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1.
Psicol. Estud. (Online) ; 27: e59776, 2022.
Article in Spanish | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1903617

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN El artículo problematiza, a través de relatos de prácticas cotidianas de cuidado, emociones que se organizan en torno a las diferentes configuraciones del cuidado infantil en el Área Metropolitana de Buenos Aires (Argentina). De esta forma, se trata de alimentar la mirada de las infancias, maternidades y paternidades urbanas en 'plural', con la meta de poder considerar el amplio repertorio de formas de disponerse, de estar y sentir que atraviesan el arco de experiencias de los arreglos familiares y el cuidado de hijos e hijas. ¿Cómo se reorganizaron los cuidados domésticos durante la pandemia? ¿Qué emociones y 'reglas del sentir' esto puso en evidencia? ¿Cómo impactaron los cambios en las fronteras del 'adentro' y el 'afuera' en las familias y en las subjetividades laborales y personales? Un primer nivel de análisis de la información empírica está estructurada por las formas de habitar (quiénes vivían con quiénes en términos de parentesco, con qué tipos de vivienda, haciendo qué uso del barrio), para presentar sobre ellas las tensiones emocionales, necesidades y estrategias que emergieron en los relatos.


RESUMO O artigo problematiza, por meio de relatos de práticas cotidianas do cuidado, as emoções que organizam-se em torno das diferentes configurações do cuidado das crianças na Área Metropolitana de Buenos Aires, (Argentina). Dessa forma, o artigo pretende contribuir a um olhar das infâncias, das maternidades e das paternidades no plural, com o objetivo de poder contemplar o amplo repertório de modos de experienciar, ser e sentir que perpassam o arco de experiências das dinâmicas familiares e do cuidado das crianças. Como os cuidados domésticos foram reorganizados durante a pandemia? Que emoções e regras do sentir isso trouxe à tona? Como as mudanças nas fronteiras do 'dentro' e 'fora' impactaram as famílias e as subjetividades pessoais e do trabalho? Um primeiro nível de análise da informação empírica é estruturado pelos modos de viver (quem conviveu com quem em termos do parentesco, em que tipo de habitação, qual uso da vizinhança), para apresentar tensões emocionais, necessidades e estratégias que surgiram nos relatos.


ABSTRACT. This article addresses the emotions around different configurations of childcare in the Metropolitan area of Buenos Aires, Argentina, based on narratives about everyday care practices. In doing so, the article aims to contribute to a pluralistic view of childhood and parenthood in order to consider the vast repertoire of dispositions, of being and feeling that are intertwined in family arrangements and childcare. How did the interviewees rearrange domestic care during the pandemic? What emotions and 'emotional norms' does that new situation reveal? How did the changes in the limits of inside and outside affect families and personal and labor subjectivities? A first level empirical data analysis is performed on the modes of inhabiting a home -who lived with whom, in which type of house, and what use they make of the resources in their neighborhood — in order to reflect upon the emotional tensions, needs and strategies that emerged from the narratives.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Adult , Middle Aged , Activities of Daily Living/psychology , Child Care/psychology , Quarantine/psychology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Paternity , Family , Residence Characteristics , Parenting/psychology , Affect , Emotions , Family Relations/psychology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Social Networking , Teleworking/trends , Interpersonal Relations
2.
Psychol Med ; 51(11): 1952-1954, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1882703

