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1.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 12(7)2022 Jun 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1963720

ABSTRACT

Zoonoses and animal diseases threaten human health and livestock biosecurity and productivity. Currently, laboratory confirmation of animal disease outbreaks requires centralized laboratories and trained personnel; it is expensive and time-consuming, and it often does not coincide with the onset or progress of diseases. Point-of-care (POC) diagnostics are rapid, simple, and cost-effective devices and tests, that can be directly applied on field for the detection of animal pathogens. The development of POC diagnostics for use in human medicine has displayed remarkable progress. Nevertheless, animal POC testing has not yet unfolded its full potential. POC devices and tests for animal diseases face many challenges, such as insufficient validation, simplicity, and portability. Emerging technologies and advanced materials are expected to overcome some of these challenges and could popularize animal POC testing. This review aims to: (i) present the main concepts and formats of POC devices and tests, such as lateral flow assays and lab-on-chip devices; (ii) summarize the mode of operation and recent advances in biosensor and POC devices for the detection of farm animal diseases; (iii) present some of the regulatory aspects of POC commercialization in the EU, USA, and Japan; and (iv) summarize the challenges and future perspectives of animal POC testing.


Subject(s)
Animal Diseases , Biosensing Techniques , Animal Diseases/diagnosis , Animals , Animals, Domestic , Farms , Humans , Lab-On-A-Chip Devices , Laboratories , Point-of-Care Systems , Point-of-Care Testing
2.
J Vet Med Sci ; 84(7): 929-937, 2022 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1957092

ABSTRACT

After improvement of hygiene protocols on boots in a bovine operation (farm A) in Ibaraki, Japan in September 2017, mortality of calves and the detection of 4 viral pathogen indicators, including bovine rotavirus A (RVA), became significantly low for one year. Subsequently, in the present study, these indicators and mortality were monitored and confirmed all were still low, except for the detection rate of bovine RVA in calves less than 3 weeks old. The present study aimed to investigate G and P genotypic profiles of RVAs in farm A from 2018 to 2020. Molecular analysis using semi-nested multiplex RT-PCR of positive RVAs (n=122) and sequencing of selected samples revealed the presence of G6, G8, G10, P[1], P[5] and P[11] genotypes and the prevalence of G and/or P combination and mixed infections. The most common combination of G and P types was G10P[11] (41.8%), followed by mixed infection with G6+G10P[5] (11.5%). Phylogenetic analysis of RVAs showed clustering with bovine and other animal-derived RVA strains, suggesting the possibility of multiple reassortant events with strains of bovine and others animal origins. Noteworthy as well is that vaccinated cattle might fail to provide their offspring with maternal immunity against RVA infections, due to insufficient colostrum feeding. Our findings further highlight the importance of RVA surveillance in bovine populations, which may be useful to improving effective routine vaccination and hygiene practices on bovine farms.


Subject(s)
Cattle Diseases , Rotavirus Infections , Rotavirus , Animals , Biosecurity , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/epidemiology , Farms , Feces , Genetic Profile , Genotype , Phylogeny , Rotavirus/genetics , Rotavirus Infections/prevention & control , Rotavirus Infections/veterinary
3.
J Agromedicine ; 27(3): 315-328, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1805808

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Measures to curb the spread of COVID-19 in the Spring of 2020 immediately raised concerns among farm safety experts about the increase in children's risk exposure due to changes in childcare and schooling arrangements. The goal of this study is to understand how farm parents were taking care of their children in the early months of COVID-19. METHODS: I conducted univariate and inductive content analysis on survey data from 134 farm parents from 38 U.S. states to understand. RESULTS: My findings overall confirm experts' predictions. The move to distance learning for about three-quarter of respondents with school-age children and changes in childcare arrangements for over half of those with pre-school-age children led respondents to contend with fewer options and added responsibilities. Most frequently used adaptation strategies reflected lower reliance on the traditionally important social networks, a desire to preserve household income, and greater involvement of children on the farm. As a result, taking care of their children became harder for more than half of respondents with likely repercussions on children's exposure to risk, parents' well-being, and on the farm business. CONCLUSION: The empirical insights of this study provide descriptive baseline and contextual data for future research on the impact of COVID-19. The conceptual insights expand the farm safety literature by illustrating the need to study underappreciated structural factors shaping how farm parents juggle children with their professional obligations. Finally, findings around the complexity of raising children and connections to farm productivity and farm safety highlight the importance of considering farm women's well-being alongside the safety of their children.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Child Care , Farms , Female , Humans , Parents , Surveys and Questionnaires
4.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 69(2): 396-412, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1774900

