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1.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 49: 348-356, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1872986

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Consumption of ultra-processed foods is negatively associated with health outcomes, however, the contribution to sleep quality is limited. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the association between food intake by frequency and degree of processing and sleep quality in adults during the covid-19 pandemic. METHODS: Population-based survey of adults from October to December 2020 in the Iron Quadrangle region, Brazil. The exposure variable was a food intake score that considered the frequency of consumption and food processing degree. The total score ranged from 0 (best) to 48 points (worst food quality), categorized into quartiles. Furthermore, we also evaluated whether individuals replaced their lunch and/or dinner based mostly on fresh/minimally processed foods for ultra-processed foods, for five or more days in the week. The outcome variable was sleep quality assessed with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. We constructed a contrasting directed acyclic graph (DAG) model to estimate the adjusted odds ratio of the association between score eating and sleep, by logistic regression. RESULTS: Most of the 1762 individuals evaluated had poor sleep quality (52.5%). The minimum and maximum food scores were 0 and 30 points (mean 9.16; 95% CI 8.50, 9.81). The higher values of the score corresponded to lower consumption of fresh and minimally processed foods and higher consumption of ultraprocessed foods. In multivariate analysis, individuals in the third food consumption score had 71% greater odds of poor sleep quality (OR = 1.71; 95% CI: 1.03, 2.85) and in the fourth quartile 144% greater odds (OR = 2.44; 95% CI: 1.32, 2.44). Besides, replacing the dinner meal with ultra-processed foods five days or more in the week was also associated with poor sleep quality (OR = 2.01; 95%CI: 1.14, 3.57). CONCLUSION: Higher consumption of ultra-processed foods concomitant with lower consumption of fresh and minimally processed foods is associated with a higher chance of poor sleep quality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Fast Foods/adverse effects , Food Handling , Humans , Pandemics
2.
J Food Prot ; 84(6): 1016-1022, 2021 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1810921

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Properly executed hand washing by food service employees can greatly minimize the risk of transmitting foodborne pathogens to food and food contact surfaces in restaurants. However, food service employee hand washing is often not done correctly or does not occur as often as it should. The purpose of this study was to assess the relative impact of (i) the convenience and accessibility of hand washing facilities; (ii) the maintenance of hand washing supplies, (iii) multiunit status, (iv) having a certified food protection manager, and (v) having a food safety management system for compliance with proper hand washing. Results revealed marked differences in hand washing behaviors between fast-food and full-service restaurants; 45% of 425 fast-food restaurants and 57% of 396 full-service restaurants were out of compliance for washing hands correctly, and 57% of fast-food restaurants and 78% of full-service restaurants were out of compliance for employee hands being washed when required. Logistic regression results indicated the benefits of accessibility and maintenance of the hand washing sink and of a food safety management system for increasing the likelihood of employees washing hands when they are supposed to and washing them correctly when they do.


Subject(s)
Hand Disinfection , Restaurants , Fast Foods , Risk Factors , United States , United States Food and Drug Administration
3.
Appetite ; 173: 105976, 2022 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1712443

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic caused widespread non-essential business closures in the U.S., which may have disproportionately impacted food consumption in lower-income communities, in part due to reduced access to healthy and affordable foods, as well as occupations that may have required working outside the home. The aims of this study were to examine restaurant dining behaviors (including drive-through, takeout, and delivery) at fast-food and non-fast-food (i.e., fast casual and full-service ['other']) restaurants and the impact on diet quality among racially/ethnically diverse low-income adults during the early months of the pandemic. Participants completed an online survey using CloudResearch regarding restaurant dining behaviors in the past week (during June 2020) and during a typical week prior to the pandemic. Diet quality was measured using the Prime Diet Quality Score (PDQS). Surveys from 1,756 low-income adults (incomes <250% of the Federal Poverty Level) were analyzed using chi-squared tests to examine differences in demographic characteristics among those dining at restaurants during the pandemic, as well as to examine differences in dining frequency compared with prior to COVID-19. Negative binomial regressions were used to examine the mean frequency of eating food from fast-food and other restaurants, adjusted for socio-demographic characteristics. This study found reductions in fast-food and other restaurant dining compared with prior to COVID-19, although overall restaurant consumption remained high with over half of participants reporting fast-food consumption in the week prior (average consumption of twice per week). Greater fast-food consumption was associated with poorer diet quality. In conclusion, while fast-food consumption was slightly lower during the pandemic, the overall high levels observed among socioeconomically disadvantaged adults remains concerning, highlighting the continued need for initiatives and policies to encourage greater access to and consumption of affordable and healthier foods.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Restaurants , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Energy Intake , Fast Foods , Humans , Pandemics , Poverty , United States/epidemiology
4.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 48: 220-226, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1693774