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Due to the drastic surge of COVID-19 patients, many countries are considering or already graduating health professional students early to aid professional resources. We aimed to assess outbreak-related psychological distress and symptoms of acute stress reaction (ASR) in health professional students and to characterize individuals with potential need for interventions. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study of 1442 health professional students at Sichuan University, China. At baseline (October 2019), participants were assessed for childhood adversity, stressful life events, internet addiction, and family functioning. Using multivariable logistic regression, we examined associations of the above exposures with subsequent psychological distress and ASR in response to the outbreak. RESULTS: Three hundred and eighty-four (26.63%) participants demonstrated clinically significant psychological distress, while 160 (11.10%) met the criterion for a probable ASR. Individuals who scored high on both childhood adversity and stressful life event experiences during the past year were at increased risks of both distress (ORs 2.00-2.66) and probable ASR (ORs 2.23-3.10), respectively. Moreover, internet addiction was associated with elevated risks of distress (OR 2.05, 95% CI 1.60-2.64) and probable ASR (OR 2.15, 95% CI 1.50-3.10). By contrast, good family functioning was associated with decreased risks of distress (OR 0.43, 95% CI 0.33-0.55) and probable ASR (OR 0.48, 95% CI 0.33-0.69). All associations were independent of baseline psychological distress. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that COVID-19 related psychological distress and high symptoms burden of ASR are common among health professional students. Extended family and professional support should be considered for vulnerable individuals during these unprecedented times.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychological Distress , Stress Disorders, Traumatic, Acute/epidemiology , Students, Health Occupations/psychology , Adverse Childhood Experiences/psychology , Adverse Childhood Experiences/statistics & numerical data , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , China/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Family Relations/psychology , Humans , Internet Addiction Disorder/epidemiology , Internet Addiction Disorder/psychology , Logistic Models , Multivariate Analysis , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress Disorders, Traumatic, Acute/psychology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology
3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(7)2022 03 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785621

ABSTRACT

Overtime has become a widespread phenomenon in the current information age that creates a high speed working pace and fierce competition in the high technology global economy. Based on the time-regulation mechanism and effort-recovery model, we examined the effect of worktime control (WTC) on mental health and work-family conflict (WFC) among overtime employees, and whether voluntary overtime mediated the relationships. We also examined two separate dimensions of WTC (control over time-off and control over daily hours). The results showed that control over time-off was related to decreased depression, anxiety, stress and WFC, while control over daily hours was related to decreased stress and WFC. Generally, control over time-off was beneficial to females and employees with dependents. Furthermore, mediation results showed that voluntary overtime was a complete mediator of relationships between WTC and depression and anxiety as well as a partial mediator of the relationship between WTC and stress. However, this study did not find a mediating effect of voluntary overtime on the WTC-WFC relationship. Limitations and practical implications are discussed.


Subject(s)
Family Conflict , Occupational Health , Family Conflict/psychology , Family Relations , Female , Humans , Mental Health , Negotiating , Surveys and Questionnaires
4.
Front Public Health ; 10: 782217, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775988

ABSTRACT

Work-from-home (WFH) influences both work and life, and further impacts family relationships. The current study explored the impacts of WFH on family relationships during the COVID-19 pandemic and identified effective adaptive processes for maintaining family relationships under WFH. Using the Vulnerability-Stress-Adaptation (VSA) model, the study examined the roles of adaptive processes (spending time with family members and balancing work and life) and demographic differences (gender, age, marital status, and education level) in the relation between WFH and family relationships. Path analysis results based on an online survey (N = 150) suggested that, overall, WFH improved family relationships through proper adaptive processes. WFH had a positive relation to time spent with family members, and this relation was especially salient for workers with lower education levels. While there was no statistically significant overall relation between WFH and work-life balance, older workers tended to engage in increased work-life balance during WFH. Both adaptive processes were positively related to family relationship quality. The findings advance the understanding of family relationships and WFH and provide practical recommendations to enhance family relationships under WFH.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Family Relations , COVID-19/epidemiology , Family , Humans , Pandemics , Teleworking
5.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(24): 7709-7716, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1603239

