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1.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 956, 2023 05 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20231685

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: COVID-19 lockdown changed social habits and lifestyle, including dietary habits, of people worldwide. However, limited information is available about these changes in Egypt. This cross-sectional study investigates the effects of COVID-19 lockdown on dietary habits among the Egyptian populations. METHODS: An online questionnaire, based on sociodemographic data and dietary adherence in accordance with the validated PREDIMED MedDiet Adherence Screener (MEDAS), was used all over the Egyptian governorates. The dietary changes were statistically evaluated for significance in relation to age, gender, body mass index (BMI), education level and governorates. RESULTS: A total of 1010 participants (76% aged below 36 years, 77% female, 22% obese, and 62% university-level education) answered the questionnaire. Respondents ≤ 20 years had a significant increase in weight and consumption of carbonated beverages, commercial pastries, fried and fast food. Egyptians > 50 years old had a significant decrease in physical activity. Underweight people (less than 3% of participants) increased their fast food intake with a prominent rise in weight. However, obese people increased cooking frequency and increased eating times with a decrease in physical activity. Male participants reported increased intake of carbonated beverages and fast food, while female participants increased the intake of homemade pastries with a significant decrease in physical activity. Approximately 50% of participants with postgraduate education reported decreased intake of fast food and carbonated beverages as well as decreased body weight. Residents of Cairo showed a significant increase in vegetable intake, and fried food intake with a decrease in seafood consumption. Participants from the Delta region had a significant increase in pastries intake. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study explored the need for increasing awareness about healthy lifestyle in future lockdown periods.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Middle Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Egypt/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Communicable Disease Control , Feeding Behavior , Obesity/epidemiology , Fast Foods
2.
Public Health Nutr ; 26(7): 1414-1423, 2023 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2255431

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the combined consumption of fresh/minimally processed and ultra-processed food is associated with food insecurity (FI) during the COVID-19 pandemic. DESIGN: Cross-sectional observational study was derived from a survey using a population-based search of a complex sample. FI was assessed using the validated Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale. Food consumption was assessed using a qualitative FFQ and the NOVA classification for fresh/minimally processed food and ultra-processed food. A scoring system was used to evaluate combined food consumption according to the extent and purpose of processing, considering the weekly consumption of the two groups (according to the NOVA classification). Higher punctuation reflects worse diet quality (higher consumption of ultra-processed foods and lower consumption of fresh/minimally processed foods). A theoretical causality model was constructed using a directed acyclic graph, and multivariate analysis was performed using Poisson regression to test the association between FI and food consumption. SETTING: Ouro Preto and Mariana, Brazil, between October and December 2020. PARTICIPANTS: An epidemiological household survey was conducted with 1753 individuals selected through a stratified and clustered sampling design in three stages. RESULTS: Those with food consumption scores in the fourth quartile had a 60 % higher prevalence ratio (PR) for FI (PR: 1·60 and 95 % CI: 1·06 - 2·40). Also, the increased consumption of fresh/minimally processed foods and low consumption of ultra-processed foods presented a 45 % lower prevalence ratio of FI (PR: 0·55 and 95 % CI: 0·40 - 0·80). CONCLUSION: These results indicate an inverse association between FI and diet quality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Food, Processed , Humans , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diet , Brazil/epidemiology , Fast Foods , Food Handling , Energy Intake
3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(2)2023 Jan 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2244123

ABSTRACT

The quality of diet and nutritional status during pregnancy are crucial to optimize maternal and fetal health. Ultra-processed foods (UPFs) are increasingly prevalent in pregnancy groups despite being nutritionally unbalanced and associated with adverse perinatal outcomes. This cross-sectional study, conducted with data from 229 pregnant women, aimed to investigate the association between UPFs consumption and dietary nutrient intake of pregnant women assisted by Primary Health Care (PHC) in Federal District (DF), Brazil. Food consumption was assessed through two non-consecutive 24-h food records and categorized by the extent of processing using the NOVA classification. Multivariate linear regression models were used to analyze the association between the quintiles of UPF consumption and the total energy and nutrients intake. Mean daily energy intake was 1741 kcal, with 22.6% derived from UPFs. Greater UPF consumption was associated with reduced intake of unprocessed and minimally processed food. The highest quintile of UPFs was positively associated with higher total energy, trans fat, and sodium intake; and inversely associated with the diet content of protein, fiber, iron, magnesium, potassium, copper, zinc, selenium, and folate. Greater UPFs intake negatively impacts the nutritional quality of the diet and impoverishes the nutrient intake of pregnant women. Reducing UPF consumption may broadly improve dietary guidelines adherence in pregnant women and promote maternal and neonatal health.


