05-0⋅78) and SNAP (AOR 0⋅53; 95 % CI 0⋅32-0⋅88) were protective against severe hunger. The present study illustrates factors affecting hunger in food pantry users, which can help inform public health programmes and policies for people in need of additional resources. This is essential particularly in times of increasing economic hardships recently exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hunger , Humans , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pandemics , Food Supply , Family Characteristics , Massachusetts/epidemiology
8.
Front Public Health ; 11: 1109446, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2293233

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic drives psychological distress. Previous studies have mostly focused on individual determinants but overlooked family factors. The present study aimed to examine the associations of individual and family factors with psychological distress, and the mediating effect of individual fear and the moderating role of household income on the above associations. Methods: We conducted a population-based cross-sectional survey on Chinese adults in Hong Kong from February to March 2021 (N = 2,251) to measure the independent variables of anti-epidemic fatigue, anti-epidemic confidence, individual and family members' fear of COVID-19, and family well-being (range 0-10), and the dependent variable of psychological distress (through four-item Patient Health Questionnaire, range 0-4). Results: Hierarchical regression showed that anti-epidemic fatigue was positively (ß = 0.23, 95% CI [0.18, 0.28]) while anti-epidemic confidence was negatively (ß = -0.29, 95% CI [-0.36, -0.22]) associated with psychological distress. Family members' fear of COVID-19 was positively (ß = 0.11, 95% CI [0.05, 0.16]) while family well-being was negatively (ß = -0.57, 95% CI [-0.63, -0.51]) associated with psychological distress. Structural equation model showed that individual fear mediated the above associations except for family well-being. Multi-group analyses showed a non-significant direct effect of anti-epidemic confidence and a slightly stronger direct effect of family well-being on psychological distress among participants with lower incomes, compared to those with higher incomes. Conclusion: We have first reported the double-edged effect of family context on psychological distress, with the positive association between family members' fear of COVID-19 and psychological distress fully mediated by individual fear and the negative association between family well-being and psychological distress moderated by income level. Future studies are warranted to investigate how the contagion of fear develops in the family and how the inequality of family resources impacts family members' mental health amid the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Family , Fear , Income , Psychological Distress , Adult , Humans , COVID-19/economics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Family/psychology , Family Characteristics , Fatigue/psychology , Fear/psychology , Health Surveys/statistics & numerical data , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Income/statistics & numerical data , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Family Health
9.
PLoS One ; 18(4): e0284251, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2292192

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Research clearly demonstrates that income matters greatly to health. However, income distribution and its relationship to poverty risk is often misunderstood. METHODS: We provide a structural account of income distribution and poverty risk in the U.S., rooted in the 'roles' that individuals inhabit with relation to the 'factor payment system' (market distribution of income to individuals through wages and asset ownership). Principal roles are child, older adult, and, among working-age adults, disabled individual, student, unemployed individual, caregiver, or paid laborer. Moreover, the roles of other members of an individual's household also influence an individual's income level. This account implies that 1) roles other than paid laborer will be associated with greater poverty risk, 2) household composition will be associated with poverty risk, and 3) income support policies for those not able to engage in paid labor are critical for avoiding poverty. We test hypotheses implied by this account using 2019 and 2022 U.S. Census Current Population Survey data. The exposure variables in our analyses relate to roles and household composition. The outcomes relate to income and poverty risk. RESULTS: In 2019, 40.1 million individuals (12.7% of the population) experienced poverty under the U.S. Census' Supplemental Poverty Measure. All roles other than paid laborer were associated with greater poverty risk (p < .001 for all comparisons). Household composition, particularly more children and disabled working-age adults, and fewer paid laborers, was also associated with greater poverty risk (p < .001 for all comparisons). Five key policy areas-child benefits, older-age pensions, disability and sickness insurance, unemployment insurance, and out-of-pocket healthcare spending-represented gaps in the welfare state strongly associated with poverty risk. CONCLUSIONS: The role one inhabits and household composition are associated with poverty risk. This understanding of income distribution and poverty risk may be useful for social policy.