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to describe personal and family-related factors affecting undergraduate students' willingness to volunteer during the pandemic. This cross-sectional study was conducted on undergraduate medical students at Qassim University in Saudi Arabia through an online survey. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A pre-validated online questionnaire on willingness to volunteer during the pandemic was distributed through various messenger groups and social media. The questionnaire comprised two sections to collect demographics and how likely the volunteers work during the pandemic in different circumstances. The distribution of these parameters was reported by frequency and proportion for categorical variables. In addition to descriptive analytics, a chi-square test was used to compare key explanatory parameters between the low and high likelihood of volunteering. Data were analysed using IBM SPSS statistical software (version 25, Armonk, NY, USA). RESULTS: There was a high likelihood of willingness (60.7%) to volunteer among undergraduate medical students. However, there was no statistically significant difference in baseline parameters like gender, academic year, age (in years), marital status, children, and elderly dependents between the high and low likelihood of volunteer (p >0.05). However, a statistically significant difference indicated the best description of one's living arrangement between volunteers' high and low probability (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggested that undergraduate medical students can be motivated to volunteer effectively in this pandemic by ensuring personal and family protection. This is vital to optimally redistribute the work burden and effectively channelize the workforce during a pandemic situation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Hospital Volunteers/psychology , Motivation , Students, Medical/psychology , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Cross-Sectional Studies , Family Relations/psychology , Female , Hospital Volunteers/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , Saudi Arabia , Students, Medical/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
6.
J Adolesc ; 93: 190-201, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574978

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Adolescents typically spend decreasing amounts of time with family members, but the COVID-19 pandemic changed this pattern for many youth. The objective of the current study was to better understand adolescents' perceived change in family relationship quality, and how these perceptions were related to psychosocial functioning during the COVID-19 pandemic, accounting for more traditional measures of family relationship quality. Understanding how adolescents perceived change in relationship quality with family members during the pandemic offers novel insight into adolescents' relationships with their families and psychosocial functioning during this period. METHOD: A sample of Canadian adolescents (N = 605, ages 14 to 18, 53% girls), was employed to examine patterns of adolescents' perceived change in relationship quality with parents and siblings since the start of the pandemic, accounting for relationship quality, pandemic-related characteristics, and demographic variables. RESULTS: Four latent profiles were identified: youth who perceived (1) low change, (2) improvement only, (3) moderate instability and (4) high instability in relationship quality. Higher perceived instability was associated with poorer functioning, with youth who reported only improvement reporting the highest overall level of functioning. CONCLUSIONS: Adolescent perceptions of change in relationship quality were heterogeneous, and contribute to psychosocial functioning over and above their general evaluations of relationship quality. In particular, youth who perceive considerable change in their relationships with siblings and parents may require additional support in response to the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Canada/epidemiology , Family Relations , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
9.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(11): e2134315, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1513768

ABSTRACT

Importance: The COVID-19 pandemic has placed increased strain on health care workers and disrupted childcare and schooling arrangements in unprecedented ways. As substantial gender inequalities existed in medicine before the pandemic, physician mothers may be at particular risk for adverse professional and psychological consequences. Objective: To assess gender differences in work-family factors and mental health among physician parents during the COVID-19 pandemic. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective cohort study included 276 US physicians enrolled in the Intern Health Study since their first year of residency training. Physicians who had participated in the primary study as interns during the 2007 to 2008 and 2008 to 2009 academic years and opted into a secondary longitudinal follow-up study were invited to complete an online survey in August 2018 and August 2020. Exposures: Work-family experience included 3 single-item questions and the Work and Family Conflict Scale, and mental health symptoms included the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 scale. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcomes were work-to-family and family-to-work conflict and depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms during August 2020. Depressive symptoms between 2018 (before the COVID-19 pandemic) and 2020 (during the COVID-19 pandemic) were compared by gender. Results: Among 215 physician parents who completed the August 2020 survey, 114 (53.0%) were female and the weighted mean (SD) age was 40.1 (3.57) years. Among physician parents, women were more likely to be responsible for childcare or schooling (24.6% [95% CI, 19.0%-30.2%] vs 0.8% [95% CI, 0.01%-2.1%]; P < .001) and household tasks (31.4% [95% CI, 25.4%-37.4%] vs 7.2% [95% CI, 3.5%-10.9%]; P < .001) during the pandemic compared with men. Women were also more likely than men to work primarily from home (40.9% [95% CI, 35.1%-46.8%] vs 22.0% [95% CI, 17.2%-26.8%]; P < .001) and reduce their work hours (19.4% [95% CI, 14.7%-24.1%] vs 9.4% [95% CI, 6.0%-12.8%]; P = .007). Women experienced greater work-to-family conflict (ß = 2.79; 95% CI, 1.00 to 4.59; P = .03), family-to-work conflict (ß = 3.09; 95% CI, 1.18-4.99; P = .02), and depressive (ß = 1.76; 95% CI, 0.56-2.95; P = .046) and anxiety (ß = 2.87; 95% CI, 1.49-4.26; P < .001) symptoms compared with men. We observed a difference between women and men in depressive symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic (mean [SD] PHQ-9 score: 5.05 [6.64] vs 3.52 [5.75]; P = .009) that was not present before the pandemic (mean [SD] PHQ-9 score: 3.69 [5.26] vs 3.60 [6.30]; P = .86). Conclusions and Relevance: This study found significant gender disparities in work and family experiences and mental health symptoms among physician parents during the COVID-19 pandemic, which may translate to increased risk for suicide, medical errors, and lower quality of patient care for physician mothers. Institutional and public policy solutions are needed to mitigate the potential adverse consequences for women's careers and well-being.


