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1.
Eur J Psychotraumatol ; 12(1): 1968141, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1475710

ABSTRACT

The no-visitor policies endorsed by healthcare organizations to limit COVID-19 virus risk exposure have unfortunately contributed to the isolation of patients further exacerbating distress in relatives and frontline healthcare workers. To contrast such effects, many healthcare institutions have adopted technology-based solutions helping patients and families communicate online through the aid of virtual devices. To date, no study has investigated whether facilitating patient-family videocalls would mitigate distress levels in frontline healthcare professionals. Caring for emotional needs of patients by re-establishing affiliative connections interrupted by the pandemic through patient-family videocalls is expected to mitigate distress in engaged healthcare workers as an example of a tend-and-befriend response to stress caused by the pandemic. We tested this hypothesis in a cross-sectional study conducted during 1-30 June 2020, involving 209 healthcare workers (nurses = 146; physicians = 63) engaged in the COVID-19 frontline in Italy. Half of participants in our sample (n = 107) had assisted efforts aimed at connecting patients remotely with families through videocalls. Psychological distress measures included symptoms of burnout, post-traumatic stress, anxiety, depression, and difficulty in sleep and wakefulness. Partially in line with our expectations we found a modulation effect specific for professional category: nurses assisting patient-family videocalls reported significantly lower levels of distress and a better quality of wakefulness compared to those who did not, whereas physicians reported higher levels of distress during such virtual communications. We interpret these findings from the perspective of patient-family communication and differences in skills and training between nurses and physicians. These findings highlight that technology-based solutions aimed at reducing barriers and alleviating distress in healthcare settings should be promoted in concert with skill enhancement training for healthcare professionals especially in terms of communicating online and communicating difficult topics with patients and families.


La política de no recibir visitas que ha sido legitimada por organizaciones de atención de salud para limitar el riesgo de la exposición al virus COVID-19 ha contribuido en forma desafortunada al aislamiento de los pacientes, lo que aumenta el malestar/angustia en familiares y en trabajadores de salud de la primera línea. Para contrastar tales efectos, muchas instituciones de salud han adoptado soluciones basadas en la tecnología para ayudar a pacientes y familiares a comunicarse en línea a través de la ayuda de dispositivos virtuales. Hasta la fecha, ningún estudio ha investigado si es que la facilitación de video llamadas paciente-familiares pudiese mitigar el nivel de angustia en profesionales de salud de primera línea. Se espera que el cuidado de las necesidades emocionales de los pacientes mediante el restablecimiento de conexiones afilativas interrumpidas por la pandemia a través de video llamadas entre el paciente y la familia ayude a mitigar la angustia en los trabajadores de la salud como un ejemplo de una respuesta de "cuidar y hacer amigos" a la angustia causada por la pandemia. Probamos esta hipótesis en un estudio transversal realizado entre el 01 y el 30 de junio del 2020, en la que participaron 209 trabajadores de la salud (enfermeras=146; médicos=63) involucrados en la atención de la primera línea del COVID-19 en Italia. La mitad de los participantes en nuestra muestra (n=107) habían asistido a esfuerzos destinados a conectar a los pacientes en forma remota con sus familias a través de video-llamadas. Las medidas de angustia psicológica incluyeron síntomas de burnout, estrés postraumático, ansiedad, depresión, dificultad para dormir y estar despiertos. Parcialmente en línea con nuestras expectativas, encontramos un efecto modulador específico para la categoría profesional: Las enfermeras que asistían las video llamadas de los pacientes con sus familias reportaron significativamente menor nivel de angustia y una mejor calidad de vigilia en comparación con las que no lo hicieron, mientras los médicos reportaron mayores niveles de angustia durante tales comunicaciones virtuales. Interpretamos estos hallazgos desde la perspectiva de la comunicación paciente-familia y las diferencias en las habilidades y formación entre las enfermeras y los médicos. Estos hallazgos destacan que las soluciones basadas en la tecnología destinadas a reducir las barreras y aliviar la angustia en los entornos de atención de salud deben promoverse junto con la capacitación para la mejora de habilidades para profesionales de la salud especialmente en términos de comunicarse en línea y comunicar temáticas difíciles a pacientes y familiares.医疗机构批准的限制 COVID-19 病毒风险暴露的无访客政策不幸导致患者被隔离,进一步加剧了亲属和一线医护人员的痛苦。为了应对这种影响,许多医疗机构采用了基于技术的解决方案,通过虚拟设备帮助患者和家人进行在线沟通。迄今为止,还没有研究考查帮助患者家庭视频通话是否会减轻一线医疗保健专业人员的痛苦程度。通过患者家属视频通话重建因疫情中断的亲友联系来照顾患者的情感需求,有望作为一个对疫情引发应激的照料与结盟反应的例子,减轻敬业的医护人员的困扰。我们在 2020 å¹´ 6 月 1 日至 30 日期间进行的一项横断面研究中检验了这一假设#x0FF0C;涉及在意大利从事 COVID-19 一线工作的 209 名医护人员(护士 = 146; 医生 = 63)。我们样本中的一半参与者 (n=107) 协助了旨在通过视频通话将患者与家人远程联系起来的努力。心理困扰测量包括倦怠、创伤后应激、焦虑、抑郁以及睡眠和清醒困难的症状。部分符合我们的预期,我们发现了特定于专业类别的中介效应: 相较于未协助患者家属视频通话的护士,协助患者家属视频通话的护士报告的痛苦程度显著降低,清醒质量更好,而医生在这种虚拟通信过程中报告了更高的痛苦。我们从患者与家属的沟通以及护士和医生之间技能和培训的差异的角度来解释这些结果。这些发现强调了旨在减少障碍和减轻医护环境中痛苦的技术解决方案应与医疗保健专业人员的医护技能增强培训(尤其是在在线沟通和与患者和家属沟通困难话题方面)一起推广。.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Family/psychology , Health Personnel/psychology , Inpatients/psychology , Psychological Distress , Videoconferencing/instrumentation , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Quarantine , Technology
2.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 347, 2021 09 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438304