ABSTRACT

A limited understanding of the transmission dynamics of swine disease is a significant obstacle to prevent and control disease spread. Therefore, understanding between-farm transmission dynamics is crucial to developing disease forecasting systems to predict outbreaks that would allow the swine industry to tailor control strategies. Our objective was to forecast weekly porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus (PEDV) outbreaks by generating maps to identify current and future PEDV high-risk areas, and simulating the impact of control measures. Three epidemiological transmission models were developed and compared: a novel epidemiological modelling framework was developed specifically to model disease spread in swine populations, PigSpread, and two models built on previously developed ecosystems, SimInf (a stochastic disease spread simulations) and PoPS (Pest or Pathogen Spread). The models were calibrated on true weekly PEDV outbreaks from three spatially related swine production companies. Prediction accuracy across models was compared using the receiver operating characteristic area under the curve (AUC). Model outputs had a general agreement with observed outbreaks throughout the study period. PoPS had an AUC of 0.80, followed by PigSpread with 0.71, and SimInf had the lowest at 0.59. Our analysis estimates that the combined strategies of herd closure, controlled exposure of gilts to live viruses (feedback) and on-farm biosecurity reinforcement reduced the number of outbreaks. On average, 76% to 89% reduction was seen in sow farms, while in gilt development units (GDU) was between 33% to 61% when deployed to sow and GDU farms located in probabilistic high-risk areas. Our multi-model forecasting approach can be used to prioritize surveillance and intervention strategies for PEDV and other diseases potentially leading to more resilient and healthier pig production systems.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , Swine Diseases , Animals , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks/veterinary , Ecosystem , Farms , Female , Swine , Swine Diseases/epidemiology , Swine Diseases/prevention & control
5.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 54(2): 117, 2022 Feb 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1767581

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to find the direct economic losses due to the three viral causes of the avian respiratory syndrome, including Newcastle disease (ND), H9N2 influenza, and infectious bronchitis (IB) in stamped-out broiler farms during 2016-2017 across the country. This study was carried out on the information on cross-sectional monitoring in the years 2016-2017. The statistical society of the study was all the active broiler farms of the country stamped out due to respiratory syndrome. This study used compensation insurance data, and other sources. One-way ANOVA or Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to analyze normally and non-normally distributed data. In total, during the study period, 132 broiler farms and 1,723,131 fowls were stamped out. According to the results of the present investigation, the sum of costs and losses due to respiratory complex was 9.47 $US Million, 2016-2017 (5.72 from $US Million chicken meat losses and 3.75 $US Million was the total cost). ND was the main cause of economic losses and costs with 3.86 $US equal to 40.8% of the total. Cost of feeding was the highest followed by veterinary services and medicines, vaccination, and 1-day-old chicks costs with 2.27, 1.11, 0.33, and 0.036 $US Million, 2016-2017. In conclusion, we need to improve the preventive measures against respiratory viruses, especially NDV. Additionally, as the cost of feeding was the largest, it is important to shorten the time interval between disease occurrence and stamping out to reduce the cost.


Subject(s)
Influenza A Virus, H9N2 Subtype , Influenza in Birds , Poultry Diseases , Animals , Chickens , Cross-Sectional Studies , Farms , Financial Stress , Influenza in Birds/epidemiology , Iran/epidemiology
7.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(6)2022 03 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1732055