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Social distancing may lead to changes in lifestyle, such as the reduction in physical exercise practice, dietary changes, weight alterations, as well as intestinal rhythm. Our study aimed to investigate the intestinal transit rhythm of adults during social distancing due to the COVID-19 pandemic, in association with sociodemographic variables, physical activity, nutritional status, frequency of food intake, and water intake. METHODS: Our cross-sectional study comprised an online questionnaire that was shared by the internet concerning demographic information (sex and age); physical activity; anthropometric data (reported weight and height); dietary habits information (food frequency of simple high-carbohydrates foods, whole food, and processed foods; water intake; intestinal transit rhythm). The survey was conducted from April and July 2020. Statistical analysis was performed using Pearson's chi-square test (χ2) or Fisher's exact test, considering p < 0.05. RESULTS: During social distancing, 72.5% of the respondents presented an adequate intestinal transit rhythm, and 27.5% had inadequate intestinal transit rhythm (19.0% slow and 8.5% rapid intestinal transit rhythm). Intestinal transit rhythm differs between sex, with women presenting significantly higher odds for altered bowel rhythm, compared to men (OR (95% CI) = 2.324 (1.027-5.257); p = 0.043). Also, results showed that individuals who frequently ingest simple high carb foods have high prevalence of slow intestinal transit rhythm (63%, p = 0.032). CONCLUSION: In this study, we found a higher prevalence of adequate intestinal transit during social distancing due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Women had significantly higher odds for altered bowel rhythm, compared to men. Frequent consumption of simple carbohydrates was associated with a higher prevalence of slow intestinal transit rhythm.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fast Foods , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Pilot Projects
5.
Nutrients ; 14(3)2022 Jan 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1667258

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused changes in the family food environment, resulting in more families relying on convenience food options. This study aimed to investigate diet quality by convenience food options (namely instant, frozen, and take-out foods) among Japanese school children during the COVID-19 pandemic. We examined the relationship between the frequency of consumption of convenience food options and nutritional status of the school children. The participants (671 children, 10-14 years old) were chosen to form a nationally representative sample of the Japanese population. Using questionnaires completed by the participants' guardians, information was collected on the frequency of instant, frozen, and take-out food consumption. Habitual food and nutrient intake were collected using a validated food frequency questionnaire, completed by the children with help from their guardian(s). "Frequent" consumption was defined as consumption of instant, frozen, and/or take-out foods on more than 5 days per week. Using 19 nutrients and their respective dietary reference intake (DRI) values, an index was created to label each child's nutrient intake as "Adequate", "Inadequate", "Excess", or "Deficient." Compared to children with non-frequent consumption, school children with frequent instant food consumption had significantly higher rates of inadequate nutrient intake (risk ratio (RR) = 3.0 [95% CI: 1.6-5.6]) and excess nutrient intake (RR = 2.3 [95% CI: 1.3-4.2]), while school children with frequent take-out food consumption had significantly higher rates of inadequate nutrient intake (RR = 2.1 [95% CI: 1.3-3.3]). There were no significant differences for children with frequent frozen-food intake. These associations did not change when adjusting for sociodemographic factors. Our results suggest that the frequent consumption of instant or take-out foods among school children results in non-adequate nutritional intake.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Fast Foods , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Eating , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 47: 206-214, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1641187