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Restricted visitation policies in acute care settings because of the COVID-19 pandemic have negative consequences. The objective of this scoping review is to identify impacts of restricted visitation policies in acute care settings, and describe perspectives and mitigation approaches among patients, families, and healthcare professionals. METHODS: We searched Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, Healthstar, CINAHL, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials on January 01/2021, unrestricted, for published primary research records reporting any study design. We included secondary (e.g., reviews) and non-research records (e.g., commentaries), and performed manual searches in web-based resources. We excluded records that did not report primary data. Two reviewers independently abstracted data in duplicate. RESULTS: Of 7810 citations, we included 155 records. Sixty-six records (43%) were primary research; 29 (44%) case reports or case series, and 26 (39%) cohort studies; 21 (14%) were literature reviews and 8 (5%) were expert recommendations; 54 (35%) were commentary, editorial, or opinion pieces. Restricted visitation policies impacted coping and daily function (n = 31, 20%) and mental health outcomes (n = 29, 19%) of patients, families, and healthcare professionals. Participants described a need for coping and support (n = 107, 69%), connection and communication (n = 107, 69%), and awareness of state of well-being (n = 101, 65%). Eighty-seven approaches to mitigate impact of restricted visitation were identified, targeting families (n = 61, 70%), patients (n = 51, 59%), and healthcare professionals (n = 40, 46%). CONCLUSIONS: Patients, families, and healthcare professionals were impacted by restricted visitation polices in acute care settings during COVID-19. The consequences of this approach on patients and families are understudied and warrant evaluation of approaches to mitigate their impact. Future pandemic policy development should include the perspectives of patients, families, and healthcare professionals. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The review was registered on PROSPERO (CRD42020221662) and a protocol peer-reviewed prior to data extraction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Critical Care , Family , Health Policy , Inpatients , Physical Distancing , Visitors to Patients , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/transmission , Communication , Family/psychology , Health Personnel/psychology , Humans , Inpatients/psychology , Mental Health Services , Pandemics , Psychological Distress , SARS-CoV-2 , Telephone , Visitors to Patients/psychology
4.
Sch Psychol ; 36(5): 348-357, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1373363

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has exacerbated the challenges that newcomer refugee and immigrant families face. While many of the supports that schools typically offer were disrupted by the pandemic, school-based assistance remains critical in this challenging context. In addition to education-related challenges, many newcomer families have been disproportionately impacted across financial, employment, and health contexts. The present study highlights the perspectives of newcomer families to understand their experiences, stressors, and ability to cope during the pandemic, as well as how their school communities can offer support to mitigate the potential for increased disparities. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 14 parents (Mage = 38.68) and 13 students (Mage = 14.31) engaged in a school-based intervention for newcomer students. Among students, 71.4% were identified as male, and the majority of caregivers were mothers (85.7%). Newcomer families reported significant challenges due to COVID-19, including difficult social-emotional adjustment, financial challenges, and significant academic difficulties. Themes also emerged related to sources of support and coping. Implications for how schools can further support newcomer families given these challenges and strengths are considered. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emigrants and Immigrants/psychology , Family/psychology , Refugees/psychology , Students/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Parents/psychology , Qualitative Research , Schools
6.
Nurs Ethics ; 28(5): 587-589, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1354675
7.
Nursing ; 51(8): 56-60, 2021 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1338736