Subject(s)
Income , Poverty , Humans , United States , Aged , Family Characteristics , Social Welfare , Salaries and Fringe Benefits
10.
PLoS One ; 18(4): e0283078, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2300666

ABSTRACT

We assessed food insecurity, dietary diversity and the right to adequate food among households in communities in Eastern Uganda that were affected by major landslides in 2010 and 2018. A prospective cohort study was applied to select 422 households during May-August (the food-plenty season) of 2019. In January-March (the food-poor season) of 2020, 388 households were re-assessed. Socio-demographic, food security, dietary diversity and right to adequate food data were collected using structured questionnaires. Four focus groups discussions and key informant interviews with 10 purposively sampled duty-bearers explored issues of food insecurity, dietary and the right to adequate food. The affected households had significantly higher mean (SE) food insecurity scores than controls, both during the food plenty season: 15.3 (0.5) vs. 10.8 (0.5), and during food-poor season: 15.9 (0.4) vs. 12.5 (0.0). The affected households had significantly lower mean (SE) dietary diversity scores than controls during the food plenty season: 5.4 (0.2) vs. 7.5 (0.2) and during the food poor season: 5.2 (0.2) vs. 7.3 (0.1). Multivariate analyses showed that the disaster event, education and main source of livelihood, were significantly associated with household food security and dietary diversity during the food-plenty season whereas during the food-poor season, the disaster event and education were associated with household food security and dietary diversity. During both food seasons, the majority of affected and control households reported to have consumed unsafe food. Cash-handout was the most preferred for ensuring the right to adequate food. Comprehension and awareness of human rights principles and state obligations were low. The severity of food-insecurity and dietary diversity differed significantly between the affected and control households during both food seasons. Moreover, the right to adequate food of landslide victims faced challenges to its realization. There is need for policy and planning frameworks that cater for seasonal variations, disaster effects and right to adequate food in order to reduce landslide victims' vulnerability to food insecurity and poor dietary diversity. In the long-term, education and income diversification program interventions need to be integrated into disaster recovery programs since they are central in enhancing the resilience of rural livelihoods to shocks and stressors on the food system.


Subject(s)
Landslides , Humans , Uganda , Cohort Studies , Prospective Studies , Family Characteristics , Food Supply , Diet , Food Insecurity
12.
J Public Health Manag Pract ; 29(4): 587-595, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2261524

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To identify the proportion of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases that occurred within households or buildings in New York City (NYC) beginning in March 2020 during the first stay-at-home order to determine transmission attributable to these settings and inform targeted prevention strategies. DESIGN: The residential addresses of cases were geocoded (converting descriptive addresses to latitude and longitude coordinates) and used to identify clusters of cases residing in unique buildings based on building identification number (BIN), a unique building identifier. Household clusters were defined as 2 or more cases within 2 weeks of onset or diagnosis date in the same BIN with the same unit number, last name, or in a single-family home. Building clusters were defined as 3 or more cases with onset date or diagnosis date within 2 weeks in the same BIN who do not reside in the same household. SETTING: NYC from March to December 2020. PARTICIPANTS: NYC residents with a positive SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid amplification or antigen test result with a specimen collected during March 1, 2020, to December 31, 2020. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The proportion of NYC COVID-19 cases in a household or building cluster. RESULTS: The BIN analysis identified 65 343 building and household clusters: 17 139 (26%) building clusters and 48 204 (74%) household clusters. A substantial proportion of NYC COVID-19 cases (43%) were potentially attributable to household transmission in the first 9 months of the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: Geocoded address matching assisted in identifying COVID-19 household clusters. Close contact transmission within a household or building cluster was found in 43% of noncongregate cases with a valid residential NYC address. The BIN analysis should be utilized to identify disease clustering for improved surveillance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , New York City/epidemiology , Family Characteristics , Cluster Analysis
13.
Nutrients ; 15(6)2023 Mar 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2260022