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & AIM: Psychological disorders are an important health problem worldwide. A healthy diet is recommended as one of the measures to prevent and control mental disorders. Epidemiological studies have shown important associations between the consumption of diets rich in nutrients and a lower risk of developing anxiety and depression. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the association between the prevalence of anxiety and depression symptoms and food consumption, according to the degree of processing, during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: An epidemiological household survey was conducted in two cities in Brazil. Anxiety and depression symptoms were assessed using validated scales (Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item/Patient Health Questionnaire-9), and food consumption was assessed using a qualitative food frequency questionnaire referring to consumption within the last 3 months. The foods were categorized according to the NOVA classification for fresh/minimally processed food and ultra-processed food, using the average weekly consumption as the cutoff. For data analysis, adjusted Poisson regression with robust variance was utilized to estimate the prevalence ratio and 95% confidence interval (CI). RESULTS: The consumption of fresh/minimally processed foods above the weekly average frequency was associated with a lower prevalence of symptoms of depression (PR: 0.5, 95% CI: 0.3; 0.7). Consumption above the weekly average of ultra-processed foods was associated with a higher prevalence of anxiety (PR: 1.5 and 95% CI: 1.03; 2.3) and depression symptoms (PR: 1.5, 95% CI: 1.0; 2.1, P = 0.034). CONCLUSION: Increased consumption of ultra-processed foods is associated with a higher occurrence of anxiety and depression symptoms; therefore, we recommend an increase in the consumption of fresh/minimally processed foods, as endorsed by the Dietary Guidelines for the Brazilian Population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders , Depression/epidemiology , Energy Intake , Fast Foods , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 18(1): 167, 2021 12 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1634087

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The home environment is thought to influence children's weight trajectories. However, few studies utilise composite measures of the home environment to examine associations with energy balance behaviours and weight. The present study aimed to adapt and update a comprehensive measure of the obesogenic home environment previously developed for pre-schoolers, and explore associations with school-aged children's energy balance behaviours and weight. METHODS: Families from the Gemini cohort (n = 149) completed the Home Environment Interview (HEI) via telephone when their children were 12 years old. The HEI comprises four composite scores: one for each domain (food, activity and media) of the environment, as well as a score for the overall obesogenic home environment. The primary caregiver also reported each child's height and weight (using standard scales and height charts), diet, physical activity and sedentary screen-based behaviours. A test-retest sample (n = 20) of caregivers completed the HEI a second time, 7-14 days after the initial interview, to establish test-retest reliability. RESULTS: Children (n = 298) living in 'higher-risk' home environments (a 1 unit increase in the HEI obesogenic risk score) were less likely to consume fruits (OR; 95% CI = 0.40; 0.26-0.61, p < 0.001), and vegetables (0.30; 0.18-0.52, p < 0.001), and more likely to consume energy-dense snack foods (1.71; 1.08-2.69, p = 0.022), convenience foods (2.58; 1.64-4.05, p < 0.001), and fast foods (3.09; 1.90-5.04, p < 0.001). Children living in more obesogenic home environments also engaged in more screen-time (ß (SE) = 4.55 (0.78), p < 0.001), spent more time playing video games (ß (SE) = 1.56 (0.43), p < 0.001), and were less physically active (OR; 95% CI = 0.57; 0.40-0.80, p < 0.01). Additionally, there was a positive association between higher-risk overall home environment composite score and higher BMI-SDS (ß (SE) = 0.23 (0.09), p < 0.01). This finding was mirrored for the home media composite (ß (SE) = 0.12 (0.03), p < 0.001). The individual home food and activity composite scores were not associated with BMI-SDS. CONCLUSION: Findings reveal associations between the overall obesogenic home environment and dietary intake, activity levels and screen-based sedentary behaviours, as well as BMI in 12 year olds. These findings suggest that the home environment, and in particular the home media environment, may be an important target for obesity prevention strategies.