ABSTRACT

Biosecurity plays a critical role in preventing and controlling the introduction and spread of infectious diseases. The COVID-19 pandemic in China triggered a nationwide lockdown policy which reduced most of the daily activities of people, but the pig industry was encouraged to ensure the pork supply. An investigation of biosecurity practices in intensive pig farms across several provinces in China was conducted in June 2020 via questionnaire to evaluate the factors that may pose viral diseases risk to the farms during the lockdown period from January to May 2020. A total of 50 farms in 12 provinces of China were engaged. Fourteen of them were classified as positive farms since at least one viral disease was presented during this period, including porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (seven farms), porcine epidemic diarrhea (three farms), and pseudorabies (one farm). The other three farms only reported their disease positive status but refused to release disease names. The overall farm level prevalence of viral disease was 28.0% (95%CI: 16.3-42.5%). A logistic regression model was built to identify risk/protective factors for farm positivity. In the multivariable logistic regression model, the risk factor of dead pig 'removal by the others' (OR = 8.0, 95%CI: 1.5, 43.5) was found to be significantly associated with viral disease positivity. On-farm incineration pits are highly recommended to be the administered for the harmless treatment of dead pigs. This is not only crucial for controlling the transmission of viral diseases but also plays a key role in reducing activity in the illegal dead meat business. According to previous studies, factors such as adapting an all-in-all-out system, on-farm incineration pits, and requiring workers to wash their hands regularly would reduce the risk of virus transmission, even though these factors did not show significance in our study. The results of our study could help to design better surveillance strategies in China and other countries.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Animal Husbandry/methods , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Farms , Humans , Risk Assessment , Swine
8.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 28(3): 451.e1-451.e4, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1623323

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This work aimed to analyse possible zoonotic spill-over of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We report the spill-over of mink-adapted SARS-CoV-2 from farmed mink to humans after adaptation that lasted at least 3 months. METHODS: Next-generation sequencing and a bioinformatic approach were applied to analyse the data. RESULTS: In an isolate obtained from an asymptomatic patient testing positive for SARS-CoV-2, we found four distinguishing mutations in the S gene that gave rise to the mink-adapted variant (G75V, M177T, Y453F, and C1247F) and others. CONCLUSIONS: Zoonotic spill-over of SARS-CoV-2 can occur from mink to human.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , COVID-19/veterinary , Farms , Humans , Mink , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Zoonoses
9.
Vet Rec ; 190(1): 8, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1611360
10.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(11): e1009952, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1593026

ABSTRACT

The breadth of animal hosts that are susceptible to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and may serve as reservoirs for continued viral transmission are not known entirely. In August 2020, an outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 occurred on five mink farms in Utah and was associated with high mink mortality (35-55% of adult mink) and rapid viral transmission between animals. The premise and clinical disease information, pathology, molecular characterization, and tissue distribution of virus within infected mink during the early phase of the outbreak are provided. Infection spread rapidly between independently housed animals and farms, and caused severe respiratory disease and death. Disease indicators were most notably sudden death, anorexia, and increased respiratory effort. Gross pathology examination revealed severe pulmonary congestion and edema. Microscopically there was pulmonary edema with moderate vasculitis, perivasculitis, and fibrinous interstitial pneumonia. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of tissues collected at necropsy demonstrated the presence of SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA in multiple organs including nasal turbinates, lung, tracheobronchial lymph node, epithelial surfaces, and others. Localization of viral RNA by in situ hybridization revealed a more localized infection, particularly of the upper respiratory tract. Whole genome sequencing from multiple mink was consistent with published SARS-CoV-2 genomes with few polymorphisms. The Utah mink SARS-CoV-2 strains fell into Clade GH, which is unique among mink and other animal strains sequenced to date. While sharing the N501T mutation which is common in mink, the Utah strains did not share other spike RBD mutations Y453F and F486L found in nearly all mink from the United States. Mink in the outbreak reported herein had high levels of SARS-CoV-2 in the upper respiratory tract associated with symptomatic respiratory disease and death.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/veterinary , Mink/virology , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/pathology , Disease Outbreaks/veterinary , Farms , Female , Lung/pathology , Male , RNA, Viral/blood , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary , SARS-CoV-2/classification , Utah/epidemiology
11.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 34(2): 190-198, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1546715

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, infection of farmed mink has become not only an economic issue but also a widespread public health concern. International agencies have advised the use of strict molecular and serosurveillance methods for monitoring the SARS-CoV2 status on mink farms. We developed 2 ELISAs and a duplex protein microarray immunoassay (MI), all in a double-recognition format (DR), to detect SARS-CoV2 antibodies specific to the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein and to the full-length nucleoprotein (N) in mink sera. We collected 264 mink serum samples and 126 oropharyngeal samples from 5 Spanish mink farms. In both of the ELISAs and the MI, RBD performed better than N protein for serologic differentiation of mink from SARS-CoV2-positive and -negative farms. Therefore, RBD was the optimal antigenic target for serosurveillance of mink farms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mink , Animals , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/veterinary , Farms , Immunoassay/veterinary , Pandemics , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
12.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6802, 2021 11 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1532052