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: High intake of food away from home is associated with poor diet quality. This study examines how the COVID-19 pandemic period and Food Away from Home (FAFH) inflation rate fluctuations influenced dining out behaviors. METHODS: Approximately 2800 individuals in Texas reported household weekly dining out frequency and spending. Responses completed prior to the COVID-19 pandemic (2019 to early 2020) were compared to the post-COVID-19 period (2021 through mid-2022). Multivariate analysis with interaction terms was used to test study hypotheses. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: From the COVID-19 period (before vs. after), the unadjusted frequency of dining out increased from 3.4 times per week to 3.5 times per week, while the amount spent on dining out increased from $63.90 to $82.20. Once the relationship between dining out (frequency and spending) was adjusted for FAFH interest rate and sociodemographic factors, an increase in dining out frequency post-COVID-19 remained significant. However, the unadjusted increase in dining out spending did not remain significant. Further research to understand the demand for dining out post-pandemic is warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Feeding Behavior , Humans , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Food , Family Characteristics
14.
PLoS One ; 18(4): e0283938, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2248251

ABSTRACT

High resolution poverty mapping supports evidence-based policy and research, yet about half of all countries lack the survey data needed to generate useful poverty maps. To overcome this challenge, new non-traditional data sources and deep learning techniques are increasingly used to create small-area estimates of poverty in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) trained on satellite imagery are emerging as one of the most popular and effective approaches. However, the spatial resolution of poverty estimates has remained relatively coarse, particularly in rural areas. To address this problem, we use a transfer learning approach to train three CNN models and use them in an ensemble to predict chronic poverty at 1 km2 scale in rural Sindh, Pakistan. The models are trained with spatially noisy georeferenced household survey containing poverty scores for 1.67 million anonymized households in Sindh Province and publicly available inputs, including daytime and nighttime satellite imagery and accessibility data. Results from both hold-out and k-fold validation exercises show that the ensemble provides the most reliable spatial predictions in both arid and non-arid regions, outperforming previous studies in key accuracy metrics. A third validation exercise, which involved ground-truthing of predictions from the ensemble model with original survey data of 7000 households further confirms the relative accuracy of the ensemble model predictions. This inexpensive and scalable approach could be used to improve poverty targeting in Pakistan and other low- and middle-income countries.


Subject(s)
Deep Learning , Humans , Pakistan , Poverty , Rural Population , Family Characteristics
15.
Health Syst Reform ; 9(1): 2183552, 2023 12 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2280587

ABSTRACT

Latin America has experienced a rise in noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) which is having repercussions on the structuring of healthcare delivery and social protection for vulnerable populations. We examined catastrophic (CHE) and excessive (EHE, impoverishing and/or catastrophic) health care expenditures in Mexican households with and without elderly members (≥65 years), by gender of head of the households, during 2000-2020. We analyzed pooled cross-sectional data for 380,509 households from eleven rounds of the National Household Income and Expenditure Survey. Male- and female-headed households (MHHs and FHHs) were matched using propensity scores to control for gender bias in systematic differences regarding care-seeking (demand for healthcare) preferences. Adjusted probabilities of positive health expenditures, CHE and EHE were estimated using probit and two-stage probit models, respectively. Quintiles of EHE by state among FHHs with elderly members were also mapped. CHE and EHE were greater among FHHs than among MHHs (4.7% vs 3.9% and 5.5% vs 4.6%), and greater in FHHs with elderly members (5.8% vs 4.9% and 6.9% vs 5.8%). EHE in FHHs with elderly members varied geographically from 3.9% to 9.1%, being greater in less developed eastern, north-central and southeastern states. Compared with MHHs, FHHs face greater risks of CHE and EHE. This vulnerability is exacerbated in FHHs with elderly members, because of gender intersectional vulnerability. The present context, marked by a growing burden of NCDs and inequities amplified by COVID-19, makes key interlinkages across multiple Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) apparent, and calls for urgent measures that strengthen social protection in health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Noncommunicable Diseases , Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Health Expenditures , Family Characteristics , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , Sexism , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology
16.
BMC Psychol ; 11(1): 90, 2023 Mar 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2273046