Subject(s)
Mental Disorders/diagnosis , Parents , Sex Factors , Work-Life Balance/standards , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , Family Relations/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Psychometrics/instrumentation , Psychometrics/methods , Surveys and Questionnaires , Work-Life Balance/statistics & numerical data
10.
Fam Syst Health ; 40(1): 10-20, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1483101

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: This study examined the role of family functioning in predicting family adherence to health-protective behaviors (HPBs) aimed at reducing COVID-19 spread. Pre-COVID-19 family functioning, disruptions to family functioning (cohesion, conflict, routines), and family chaos during the COVID-19 pandemic were tested as pathways to HPB adherence. METHOD: We utilized a sample of N = 204 families, comprising parents who had children (MAge = 4.17). Parents (MAge = 27.43) completed one survey prior to COVID-19 onset in the United States, and twice during COVID-19, at a 2-week interval. Structural equation modeling was used to test three potential pathways between prepandemic family-level functioning and HPB adherence during the COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: Findings indicated that families with higher levels of chaos during COVID-19 demonstrated consistently lower HPB adherence across all three models. Additionally, disruptions in family cohesion from pre-COVID was associated with lower levels of parent and child HPB adherence. Family conflict was indirectly associated with HPB adherence via family chaos during COVID-19; whereas family routines were not associated with HPB adherence at all. DISCUSSION: These findings suggest that family functioning is a meaningful predictor of HPB adherence. Family-based support may be effective in improving HPB adherence by focusing on promoting cohesion and reducing conflict and chaos for families coping with reduced community support and resources. Strategies for family-based supports are discussed. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Family Conflict , Family Relations , Humans , Pandemics , Parents , United States/epidemiology
11.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 70(1): 60-66, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480182

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Contributions of older adults amid the COVID-19 pandemic have been eclipsed by discourse positioning them as an at-risk population. We assess whether age-based framing (e.g., senior citizen) is associated with more negative stereotyping in the media compared to familial role-based framing (e.g., grandparent) across 8 months, from a baseline period (October 2019-December 2019) to the onset of the pandemic (January 2020-May 2020). METHODS: Leveraging a 12-billion-word news media database-with over 30 million news articles from over 7000 websites-we identified the most common synonyms for age-based framing (e.g., senior citizen) and familial role-based framing (e.g., grandparent). For each framing category, we compiled the most frequently used descriptors every month, amassing 488,907 descriptors in total. All descriptors were rated from 1 (very negative) to 5 (very positive) to determine a Cumulative Aging Narrative Score (CANS) for age-based and familial role-based framing. RESULTS: Age-based framing of older adults increased negative stereotyping in the media by seven times compared to familial role-based framing during COVID-19. The percentage of positive topics for age-based framing was significantly lower during COVID-19 (35%) than before (61%). Conversely, the percentage of positive topics for familial role-based framing was higher during the pandemic (91%) than before (70%). CONCLUSION: This is one of the first empirical studies on whether framing older adults based on age or role is linked to more negative stereotypes during COVID-19. We argue for a more role-centered approach in framing older adults so that their contributions are acknowledged and valued by society.