ABSTRACT

In the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic (April 2020), SARS-CoV-2 was detected in farmed minks and genomic sequencing was performed on mink farms and farm personnel. Here, we describe the outbreak and use sequence data with Bayesian phylodynamic methods to explore SARS-CoV-2 transmission in minks and humans on farms. High number of farm infections (68/126) in minks and farm workers (>50% of farms) were detected, with limited community spread. Three of five initial introductions of SARS-CoV-2 led to subsequent spread between mink farms until November 2020. Viruses belonging to the largest cluster acquired an amino acid substitution in the receptor binding domain of the Spike protein (position 486), evolved faster and spread longer and more widely. Movement of people and distance between farms were statistically significant predictors of virus dispersal between farms. Our study provides novel insights into SARS-CoV-2 transmission between mink farms and highlights the importance of combining genetic information with epidemiological information when investigating outbreaks at the animal-human interface.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Evolution, Molecular , Farms , Mink/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Amino Acid Sequence , Animal Diseases/epidemiology , Animal Diseases/transmission , Animal Diseases/virology , Animals , Bayes Theorem , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Netherlands/epidemiology , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sequence Analysis, Protein , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/classification , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
13.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 2076, 2021 11 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526610

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study used surveillance data from 2018 and 2020 to test the stability of work-related strain symptoms (high stress, sleep deprivation, exhaustion) with demographic factors, work characteristics, and musculoskeletal symptoms among farm and ranch operators in seven midwestern states of the United States. METHODS: Cross-sectional surveys were conducted among farm and ranch operators in 2018 (n = 4423) and 2020 (n = 3492). Operators were asked whether, in the past 12 months, they experienced extended work periods that resulted in high stress levels, sleep deprivation, exhaustion/fatigue, or other work-related strain symptoms. Covariates included personal and demographic factors, work characteristics, number of injuries, work-related health conditions, and exposures on the operation. Summary statistics were tabulated for explanatory and outcome variables. The classification (decision) tree approach was used to assess what variables would best separate operators with and without reported strain symptoms, based on a set of explanatory variables. Regularized regression was used to generate effect estimates between the work strain variables and explanatory variables. RESULTS: High stress level, sleep deprivation, and exhaustion were reported more frequently in 2018 than 2020. The classification tree reproduced the 2018 model using 2020 data with approximately 80% accuracy. The mean number of reported MSD symptoms increased slightly from 1.23 in 2018 to 1.41 in 2020. Older age, more time spent in farm work, higher gross farm income (GFI), and MSD symptoms in six body regions (ankles/feet, knees, lower back, neck, shoulders, wrists/hands) were associated with all three work strain symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Musculoskeletal pain and discomfort was a strong predictor for stress, sleep deprivation, and exhaustion among farmers and ranchers. This finding indicates that reducing MSD pain and discomfort is beneficial for both physical and mental health.


Subject(s)
Musculoskeletal Diseases , Occupational Diseases , Occupational Stress , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Farmers , Farms , Humans , Midwestern United States/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States/epidemiology
14.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 68(6): 2998-2999, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526434
15.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(11): e1010068, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518369

ABSTRACT

Mink, on a farm with about 15,000 animals, became infected with SARS-CoV-2. Over 75% of tested animals were positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA in throat swabs and 100% of tested animals were seropositive. The virus responsible had a deletion of nucleotides encoding residues H69 and V70 within the spike protein gene as well as the A22920T mutation, resulting in the Y453F substitution within this protein, seen previously in mink. The infected mink recovered and after free-testing of 300 mink (a level giving 93% confidence of detecting a 1% prevalence), the animals remained seropositive. During further follow-up studies, after a period of more than 2 months without any virus detection, over 75% of tested animals again scored positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA. Whole genome sequencing showed that the viruses circulating during this re-infection were most closely related to those identified in the first outbreak on this farm but additional sequence changes had occurred. Animals had much higher levels of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in serum samples after the second round of infection than at free-testing or during recovery from initial infection, consistent with a boosted immune response. Thus, it was concluded that following recovery from an initial infection, seropositive mink were readily re-infected by SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/veterinary , COVID-19/virology , Mink/immunology , Mink/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Farms , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Mutation , Pharynx/virology , Phylogeny , RNA, Viral , Reinfection/virology , Whole Genome Sequencing
16.
Virol J ; 18(1): 209, 2021 10 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1484316