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: During the COVID-19 pandemic, visitor limitations were implemented in hospitals and long-term-care facilities to prevent transmission of the virus from patients to family members. It is unknown how the context of visitor limitations due to COVID-19 influenced the state of emotions and experiences in family members unable to physically visit their loved ones in person during hospitalization. This article details a study of the perceptions of family members related to being isolated from patients who are hospitalized with confirmed positive COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Family/psychology , Hospitalization , Patient Isolation , Anxiety , COVID-19/virology , Fear , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Uncertainty
10.
BMC Fam Pract ; 22(1): 137, 2021 06 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1286813

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Family caregivers of patients with COVID-19 face many challenges that affect their physical and mental health. AIM: The aim of the present study was to explore experiences of family caregivers of patients with COVID-19. METHODS: This phenomenological study was performed based on 13 family caregivers who had experience in home caring for patients with COVID-19. Data were collected through purposive sampling with in-depth semi-structured interviews. The Colaizzi's 7-step method was used to determine themes. The MAXQDA10 software was used to manage qualitative data analysis. RESULTS: Thirteen family caregivers participated. Five main themes describe family caregivers' experiences of caring for patients with COVID-19: nature of the disease; unmet needs; unpleasant physical, psychological, and social experiences; care facilitators and positive experiences. CONCLUSION: Information and financial support for COVID-19 should be provided to family caregivers. Also, community members should embrace patients and family caregivers and reinforce the positive experiences of caregivers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Caregivers/psychology , Family/psychology , Adaptation, Psychological , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/psychology , Emotions , Female , Humans , Iran , Male , Middle Aged , Qualitative Research , Social Behavior , Social Support , Young Adult
11.
Respir Med ; 186: 106512, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275692

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The 2019 Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has caused a global distress. However, its psychological impact on patients is unclear. We aim to determine the mental health status and explore related factors of anxiety and depression among patients with (COVID-19). METHODS AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: This is a cross-sectional descriptive survey conducted among COVID-19 patients at the Mohammed VI University Hospital Centre in Marrakech over a period of four months. We assessed symptoms of depression and anxiety using the Arabic version of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) on admission. The significance threshold used for any data comparison test was the value of p < 0.05. RESULTS: A total of 103 participants were included. The average age was 44, 17 ± 17, 19 years. About 54,4% of the subjects were male. Of the 103 participants, 36.89% and 23.30% patients with COVID-19 had symptoms of anxiety or depression; respectively. The mean score of anxiety subscale and depression subscale for all patients was 6.45 ± 4.29 and 5.38 ± 4.47, respectively. The bivariate analysis showed that age (p=0, 0004; p=0, 0002), oxygen saturation level (p=0, 0003; p=0, 0059), hospital stay (p <0, 0001; p <0, 0001) and family infection with SARS-CoV-2 (p=0, 0094; p=0, 0023) were associated with anxiety and depression respectively for COVID-19 patients. Moreover, gender (p=0, 0119) was associated with depression. CONCLUSION: There is an increasing level of anxiety and depression in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Mental concern and appropriate intervention remain an important part of clinical care for those who are at risk.


Subject(s)
Anxiety , COVID-19/psychology , Depression , Health Status , Mental Health , Adult , COVID-19/transmission , Cross-Sectional Studies , Family/psychology , Female , Humans , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Sex Factors , Time Factors
12.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(6): e2113355, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1274641