Subject(s)
Feeding Behavior , Body Mass Index , Child , Fast Foods , Feasibility Studies , Humans , Obesity/etiology , Obesity/prevention & control , Reproducibility of Results
8.
Nutrients ; 14(2)2022 Jan 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1623734

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic may have changed the habitual lifestyles of children and adolescents, in particular, due to the closure of kindergartens and schools. To investigate the impact of the pandemic on nutrients and food intake of children and adolescents in Germany, we analyzed repeated 3-day weighed dietary records from 108 participants (3-18 years; females: n = 45, males: n = 63) of the Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed (DONALD) study. Polynomial mixed-effects regression models were used to identify prospective changes in dietary intake (total energy (TEI), carbohydrates, fat, protein, free sugar, ultra-processed foods, fruits and vegetables, sugar sweetened beverages and juices) before and during the first months of the COVID-19 pandemic. For the current analysis, we have chosen the first months of the pandemic (March 2020-August 2020), as this was the period with the most restrictions in Germany so far (kindergarten, school and restaurant closures; contact and outdoor activity restrictions). No significant changes in either the selected nutrients or food groups were observed. However, children and adolescents recorded a significantly lower TEI during the pandemic (ß = -109.65, p = 0.0062). Results remained significant after the exclusion of participants with under-reported records (ß = -95.77, p = 0.0063). While macronutrient intake did not change, descriptive data indicate a non-significant decrease in sugar sweetened beverages and ultra-processed foods intake. We suggest that children and adolescents from high socioeconomic families may have adapted lifestyle changes during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diet/statistics & numerical data , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Diet Records , Eating/psychology , Energy Intake , Fast Foods/statistics & numerical data , Feeding Behavior/psychology , Female , Germany , Humans , Male , Models, Statistical , Nutrients/analysis , Prospective Studies , Quarantine/psychology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sugar-Sweetened Beverages/statistics & numerical data
9.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Sep 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438685

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on multiple lifestyle changes among adults in the United States (USA). METHODS: We conducted a survey, the Health, Ethnicity, and Pandemic (HEAP) Study, in October 2020 among USA adults. Participants were selected from the United States using 48 sampling strata, including age, race, ethnicity, education, and gender, and were asked to report five lifestyle behaviors (i.e., exercise time, screen time, fast-food meal consumption, alcohol drinking, and cigarette smoking) before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. The associations of sociodemographic factors with each lifestyle change were estimated using weighted multivariable logistic regression models. RESULTS: All 2709 HEAP participants were included in this study. Compared to pre-pandemic, the time spent on exercise decreased (32.06 vs. 38.65 min/day; p < 0.001) and screen time increased (6.79 vs. 5.06 h/day; p < 0.001) during the pandemic. The percentage of individuals who reported consuming fast-food meals ≥3 times/week decreased from 37.7% before the pandemic to 33.3% during the pandemic. The percentage of heavy drinkers (≥5 times/week) increased from 20.9% before the pandemic to 25.7% during the pandemic. Among smokers, heavy smoking (≥11 cigarettes/day) increased from 5.8% before the pandemic to 7.9% during the pandemic. We also identified subgroups who were more vulnerable to adverse influences from the pandemic, including racial/ethnic minority groups and young adults. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic had negative impacts on multiple lifestyle behaviors among Americans. Mitigating such negative impacts of COVID-19 requires effective interventions, particularly for some vulnerable subgroups.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Cigarette Smoking/epidemiology , Exercise/psychology , Fast Foods/statistics & numerical data , Screen Time , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Alcohol Drinking/psychology , Cigarette Smoking/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , /statistics & numerical data , Female , Health Behavior , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , /statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
10.
Nutrition ; 91-92: 111419, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1410478

ABSTRACT

In recent years, consumption of ultra-processed food around the world has been increasing. The nutritional profile of an ultra-processed diet is associated with the development of cellular alterations that lead to oxidative stress. The chronic prooxidative state leads to an environment that influences the proliferation, apoptosis, and signaling pathways of immune cells. Likewise, the decrease in the transcription factor NRF2, owing to exacerbated production of reactive oxygen species, leads to changes in immune function and response to infections. This review aims to analyze the connection between an ultra-processed diet, systemic oxidative stress, and immune tolerance, as a contribution to the scientific evidence on the impact of oxidative stress on health and the possible risk of infections-an important consideration in the association of eating pattern and the immune response.