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Porcine vesicular disease is caused by the Seneca Valley virus (SVV), it is a novel Picornaviridae, which is prevalent in several countries. However, the pathogenicity of SVV on 5-6 week old pigs and the transmission routes of SVV remain unknown. METHODS: This research mainly focuses on the pathogenicity of the CH-GX-01-2019 strain and the possible vector of SVV. In this study, 5-6 week old pigs infected with SVV (CH-GX-01-2019) and its clinical symptoms (including rectal temperatures and other clinical symptoms) were monitored, qRT-PCR were used to detect the viremia and virus distribution. Neutralization antibody assay was set up during this research. Mosquitoes and Culicoides were collected from pigsties after pigs challenge with SVV, and SVV detection within mosquitoes and Culicoides was done via RT-PCR. RESULTS: The challenged pigs presented with low fevers and mild lethargy on 5-8 days post infection. The viremia lasted more than 14 days. SVV was detected in almost all tissues on the 14th day following the challenge, and it was significantly higher in the hoofs (vesicles) and lymph nodes in comparison with other tissues. Neutralizing antibodies were also detected and could persist for more than 28 days, in addition neutralizing antibody titers ranged from 1:128 to 1:512. Mosquitoes and Culicoides were collected from the pigsty environments following SVV infection. Although SVV was not detected in the mosquitoes, it was present in the Culicoides, however SVV could not be isolated from the positive Culicoides. CONCLUSIONS: Our work has enriched the knowledge relating to SVV pathogenicity and possible transmission routes, which may lay the foundation for further research into the prevention and control of this virus.


Subject(s)
Ceratopogonidae , Picornaviridae Infections , Picornaviridae , Swine Diseases , Animals , Farms , Mosquito Vectors , Picornaviridae Infections/veterinary , Swine , Virulence
17.
Eur J Public Health ; 32(1): 151-157, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462335

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: First severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections on Danish mink farms were reported in June 2020 and thereupon spread geographically. We provide population-level evidence on excess human incidence rates in Danish municipalities affected by disease outbreaks on mink farms and evaluate the effectiveness of two non-pharmaceutical interventions, i.e. culling of infected mink and local lockdowns. METHODS: We use information on SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks on mink farms in 94 Danish municipalities together with data on human SARS-CoV-2 cases and tested persons in Weeks 24-51 of 2020. Difference-in-difference estimation and panel event studies for weekly human incidence rates are applied to (i) identify epidemiological trends of human SARS-CoV-2 infections associated with disease outbreaks on mink farms, and (ii) quantify the mitigating effects from the two non-pharmaceutical interventions. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks on mink farms in a municipality associate with an increase in weekly human incidence rates by about 75%; spatial spillover effects to neighbouring municipalities are also observed. Local lockdowns reduce human incidence rates, while culling of mink appears to be more effective in combination with a lockdown. The temporal lag between an outbreak on a mink farm and a significant increase in human incidence rates is estimated to be 1-3 weeks; lockdowns and culling of mink neutralize this effect 4-8 weeks after the initial outbreak. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 infections among farmed mink in Denmark significantly link to local human infection trends. Strict animal and human disease surveillance in regions with mink farming should be pursued internationally to mitigate future epidemic developments.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mink , Animals , Communicable Disease Control , Denmark/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Farms , Humans , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2
18.
PLoS Med ; 18(7): e1003699, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1457769

ABSTRACT

Modern medicine makes it possible for many people to live with multiple chronic diseases for decades, but this has enormous social, financial, and environmental consequences. Preclinical, epidemiological, and clinical trial data have shown that many of the most common chronic diseases are largely preventable with nutritional and lifestyle interventions that are targeting well-characterized signaling pathways and the symbiotic relationship with our microbiome. Most of the research priorities and spending for health are focused on finding new molecular targets for the development of biotech and pharmaceutical products. Very little is invested in mechanism-based preventive science, medicine, and education. We believe that overly enthusiastic expectations regarding the benefits of pharmacological research for disease treatment have the potential to impact and distort not only medical research and practice but also environmental health and sustainable economic growth. Transitioning from a primarily disease-centered medical system to a balanced preventive and personalized treatment healthcare system is key to reduce social disparities in health and achieve financially sustainable, universal health coverage for all. In this Perspective article, we discuss a range of science-based strategies, policies, and structural reforms to design an entire new disease prevention-centered science, educational, and healthcare system that maximizes both human and environmental health.