Subject(s)
Ageism , Aging , COVID-19/psychology , Family Relations/psychology , Stereotyping , Aged , Humans , Terminology as Topic
12.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(20)2021 10 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463695

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has widened the gap regarding access to educational opportunities, which was included in the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). This descriptive, quantitative study aims to examine the communication strategies employed by secondary schools in Spain during the lockdown, as well as to analyse the co-responsibility of the educational process between schools and families. An ad hoc questionnaire (GIESBAFCOV-19) was designed and implemented to gather information. The results show that, in most cases, mothers were responsible for assisting and supervising their children's homework as persons in charge of education-related matters. Additionally, before the lockdown was put in place, about half of the participating families received information from the educative centres regarding the disease and sanitary measures. Once the lockdown took place, families put the focus on their children's schoolwork, not without difficulties in academic and digital literacy. In general, the families were satisfied with the communication established with the educational centres. The present study has raised the necessity to improve communication between centres and families and to reflect on the tools and systems used for its exchange. Consequently, it seems that information and digital competences should be promoted to guarantee an equalitarian education for all.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Family Relations , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Schools
13.
J Adolesc Health ; 69(5): 705-712, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1415507

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: COVID-19 has led to soaring unemployment rates and the widespread adoption of working-from-home (WFH) arrangements that have disrupted family relationships and adolescent psychological well-being. This longitudinal study investigated how parental employment status (i.e., job loss and WFH) influenced adolescents' daily affect indirectly through family functioning (i.e., parent-adolescent conflict and parental warmth) and whether these links varied by family's socioeconomic status. METHODS: Daily-diary approaches were used to collect dyadic parent-adolescent data from a nationwide American sample (6,524 daily assessments from 447 parent-adolescent dyads; 45% black, 36% white, 10% Latinx, 7% Asian American, 2% Native American) over the course of 15 consecutive days at the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: Parents who experienced job loss demonstrated increases in parent-child conflict, which in turn predicted decreases in child positive affect and increases in child negative affect. Furthermore, parents' WFH status predicted increases in parental warmth, which in turn predicted increases in child positive affect and decreases in child negative affect. Parents of low-income families were more likely to experience job loss (24% vs. 13%) and less likely to WFH (44% vs. 73%) than middle-high income parents. CONCLUSIONS: Adolescents from families facing economic hardship and employment shifts during COVID-19 experienced changes in parent-child relational dynamics that influenced their emotional well-being. Recognizing these shifts in family ecology is critical to health providers' ability to screen for mental health, assess existing family supports, and provide timely, targeted information about stress management and contending with family conflict.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adolescent , Employment , Family Relations , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Parent-Child Relations , Parents , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological
14.
J Prev Med Hyg ; 62(2): E285-E295, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1355283

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The curtailment of social gatherings and the lack of online academic engagement during the COVID-19 lockdown could have potentially damaging effects on the psychological state of university students in Nigerian public universities. This study examined the prevalence of anxiety and depression, including associated factors and coping methods, among undergraduate students. METHODS: This cross-sectional study, which involved 386 undergraduate students, was assigned approval number UI/EC/20/0242. An online questionnaire consisting mainly of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the McMaster Family Assessment Device was circulated among the students. The results were analysed by means of descriptive statistics, chi-square, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and linear logistical regression, at α 0.05. RESULTS: Mean age was 21 ± 2.9 years, with females constituting 60.1% of the sample. The prevalence rates of anxiety and depression were 41.5 and 31.9%, respectively. Students in health-related faculties were significantly less anxious than others. Inability to afford three square meals, negative family functioning, chronic illness and living in a State/Region with a high incidence of COVID-19 were significantly associated with depression. These factors jointly accounted for 14% of depression. Coping methods included the use of social media, watching movies and participating in online skills-development programs. CONCLUSION: The overall level of anxiety and depression among undergraduate students during the COVID-19 lockdown was higher than the levels previously reported. Inadequate nutrition and poor family functioning contributed significantly to this. Proactive measures ought to be taken to support undergraduate students in order to prevent the negative consequences of poor mental health.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Psychological , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Family Relations/psychology , Students/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Nigeria/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Universities , Young Adult
15.
Chem Senses ; 462021 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1343678