Subject(s)
Diet , Fast Foods , Feeding Behavior , Food Handling , Immune Tolerance , Oxidative Stress
11.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Sep 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1405463

ABSTRACT

Early care and education (ECE) settings are important avenues for reaching young children and their families with food and nutrition resources, including through the U.S. federally funded Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP). Researchers conducted a cross-sectional survey of ECE providers in two U.S. states in November 2020 to identify approaches used to connect families with food and nutrition resources amid the COVID-19 pandemic. Logistic regression models were used to estimate odds of sites reporting no approaches and adjusted Poisson models were used to estimate the incidence rate ratio of the mean number of approaches, comparing sites that participate in CACFP to those that did not. A total of 589 ECE sites provided responses. Of those, 43% (n = 255) participated in CACFP. CACFP participating sites were more likely to report using any approaches to connecting families to food resources and significantly more likely to report offering "grab and go" meals, providing meal delivery, distributing food boxes to families, and recommending community food resources than non-CACFP sites. This study suggests that CACFP sites may have greater capacity to connect families to food resources amid emergencies than non-CACFP participating sites.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child Day Care Centers/statistics & numerical data , Food Assistance/statistics & numerical data , Food Services/statistics & numerical data , Food Supply/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Arizona , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fast Foods , Female , Food Supply/methods , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Pennsylvania , Poisson Distribution , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(15)2021 07 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1346480

ABSTRACT

The high prevalence of non-communicable disease in New Zealand (NZ) is driven in part by unhealthy diet selections, with food costs contributing to an increased risk for vulnerable population groups. This study aimed to: (i) identify the nutrient density-to-cost ratio of NZ foods; (ii) model the impact of substituting foods with a lower nutrient density-to-cost ratio with those with a higher nutrient density-to-cost ratio on diet quality and affordability in representative NZ population samples for low and medium socioeconomic status (SES) households by ethnicity; and (iii) evaluate food processing level. Foods were categorized, coded for processing level and discretionary status, analyzed for nutrient density and cost, and ranked by nutrient density-to-cost ratio. The top quartile of nutrient dense, low-cost foods were 56% unprocessed (vegetables, fruit, porridge, pasta, rice, nuts/seeds), 31% ultra-processed (vegetable dishes, fortified bread, breakfast cereals unfortified <15 g sugars/100 g and fortified 15-30 g sugars/100 g), 6% processed (fruit juice), and 6% culinary processed (oils). Using substitution modeling, diet quality improved by 59% and 71% for adults and children, respectively, and affordability increased by 20-24%, depending on ethnicity and SES. The NZ diet can be made healthier and more affordable when nutritious, low-cost foods are selected. Processing levels in the healthier, modeled diet suggest that some non-discretionary ultra-processed foods may provide a valuable source of low-cost nutrition for food insecure populations.


Subject(s)
Diet , Nutrients , Adult , Child , Costs and Cost Analysis , Energy Intake , Fast Foods , Humans , New Zealand
13.
Public Health Nutr ; 24(11): 3177-3178, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1324400
14.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(12)2021 06 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282486

ABSTRACT

Sleep health, operationalized as a multidimensional construct consisting of sleep regularity, satisfaction, alertness, timing, efficiency, and duration, is an emerging concept in the field of sleep medicine which warrants further investigation. The purpose of the present study was to: (1) compare sleep health across the lifespan, (2) determine lifestyle factors associated with sleep health, and (3) examine whether lifestyle factors associated with sleep health varied between and within age groups. Participants consisted of 3284 individuals (Mean age = 42.70; 45% male) who participated in a cross-sectional online survey of sleep and health. Sleep health was measured using the RU-SATED scale, while demographic and lifestyle factors (e.g., daily social media use, sedentary activity, fast food consumption, etc.) were all self-reported. Sleep health was the highest among older adults (M = 8.09) followed by middle-aged (M = 7.65) and younger adults (M = 7.16). Across age groups, fast-food consumption, daily regularity, and daily TV, social media, or internet use were all negatively correlated with sleep health (ps < 0.05). Few differences in the association between lifestyle factors and sleep health across age groups were found. Overall, these findings may help to inform sleep health promotion efforts by targeting the most pertinent lifestyle factors for promoting sleep health.