Subject(s)
Food, Processed , Pregnant Women , Infant, Newborn , Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diet , Energy Intake , Primary Health Care , Food Handling , Fast Foods
4.
CJEM ; 25(1): 1-2, 2023 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2231248
5.
Health Place ; 80: 102976, 2023 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2220729

ABSTRACT

Online food delivery services facilitate access to unhealthy foods and have proliferated during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study explores associations between neighbourhood deprivation and exposure to online food delivery services and changes in exposure by deprivation during the first year of the pandemic. Data on food outlets delivering to 661 postcode districts in London and the North of England in 2020 and 2021 were collected from three online delivery platforms. The association between area deprivation and overall exposure to online food delivery services was moderated by region, with evidence of a positive relationship between count of outlets and deprivation in the North of England, and a negative relationship in London. There was no association between area deprivation and growth of online food delivery services. Associations between neighbourhood deprivation and exposure to the digital food environment vary geographically. Consequently, policies aimed at the digital food environment need to be tailored to the local context.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Food Supply , COVID-19/epidemiology , Food , England/epidemiology , Residence Characteristics , Fast Foods
6.
Nutrients ; 14(24)2022 Dec 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2200562

ABSTRACT

Restaurant food is one of the important sources of sodium intake in China. We aimed to determine whether a restaurant-based comprehensive intervention program may induce lower sodium content in restaurant food. A randomized controlled trial was implemented between 2019 and 2020 in 192 restaurants in China. After baseline assessment, the restaurants were randomly assigned to either an intervention or a control group (1:1). Comprehensive activities designed for intervention restaurants were conducted for one year. The primary outcome was the difference in change of sodium content estimated by the mean values of five best-selling dishes for each restaurant, from baseline to the end of the trial between groups. In total, 66 control restaurants and 80 intervention restaurants completed the follow-up assessment. The average sodium content of dishes at baseline was 540.9 ± 176.8 mg/100 g in control and 551.9 ± 149.0 mg/100 g in intervention restaurants. The mean effect of intervention after adjusting for confounding factors was -43.63 mg/100 g (95% CI: from -92.94 to 5.66, p = 0.08), representing an 8% reduction in sodium content. The restaurant-based intervention led to a modest but not significant reduction in the sodium content of restaurant food. There is great urgency for implementing effective and sustainable salt reduction programs, due to the rapid increase in the consumption of restaurant food in China.


Subject(s)
Restaurants , Sodium, Dietary , Sodium , Sodium, Dietary/analysis , Fast Foods , China
7.
Lancet ; 400 Suppl 1: S54, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2132734

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Food prepared out-of-home is typically energy dense and nutrient poor. Online food delivery services such as Just Eat and Deliveroo facilitate access to this food. The number of outlets accessible through these services reportedly increased in England during the COVID-19 pandemic, possibly exacerbating inequalities in access to unhealthy food. We investigated changes in online food outlet access, and the extent to which they were socioeconomically patterned throughout the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: In November, 2019, and monthly between June, 2020, and March, 2022, we used automated methods to construct a dataset containing information about all outlets in England registered to accept orders through the company Just Eat. Across 2118 postcode districts, we identified the number of accessible outlets. We used a negative binomial generalised estimating equation to investigate changes in the number of accessible outlets over time, adjusting for population density, the number of food outlets in the physical food environment, and rural urban classifications. We stratified analyses by deprivation quintile (Q). All data were publicly available. FINDINGS: Across England, the median number of outlets accessible online decreased from 63·5 (IQR 16·0-156·0) in November, 2019, to 57·0 (11·0-163·0) in March, 2022. However, we observed variation across deprivation quintiles. In March 2022, the median number of outlets accessible online was 175·0 (104·0-292·0) in the most deprived areas (Q5) compared to 27·0 (8·5-60·5) in the least deprived (Q1). In adjusted analyses, we estimated that the number of outlets accessible online in the most deprived areas was 10% higher in March, 2022, compared to November, 2019 (incidence rate ratio [IRR)] 1·10 [1·07-1·13]). By contrast, in the least deprived areas, we estimated a 19% decrease (IRR 0·81 [0·79-0·83]) in food outlets. INTERPRETATION: During the first 2 years of the COVID-19 pandemic, the number of food outlets accessible online increased only in the most deprived areas. We could not determine the extent to which the changes we observed were already underway. Nevertheless, increased online food outlet access might prompt unhealthy food consumption and undermine public health interventions implemented in the physical food environment. Further research could examine changes in the type of food outlets accessible online and through our dataset, seek to understand the extent to which changes in access are associated with changes to food practices, diet quality, and health. FUNDING: National Institute for Health Care Research School for Public Health Research, Medical Research Council.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Food , Diet , Environment , Residence Characteristics , Fast Foods
8.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 49: 348-356, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1872986