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The healthcare field, a well-known field associated with variety of stressors, leaves healthcare professionals at an increased risk of both physical and mental problems. COVID-19 pandemic has recently been added to the stressful factors by endangering further the cognitive function of healthcare workers. On another hand, personality traits have been shown to have pervasive associations with functioning across various cognitive domains. Thus, this study aims to evaluate association between personality traits and perceived cognitive function among healthcare professionals in Lebanon during the collapsing period (following the severe economic crisis and the COVID-19 pandemic). METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted between November 2021 and January 2022 enrolled 406 Lebanese participants using the convenience sampling technique for data collection. Healthcare professionals from all specialties who received the online link to the survey were eligible to participate. The Big Five Inventory-2 (BFI-2) and Fact Cog scale were used to assess personality traits and cognitive function. RESULTS: After adjustment over all variables (age, gender, household crowding index, physical activity index, marital status, profession and the other four personality traits), higher negative emotionality was significantly associated with a worse cognitive function, whereas more extroversion and conscientiousness were significantly associated with a better cognitive function. CONCLUSION: Our study adds to the narrow body of research revolving around the relationship between personality traits and perceived cognitive function in Lebanese healthcare professionals during these hard times in Lebanon. These results show that the choice of these cognitive processes is strongly affected by different personality traits, such as extroversion, conscientiousness, and negative emotionality. This study encourages the need to conduct further research that assess the changes in cognition in life stressors along with personality traits.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Personality , Humans , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pandemics , Crowding , Family Characteristics , Cognition , Health Personnel , Delivery of Health Care
17.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 42(6): e190-e196, 2023 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2288273

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In a 2020 pilot case-control study using medical records, we reported that non-Hispanic Black children were more likely to develop multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) after adjustment for sociodemographic factors and underlying medical conditions. Using structured interviews, we investigated patient, household, and community factors underlying MIS-C likelihood. METHODS: MIS-C case patients hospitalized in 2021 across 14 US pediatric hospitals were matched by age and site to outpatient controls testing positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) within 3 months of the admission date. Caregiver interviews queried race/ethnicity, medical history, and household and potential community exposures 1 month before MIS-C hospitalization (case-patients) or after SARS-CoV-2 infection (controls). We calculated adjusted odds ratios (aOR) using mixed-effects multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: Among 275 case patients and 496 controls, race/ethnicity, social vulnerability and patient or family history of autoimmune/rheumatologic disease were not associated with MIS-C. In previously healthy children, MIS-C was associated with a history of hospitalization for an infection [aOR: 4.8; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.1-11.0]. Household crowding (aOR: 1.7; 95% CI: 1.2-2.6), large event attendance (aOR: 1.7; 95% CI: 1.3-2.1), school attendance with limited masking (aOR: 2.6; 95% CI: 1.1-6.6), public transit use (aOR: 1.8; 95% CI: 1.4-2.4) and co-resident testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 (aOR: 2.2; 95% CI: 1.3-3.7) were associated with increased MIS-C likelihood, with risk increasing with the number of these factors. CONCLUSIONS: From caregiver interviews, we clarify household and community exposures associated with MIS-C; however, we did not confirm prior associations between sociodemographic factors and MIS-C.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Case-Control Studies , Crowding , Family Characteristics , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Risk Factors
18.
BMJ Paediatr Open ; 7(1)2023 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2285241

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This systematic review aims to identify the secondary attack rates (SAR) to adults and other children when children are the index cases within household settings. METHODS: This literature review assessed European-based studies published in Medline and Embase between January 2020 and January 2022 that assessed the secondary transmission of SARS-CoV-2 within household settings. The inclusion criteria were based on the Population, Exposure, Outcome framework for systematic reviews. Thus, the study population was restricted to humans within the household setting in Europe (population), in contact with paediatric index cases 1-17 years old (exposure) that led to the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 reported as either an SAR or the probability of onward infection (outcome). RESULTS: Of 1819 studies originally identified, 19 met the inclusion criteria. Overall, the SAR ranged from 13% to 75% in 15 studies, while there was no evidence of secondary transmission from children to other household members in one study. Evidence indicated that asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 index cases also have a lower SAR than those with symptoms and that younger children may have a lower SAR than adolescents (>12 years old) within household settings. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 secondary transmission from paediatric index cases ranged from 0% to 75%, within household settings between January 2020 and January 2022, with differences noted by age and by symptomatic/asymptomatic status of the index case. Given the anticipated endemic circulation of SARS-CoV-2, continued monitoring and assessment of household transmission is necessary.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Adolescent , Humans , Child , Infant , Child, Preschool , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Systematic Reviews as Topic , Family Characteristics , Disease Outbreaks
19.
Epidemics ; 43: 100675, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2285166