Subject(s)
Life Style , Longevity , Adult , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fast Foods , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Sleep
15.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(12)2021 06 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282477

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity remains a public health issue globally. The latest estimate from the World Health Organization showed that over 340 million children and adolescents aged 5-19 were overweight or obese in 2016. OBJECTIVE: Our study aimed to assess the density of fast food outlets around educational facilities in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. METHODS: We employed geospatial and quantitative analyses using data on fast food outlets (from surveys conducted between November 2019 and May 2020) and educational facilities in Riyadh city. Data analyses conducted using ArcMap 10.6 and Stata 15 compared the density within 500 m and 500-1000 m from the facilities. RESULTS: We found a high density of fast food outlets around educational facilities. Nearly 80% of fast food were within twelve-minute walking or five-minute driving distances from schools, and nearly 70% of all educational facilities had at least one fast food outlet within the buffer. We also found the densities were high within both the areas closer and the areas farther away from educational facilities. In addition, the density was significantly higher around private schools compared to government schools, and the density around girls-only schools and both-gender schools was higher than that around boys-only schools. CONCLUSION: There is a high density of fast food outlets around educational facilities in Saudi Arabia. Effective policies are needed to help reduce potential exposure to fast food among young people in Saudi Arabia and other countries with similar settings.


Subject(s)
Fast Foods , Pediatric Obesity , Adolescent , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Saudi Arabia , Schools , Walking
16.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259555

ABSTRACT

During COVID-19 restrictions in spring 2020, college students experienced closed dormitories and increased unemployment and many students moved in with their families. College students were vulnerable to food insecurity pre-pandemic and this study examined how the living situations and food security status changed for Midwestern university students due to COVID-19 restrictions. An email survey administered to Iowa State University students between the ages of 18 and 30 who physically attended campus prior to its closure produced 1434 responses. Students living with a parent or guardian increased by 44% and were less likely to experience food insecurity or less likely to work. They had lower stress and ate more home-cooked meals. Students living on their own had higher rates of food insecurity, greater stress, poorer health status, higher cooking self-efficacy, and worked more hours. Seventeen percent of all students were food insecure; related factors were non-White ethnicity, lower cooking self-efficacy, undergraduate status, receipt of financial aid, employment, stress, living in the same situation as before the campus closure, and consumption of more take-out or fast food. These individuals had more barriers to food access. Knowledge of these factors provide useful information to inform future support services for this population in similar conditions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control , Food Security , Pandemics , Residence Characteristics , Students , Universities , Adolescent , Adult , Cooking , Cross-Sectional Studies , Employment , Family , Fast Foods , Feeding Behavior , Female , Health Status , Humans , Male , Midwestern United States , Socioeconomic Factors , Stress, Psychological , Students/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
17.
Public Health Nutr ; 24(12): 3905-3915, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1135636

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate changes in ultra-processed food (UPF) intake and its major correlates during the first Italian lockdown (9 March-3 May 2020). DESIGN: Retrospective observational study. SETTING: Italy. PARTICIPANTS: We analysed 2992 subjects (mean age 57·9 ± 15·3 years, 40·4 % men). Individual participant data were pooled from two retrospective cohorts: (1) The Moli-LOCK cohort consists of 1501 adults, a portion of the larger Moli-sani study (n 24 325; 2005-2010) who were administered a phone-based questionnaire to assess lifestyles and psychological factors during confinement and (2) the Analysis of Long Term Risk of Covid-19 Emergency is a web-based survey of 1491 individuals distributed throughout Italy who self-responded to the same questionnaire by using Google forms.UPF was defined according to NOVA classification based on degree of food processing. An UPF score was created by assigning 1 point to increased consumption, -1 to decreased and 0 point for unchanged intakes of nineteen food items, with higher values indicating an increase in UPF during confinement. RESULTS: Overall, 37·5 % of the population reported some increase in UPF (UPF score ≥1). Adults were more likely to decrease UPF (multivariable regression coefficient ß = -1·94; 95 % CI -2·72, -1·17 for individuals aged >75 years as compared with 18-39 years) as did individuals from southern Italian regions as compared with Northern inhabitants (ß = -1·32; 95 % CI -1·80, -0·84), while UPF lowering associated with increased exercise (ß = -0·90; 95 % CI -1·46, -0·35) and weight loss (ß = -1·05; 95 % CI -1·51, -0·59) during confinement. CONCLUSIONS: During the first Italian lockdown, about 40 % of our population switched to unfavourable eating as reflected by increased UPF intake and this may have long-term effects for health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diet , Fast Foods , Pandemics , Quarantine , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Diet/psychology , Diet/statistics & numerical data , Fast Foods/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Quarantine/psychology , Retrospective Studies
18.
Br J Nutr ; 125(8): 851-862, 2021 04 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1123111