Subject(s)
Chronic Disease/prevention & control , Health Promotion , Interdisciplinary Research , Life Style , Delivery of Health Care , Environmental Pollution , Farms , Humans , Investments , Science/economics
19.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(9): e1009883, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1398940

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection outbreaks in minks have serious implications associated with animal health and welfare, and public health. In two naturally infected mink farms (A and B) located in Greece, we investigated the outbreaks and assessed parameters associated with virus transmission, immunity, pathology, and environmental contamination. Symptoms ranged from anorexia and mild depression to respiratory signs of varying intensity. Although the farms were at different breeding stages, mortality was similarly high (8.4% and 10.0%). The viral strains belonged to lineages B.1.1.218 and B.1.1.305, possessing the mink-specific S-Y453F substitution. Lung histopathology identified necrosis of smooth muscle and connective tissue elements of vascular walls, and vasculitis as the main early key events of the acute SARS-CoV-2-induced broncho-interstitial pneumonia. Molecular investigation in two dead minks indicated a consistently higher (0.3-1.3 log10 RNA copies/g) viral load in organs of the male mink compared to the female. In farm A, the infected farmers were responsible for the significant initial infection of 229 out of 1,000 handled minks, suggesting a very efficient human-to-mink transmission. Subsequent infections across the sheds wherein animals were being housed occurred due to airborne transmission. Based on a R0 of 2.90 and a growth rate equal to 0.293, the generation time was estimated to be 3.6 days, indicative of the massive SARS-CoV-2 dispersal among minks. After the end of the outbreaks, a similar percentage of animals were immune in the two farms (93.0% and 93.3%), preventing further virus transmission whereas, viral RNA was detected in samples collected from shed surfaces and air. Consequently, strict biosecurity is imperative during the occurrence of clinical signs. Environmental viral load monitoring, in conjunction with NGS should be adopted in mink farm surveillance. The minimum proportion of minks that need to be immunized to avoid outbreaks in farms was calculated at 65.5%, which is important for future vaccination campaigns.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/veterinary , Mink/virology , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/transmission , Disease Outbreaks/veterinary , Environmental Microbiology , Farms , Female , Greece/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Mink/genetics , Occupational Exposure , Viral Zoonoses/transmission , Viral Zoonoses/virology
20.
Occup Environ Med ; 78(12): 893-899, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388534

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Unprecedented SARS-CoV-2 infections in farmed minks raised immediate concerns regarding transmission to humans and initiated intensive environmental investigations to assess occupational and environmental exposure. METHODS: Air sampling was performed at infected Dutch mink farms, at farm premises and at nearby residential sites. A range of other environmental samples were collected from minks' housing units, including bedding materials. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was analysed in all samples by quantitative PCR. RESULTS: Inside the farms, considerable levels of SARS-CoV-2 RNA were found in airborne dust, especially in personal inhalable dust samples (approximately 1000-10 000 copies/m3). Most of the settling dust samples tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA (82%, 75 of 92). SARS-CoV-2 RNA was not detected in outdoor air samples, except for those collected near the entrance of the most recently infected farm. Many samples of minks' housing units and surfaces contained SARS-CoV-2 RNA. CONCLUSIONS: Infected mink farms can be highly contaminated with SARS-CoV-2 RNA. This warns of occupational exposure, which was substantiated by considerable SARS-CoV-2 RNA concentrations in personal air samples. Dispersion of SARS-CoV-2 to outdoor air was found to be limited and SARS-CoV-2 RNA was not detected in air samples collected beyond farm premises, implying a negligible risk of environmental exposure to nearby communities. Our occupational and environmental risk assessment is in line with whole genome sequencing analyses showing mink-to-human transmission among farm workers, but no indications of direct zoonotic transmission events to nearby communities.


Subject(s)
Dust/analysis , Environmental Exposure , Farms , Mink/virology , Occupational Exposure , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Animals , Humans , Netherlands/epidemiology
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