ABSTRACT

Olfactory impairment is one of the more unique symptoms of COVID-19 infection and has therefore enjoyed increased public attention in recent months. Olfactory impairment has various implications and consequences ranging from difficulty detecting dangerous pathogens to hindering social functioning and social behaviors. We provide an overview of how olfactory impairment can impact 3 types of close social relationships: family relationships, friendships, and romantic relationships. Evidence is divided into several categories representing potential mechanisms by which olfactory impairment can impact close social relationships: bonding disruptions, decreased social support, missed group-eating experiences, hygiene concerns, and altered sexual behaviors. We conclude with a discussion of emerging future research questions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Olfaction Disorders/psychology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Family Relations/psychology , Female , Friends/psychology , Humans , Interpersonal Relations , Loneliness , Male , Sexual Behavior/psychology , Social Behavior , Stress, Psychological/psychology
16.
Fam Process ; 61(2): 722-744, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1338802

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has forced the confinement of most populations worldwide, through stay-at-home orders. Children have continued their education process at home, supervised by parents, who, in most cases, have adopted the role of prime drivers of their learning processes. In this study, the psychological impact of confinement was explored, as well as the relationship of the forced homeschooling situation with psychological well-being. During their confinement, 400 individuals residing in Spain-165 without children at home (Group 1), 104 parents who dedicated little time to homeschooling (Group 2), and 131 who dedicated more time to homeschooling (Group 3)-responded to an online questionnaire. The results show that confinement threatened the mental health of all the participants but especially Group 3 individuals, who had the highest loneliness, anxiety, and stress levels. Moreover, loneliness, perception of discomfort due to homeschooling, and anxiety exacerbated the stress experienced during confinement. Discomfort due to the homeschooling situation was especially relevant in explaining anxiety and stress for Group 3 individuals. These results suggest that forced homeschooling could be associated with the negative consequences that confinement has on individuals' mental health. Moreover, the results suggest that parents who dedicate more time to homeschooling feel more unprotected and more stressed due to the homeschooling in comparison to Group 2 individuals. Health professionals must pay special attention to parents who dedicate more time to homeschooling, and governments and schools must emphasize social support provision to families during homeschooling situations.


La pandemia de la COVID-19 ha impuesto el confinamiento de la mayoría de las poblaciones de todo el mundo mediante órdenes de quedarse en casa. Los niños han continuado su proceso de escolarización en sus hogares, supervisados por los padres, quienes, en la mayoría de los casos, han adoptado el papel de impulsores principales de sus procesos de aprendizaje. En este estudio se analizó el efecto psicológico del confinamiento, así como la relación de la situación forzada de enseñanza en el hogar con el bienestar psicológico. Durante su confinamiento, 400 personas residentes en España -165 sin niños en casa (grupo 1), 104 padres que dedicaron poco tiempo a la enseñanza en el hogar (grupo 2), y 131 que dedicaron más tiempo a la enseñanza en el hogar (grupo 3)- respondieron un cuestionario en línea. Los resultados demuestran que el confinamiento amenazó la salud mental de todos los participantes, pero especialmente la de las personas del grupo 3, quienes demostraron mayores niveles de soledad, ansiedad y estrés. Además, la soledad, la percepción de incomodidad a consecuencia de la enseñanza en el hogar, y la ansiedad agravaron el estrés sufrido durante el confinamiento. La incomodidad provocada por la situación de enseñanza en el hogar fue especialmente importante para explicar la ansiedad y el estrés de las personas del grupo 3. Estos resultados sugieren que la enseñanza forzada en el hogar podría estar asociada con las consecuencias negativas que tiene el confinamiento en la salud mental. Además, los resultados indican que los padres que dedican más tiempo a la enseñanza en el hogar se sienten más desprotegidos y más estresados debido a este tipo de enseñanza en comparación con las personas del grupo 2. Los profesionales de la salud deben prestar especial atención a los padres que dedican más tiempo a la enseñanza en el hogar, y los gobiernos y centros educativos deben brindar más apoyo social a las familias durante las situaciones de enseñanza en el hogar.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Family Relations , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics/prevention & control
17.
Palliat Support Care ; 18(5): 623-624, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1338515
18.
Riv Psichiatr ; 56(4): 189-197, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1325469