ABSTRACT

Importance: During the initial surge of the COVID-19 pandemic, family members were often separated from their loved ones admitted to intensive care units (ICUs), with a potential for negative experiences and psychological burden. Objective: To better understand the experiences of bereaved family members of patients who died in an ICU during the COVID-19 pandemic, from the time of hospital admission until after the patient's death. Design, Setting, and Participants: This qualitative study used semistructured, in-depth interviews to collect experiences from bereaved family members of patients who died from severe COVID-19 in 12 ICUs during the first wave of the pandemic in France. Purposeful sampling was used to ensure the diversity of study participants with respect to sex, age, relationship with the patient, and geographic location. All data were collected between June and September 2020, and data analysis was performed from August to November 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: Interviews were conducted 3 to 4 months after the patient's death and were audio-recorded and analyzed using thematic analysis. Results: Among 19 family members interviewed (median [range] age, 46 [23-75] years; 14 [74%] women), 3 major themes emerged from qualitative analysis. The first was the difficulty in building a relationship with the ICU clinicians and dealing with the experience of solitude: family members experienced difficulties in establishing rapport and bonding with the ICU team as well as understanding the medical information. Distance communication was not sufficient, and participants felt it increased the feeling of solitude. The second involved the patient in the ICU and the risks of separation: because of restricted access to the ICU, family members experienced discontinuity and interruptions in the relationship with their loved one, which were associated with feelings of powerlessness, abandonment, and unreality. The third was regarding disruptions in end-of-life rituals: family members described "stolen moments" after the patient's death, generating strong feelings of disbelief that may lead to complicated grief. Conclusions and Relevance: This qualitative study found that during the initial wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in France, bereaved family members described a disturbed experience, both during the ICU stay and after the patient's death. Specific family-centered crisis guidelines are needed to improve experiences for patients, families, and clinicians experiences.


Subject(s)
Bereavement , COVID-19 , Family/psychology , Professional-Family Relations , Adult , Aged , Female , France , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Qualitative Research , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
14.
Nurs Manage ; 52(6): 40-47, 2021 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263702

ABSTRACT

The Family in Touch Program.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communication , Family , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/nursing , Family/psychology , Humans
15.
Psychiatr Q ; 92(4): 1549-1563, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258235

ABSTRACT

The current study aimed to investigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the mental health of people with OCD and the degree of family accommodation (FA) by live-in family members across phases of the lockdown measures imposed by the Belgian government. Forty-nine OCD patients and 26 live-in family members participated in the study. We assessed OCD symptom severity and FA of the live-in family members, as well as depressive symptoms, anxiety and stress levels and COVID-19 related psychological distress of patients and family members at four different timepoints: one month after the start of the lockdown (T1), during the gradual relaxation (T2), between the two waves (T3) and during the second wave (T4). Results showed that although COVID-19 related stress increased and decreased in accordance with the waxing and waning pattern of the pandemic, OCD symptoms showed an initial slight increase followed by a decrease at T3 and again at T4. Changes in family members' accommodation of symptoms followed the same course as the OCD symptoms. Furthermore, OCD symptoms correlated with depressive symptoms, anxiety and stress levels and COVID-19 related distress at all timepoints. It is important to involve family members in the treatment of OCD even during a pandemic. Clinicians should also pay attention to symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress during OCD treatment. Further research is necessary to entangle the causal relationship between OCD symptoms, FA and symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Psychological , COVID-19 , Family , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder , Pandemics , Patients , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Communicable Disease Control , Family/psychology , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/epidemiology , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/psychology , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/therapy , Patients/psychology
16.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 191, 2021 06 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1257954

ABSTRACT

Since the lockdown because of the pandemic, family members have been prohibited from visiting their loved ones in hospital. While it is clearly complicated to implement protocols for the admission of family members, we believe precise strategic goals are essential and operational guidance is needed on how to achieve them. Even during the pandemic, we consider it a priority to share strategies adapted to every local setting to allow family members to enter intensive care units and all the other hospital wards.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Family/psychology , Intensive Care Units/trends , Visitors to Patients , Humans , Intensive Care Units/organization & administration , Professional-Patient Relations , Time Factors
17.
Palliat Support Care ; 19(2): 129-134, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1253858

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Parents of seriously ill children worry about their vulnerable child contracting COVID-19, whether their child's palliative care providers will be able to continue to provide the same quality of care to their child, and who can be with the child to provide comfort. For providers, shifts in healthcare provision, communication formats, and support offerings for families facing distress or loss during the pandemic may promote providers' moral distress. This study aimed to define the ways that the COVID-19 pandemic has impacted end-of-life care and approach to bereavement care in pediatric palliative care (PPC). METHOD: The Palliative Assessment of Needed DEvelopments and Modifications In the Era of Coronavirus (PANDEMIC) survey was developed to learn about the PPC experience during COVID-19 in the United States. The survey was posted with permission on seven nationally focused Listservs. RESULTS: A total of 207 PPC team members from 80 cities within 39 states and the District of Columbia participated. In the majority of hospitals, admitted pediatric patients were only allowed one parent as a visitor with the exception of both parents or nuclear family at end of life. Creative alternatives to grief support and traditional funeral services were described. The high incidence of respondents' depicted moral distress was often focused on an inability to provide a desired level of care due to existing rules and policies and bearing witness to patient and family suffering enhanced by the pandemic. SIGNIFICANCE OF RESULTS: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a profound impact on the provision of end-of-life care and bereavement for children, family caregivers, and PPC providers. Our results identify tangible limitations of restricted personal contact and the pain of watching families stumble through a stunted grieving process. It is imperative that we find solutions for future global challenges and to foster solidarity in PPC.