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), was recognised by the WHO as a pandemic in 2020. Host preparation to combat the virus is an important strategy to avoid COVID-19 severity. Thus, the relationship between eating habits, nutritional status and their effects on the immune response and further implications in viral respiratory infections is an important topic discussed in this review. Malnutrition causes the most diverse alterations in the immune system, suppressing of the immune response and increasing the susceptibility to infections such as SARS-CoV-2. On the other hand, obesity induces low-grade chronic inflammation caused by excess adiposity, which increases angiotensin-converting enzyme 2. It decreases the immune response favouring SARS-CoV-2 virulence and promoting respiratory distress syndrome. The present review highlights the importance of food choices considering their inflammatory effects, consequently increasing the viral susceptibility observed in malnutrition and obesity. Healthy eating habits, micronutrients, bioactive compounds and probiotics are strategies for COVID-19 prevention. Therefore, a diversified and balanced diet can contribute to the improvement of the immune response to viral infections such as COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/etiology , Diet/adverse effects , Disease Susceptibility/virology , Nutritional Status , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Diet, Healthy/methods , Disease Susceptibility/physiopathology , Fast Foods/adverse effects , Humans , Malnutrition/etiology , Malnutrition/virology , Obesity/etiology , Obesity/virology
19.
J Intern Med ; 290(2): 416-420, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1119250

ABSTRACT

In the recent past, there has been rising attention to systemic racism. The ensuing discussions have largely focused on COVID-19 and policing. Despite long-standing disparities in obesity across racial and ethnic groups and obesity's important role in COVID-19 disparities, there has been minimal attention to whether obesity itself could be a manifestation of systemic racism. Nor has there been serious policy attention dedicated to alleviating obesity and its disproportionate burden on BIPOC (Black, Indigenous, and People of Color). We discuss whether obesity's disproportionate harms to BIPOC may be attributed to systemic racism, and we provide a ten-point strategy for studying and solving the core public health issues at the intersection of obesity and systemic racism.


Subject(s)
African Americans , Obesity , Racism , Fast Foods , Health Status Disparities , Humans , Marketing , United States
20.
Endocr J ; 68(2): 201-210, 2021 Feb 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1110113

ABSTRACT

To investigate the acute effects of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on the lifestyle and metabolic parameters in patients with type 2 diabetes mellites. This cross-sectional and retrospective cohort study induced 203 patients who completed a questionnaire regarding stress levels and lifestyles. Data regarding stress levels, sleep time, exercise, and total diet, snack, and prepared food intake were obtained from the questionnaires. The changes in the body weight or HbA1c levels were determined by comparing the values at the time the questionnaire was administered to those noted 3 months ago. Increased levels of stress and decreased exercise levels were reported in approximately 40% and >50%. During the COVID-19 pandemic. There was a negative correlation between stress and exercise (r = -0.285, p < 0.001) and a positive correlation between stress and prepared food intake (r = 0.193, p = 0.009). Decreased exercise levels (r = -0.33, p < 0.001) and increased snack consumption (r = 0.24, p = 0.002) were associated with increased body weight. Furthermore, increased total diet intake (r = 0.16, p = 0.031) was associated with increased HbA1c levels. These relationships remained significant for patients aged <65 years and patients who did not engage in regular exercise. Many patients experienced stress and lifestyle changes due to the COVID-19 pandemic, and these changes were associated with increased body weight and HbA1c levels.


Subject(s)
Body Weight , COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/metabolism , Diet , Exercise , Glycated Hemoglobin A/metabolism , Sleep , Stress, Psychological , Aged , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Fast Foods , Female , Glycemic Control , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Life Style , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Snacks
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