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Children play a key role in the transmission of many infectious diseases. They have many of their close social encounters at home or at school. We hypothesized that most of the transmission of respiratory infections among children occur in these two settings and that transmission patterns can be predicted by a bipartite network of schools and households. AIM AND METHODS: To confirm transmission over a school-household network, SARS-CoV-2 transmission pairs in children aged 4-17 years were analyzed by study year and primary/secondary school. Cases with symptom onset between 1 March 2021 and 4 April 2021 identified by source and contact-tracing in the Netherlands were included. In this period, primary schools were open and secondary school students attended class at least once per week. Within pairs, spatial distance between the postcodes was calculated as the Euclidean distance. RESULTS: A total of 4059 transmission pairs were identified; 51.9% between primary schoolers; 19.6% between primary and secondary schoolers; 28.5% between secondary schoolers. Most (68.5%) of the transmission for children in the same study year occurred at school. In contrast, most of the transmission of children from different study years (64.3%) and most primary-secondary transmission (81.7%) occurred at home. The average spatial distance between infections was 1.2 km (median 0.4) for primary school pairs, 1.6 km (median 0) for primary-secondary school pairs and 4.1 km (median 1.2) for secondary school pairs. CONCLUSION: The results provide evidence of transmission on a bipartite school-household network. Schools play an important role in transmission within study years, and households play an important role in transmission between study years and between primary and secondary schools. Spatial distance between infections in a transmission pair reflects the smaller school catchment area of primary schools versus secondary schools. Many of these observed patterns likely hold for other respiratory pathogens.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Child , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Family Characteristics , Schools
20.
Viruses ; 15(3)2023 03 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2267383

ABSTRACT

A higher prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infections in animals that have close contact with SARS-CoV-2-positive humans ("COVID-19 households") has been demonstrated in several countries. This prospective study aimed to determine the SARS-CoV-2 prevalence in animals from Swiss COVID-19 households and to assess the potential risk factors for infection. The study included 226 companion animals (172 cats, 76.1%; 49 dogs, 21.7%; and 5 other animals, 2.2%) from 122 COVID-19 households with 336 human household members (including 230 SARS-CoV-2-positive people). The animals were tested for viral RNA using an RT-qPCR and/or serologically for antibodies and neutralizing activity. Additionally, surface samples from animal fur and beds underwent an RT-qPCR. A questionnaire about hygiene, animal hygiene, and contact intensity was completed by the household members. A total of 49 of the 226 animals (21.7%) from 31 of the 122 households (25.4%) tested positive/questionably positive for SARS-CoV-2, including 37 of the 172 cats (21.5%) and 12 of the 49 dogs (24.5%). The surface samples tested positive significantly more often in households with SARS-CoV-2-positive animals than in households with SARS-CoV-2-negative animals (p = 0.011). Significantly more animals tested positive in the multivariable analysis for households with minors. For cats, a shorter length of outdoor access and a higher frequency of removing droppings from litterboxes were factors that were significantly associated with higher infection rates. The study emphasizes that the behavior of owners and the living conditions of animals can influence the likelihood of a SARS-CoV-2 infection in companion animals. Therefore, it is crucial to monitor the infection transmission and dynamics in animals, as well as to identify the possible risk factors for animals in infected households.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Animals , Dogs , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/veterinary , SARS-CoV-2 , Prospective Studies , Family Characteristics , Risk Factors
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