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Evidence highlights healthcare workers (HCWs) facing outbreaks, particularly the ongoing covid-19 pandemic, are at increased risk of negative mental health outcomes, particularly post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), anxiety and depression. Data from previous outbreaks highlighted the risk for a negative impact on HCWs' social and occupational functioning, but scant data have investigated this issue in the framework of the covid-19 pandemic. A number of effective interventions have been proposed to support mental health and well-being of HCWs in emerging infectious outbreaks, but it is important to acknowledge the differential impact of mental disorders on different dimensions of functioning. METHODS: The study explored the associations between work and social functioning and PTSS, depression and anxiety in a sample of 265 frontline HCWs employed at a major university hospital in Italy (Pisa), facing the first period of the covid-19 pandemic. Individuals were assessed by means of the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) for PTSS, the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) for depressive symptoms, the General Anxiety Disorder-7 Item (GAD-7) for anxiety symptoms and the Work and Social Adjustment Scale (WSAS) to assess work and social functioning. RESULTS: Higher levels of functioning impairment were found among individuals with moderate to severe acute PTSS, depressive and anxiety symptoms with respect to those without. Acute PTSS and depressive symptoms were predictive factors of impairment in each domain of functioning analyzed. Anxiety symptoms were associated with impairment in both work and home management activities. Frontline activity was associated with impairment in both private and social leisure activities. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term perspective studies are warranted to better investigate the psychopathological burden on HCWs' work and social functioning and to promote adequate intervention strategies.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/etiology , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/etiology , Health Personnel/psychology , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/etiology , Adaptation, Psychological , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Depression/epidemiology , Diagnostic Self Evaluation , Family Relations , Female , Hospitals, University , Humans , Interpersonal Relations , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Occupations , Pandemics , Psychosocial Support Systems , Social Adjustment , Social Change , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Uncertainty , Workload
19.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(8)2021 04 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1173684

ABSTRACT

Harmonious and stable family relations are undoubtedly an important component of victory in terms of epidemic prevention. Take the COVID-2019 (2019 new crown pneumonia epidemic) as the major public events background; 24,188 national samples were obtained based on a network survey. We selected gender, education level, occupation type, family scale, neighborhood relationship and psychological state as independent variables, and adopted multiple logistic models to assess the impact of major public events on family relationships and the characteristics of humanistic-regional attributes. The findings are as follows: (1) During the epidemic period, major public health emergencies effectively promoted the national residents' family relationships. (2) The family relationships of national residents presented a high level in central China and a low level in the border areas of China, which is consistent with the spread of COVID-2019 in January and February. (3) Family relationship level averages between 2.201~2.507 among different groups when divided by occupation, age and education. The family relationship has improved, but the change is not drastic and the gap between various groups is not significant, so there is essentially no difference. (4) The impact of major public health emergencies on all families is nearly sudden and instant, so that family relationship changes are often also abrupt. (5) Educational level, family size and gender have a positive effect on the change in family relations, but this effect is weakened as family education level increases; while the anxiety of the interviewees and the neighborhood had a negative effect on the change in family relationship, this indicates that the better the neighborhood relations are, the more harmonious a family relationship is. The above research can provide an important scientific support and decision-making basis for the government to carry out community prevention work, respond to major public health emergencies and construct a family support social policy system in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Family Relations , China/epidemiology , Emergencies , Humans , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2
20.
N Engl J Med ; 384(5): 400-401, 2021 Feb 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1298876
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