Subject(s)
Bereavement , COVID-19/psychology , Family/psychology , Health Personnel/psychology , Social Support , Terminal Care/psychology , COVID-19/nursing , Child , Female , Hospice Care , Humans , Male , Palliative Care/psychology , United States
18.
Child Abuse Negl ; 118: 105136, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1252567

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has had a major impact on child abuse and neglect (CAN) in the U.S. leading to a change in the number of reported screened-in CAN investigations, missed prevention cases, and missed CAN cases. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the deficit number of CAN investigations and resultant estimated number of missed prevention and CAN cases due to the COVID-19 pandemic in the U.S. from March 2020 to December 2020. METHODS: Secondary data analyses of administrative child welfare data from January 2013 to December 2020 from New York City, Florida, New Jersey and Wisconsin were conducted. Spline regression modeling controlling for autocorrelation was utilized to explore any significant changes once the pandemic began in March 2020 in the number of screened-in CAN investigations. The seven-year monthly average of screen-in CAN investigations for March through December from 2013 to 2019 was calculated and compared to the numbers of CAN investigations for March 2020 to December 2020. The resultant number of missed prevention cases and CAN cases was estimated for the four jurisdictions and used to approximate the number of missed prevention cases and CAN cases in the U.S., as well as the projected estimation of national lifetime economic costs. RESULTS: Prior to the pandemic, there were insignificant monthly increases of 0.7 CAN investigations in NYC and 6.2 CAN investigations in Florida, a significant monthly increase 4.2 CAN investigations in New Jersey and an insignificant monthly decrease in 0.6 CAN investigations in Wisconsin. Once the pandemic began, there were significant monthly decreases (p < .001) in each of the four jurisdictions, including 1425.6 fewer CAN investigations in NYC, 3548.0 fewer CAN investigations in Florida, 963.0 fewer CAN investigations in New Jersey and 529.1 fewer CAN investigations in Wisconsin. There were an estimated 60,791 fewer CAN investigations in these four jurisdictions from March 2020 to December 2020 of which there were approximately 18,540 missed prevention and CAN cases suggesting up to $4.2 billion in lifetime economic costs. It was estimated that were 623,137 children not investigated for CAN in the U.S. during the same 10-month period. This suggests that there were an estimated 85,993 children were missed for prevention services and about 104,040 children were missed for CAN with a potential lifetime economic impact of up to $48.1 billion in the U.S. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic has led to a precipitous drop in CAN investigations where almost 200,000 children are estimated to have been missed for prevention services and CAN in a 10-month period. There are opportunities for the child welfare jurisdictions to work with partner education, public health, social service and other providers to strategically approach this very grave issue in order to mitigate its impact on this very vulnerable population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Child Abuse/psychology , Child Abuse/trends , Child Welfare/psychology , Child Welfare/trends , Child , Family/psychology , Florida/epidemiology , Humans , Male , New Jersey/epidemiology , New York City/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Public Health/trends , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology , Wisconsin/epidemiology
20.
Scand J Psychol ; 62(4): 586-595, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1247276

ABSTRACT

This research examines the effects of COVID-19 perceptions and negative experiences during the pandemic time on parental healthy eating behavior and whether these relationships interact with a parent's gender. We ran a survey of parents who had at least one child aged 3 to 17 years old living in the United Kingdom. We received 384 valid responses, which were analysed via a variance-based structural equation modeling approach to test our hypotheses. The results revealed that COVID-19 perceptions effects were Janus-faced. While they indirectly and negatively impact healthy eating behavior mediated by triggering negative experiences during the pandemic, COVID-19 perceptions, however, directly get parents, especially fathers, more engaged into healthy eating behavior - making COVID-19 perceptions total effects positive on healthy eating behavior. This explorative model is novel in the sense that it is the first of its kind to cast light on how parental healthy eating behavior can be shaped in pandemic time. The research is particularly timely due to the uncertain times in which the research is situated, that is, the worldwide pandemic (also termed COVID-19); the paper highlights how family eating practices can undergo dramatic shifts during acute crises.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Diet, Healthy/psychology , Family/psychology , Parents/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Emotions , Female , Humans , Male , Perception , Sex Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , United Kingdom/epidemiology
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