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Consumption of ultra-processed foods is negatively associated with health outcomes, however, the contribution to sleep quality is limited. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the association between food intake by frequency and degree of processing and sleep quality in adults during the covid-19 pandemic. METHODS: Population-based survey of adults from October to December 2020 in the Iron Quadrangle region, Brazil. The exposure variable was a food intake score that considered the frequency of consumption and food processing degree. The total score ranged from 0 (best) to 48 points (worst food quality), categorized into quartiles. Furthermore, we also evaluated whether individuals replaced their lunch and/or dinner based mostly on fresh/minimally processed foods for ultra-processed foods, for five or more days in the week. The outcome variable was sleep quality assessed with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. We constructed a contrasting directed acyclic graph (DAG) model to estimate the adjusted odds ratio of the association between score eating and sleep, by logistic regression. RESULTS: Most of the 1762 individuals evaluated had poor sleep quality (52.5%). The minimum and maximum food scores were 0 and 30 points (mean 9.16; 95% CI 8.50, 9.81). The higher values of the score corresponded to lower consumption of fresh and minimally processed foods and higher consumption of ultraprocessed foods. In multivariate analysis, individuals in the third food consumption score had 71% greater odds of poor sleep quality (OR = 1.71; 95% CI: 1.03, 2.85) and in the fourth quartile 144% greater odds (OR = 2.44; 95% CI: 1.32, 2.44). Besides, replacing the dinner meal with ultra-processed foods five days or more in the week was also associated with poor sleep quality (OR = 2.01; 95%CI: 1.14, 3.57). CONCLUSION: Higher consumption of ultra-processed foods concomitant with lower consumption of fresh and minimally processed foods is associated with a higher chance of poor sleep quality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Fast Foods/adverse effects , Food Handling , Humans , Pandemics , Sleep Quality
9.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 116(1): 197-205, 2022 07 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1815986

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Ultra-processed foods contribute to risks of obesity and cardiometabolic disease, and higher intakes have been observed in low-income populations in the United States. Consumption of ultra-processed foods may be particularly higher among individuals experiencing food insecurity and participating in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP). OBJECTIVES: Using data from the 2007-2016 NHANES, we examined the associations between food insecurity, SNAP participation, and ultra-processed food consumption. METHODS: The study population comprised 9190 adults, aged 20-65 y, with incomes ≤300% of the federal poverty level (FPL). Food insecurity was assessed using the Household Food Security Survey Module and SNAP participation over the past 12 mo was self-reported. Dietary intake was measured from two 24-h dietary recalls. Ultra-processed food consumption (percentage of total energy intake) was defined using the NOVA food classification system. Linear regression models were used to examine the associations between food insecurity, SNAP participation, and ultra-processed food consumption, adjusting for sociodemographic and health characteristics. RESULTS: More severe food insecurity was associated with higher intakes of ultra-processed foods (P-trend = 0.003). The adjusted means of ultra-processed food intake ranged from 52.6% for adults with high food security to 55.7% for adults with very low food security. SNAP participation was also associated with higher intakes of ultra-processed foods (adjusted mean: 54.7%), compared with income-eligible participants (adjusted mean: 53.0%). Furthermore, the association between food insecurity and ultra-processed foods was modified by SNAP participation (P-interaction = 0.02). Among income-eligible nonparticipants and income-ineligible nonparticipants, more severe food insecurity was associated with higher consumption of ultra-processed foods. Among SNAP participants, the association between food insecurity and consumption of ultra-processed foods was nonsignificant. CONCLUSION: In a nationally representative sample of adults, food insecurity and SNAP participation were both associated with higher levels of ultra-processed food consumption.


Subject(s)
Food Assistance , Adult , Fast Foods , Food Insecurity , Food Supply , Humans , Nutrition Surveys , United States
10.
J Food Prot ; 84(6): 1016-1022, 2021 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1810921

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Properly executed hand washing by food service employees can greatly minimize the risk of transmitting foodborne pathogens to food and food contact surfaces in restaurants. However, food service employee hand washing is often not done correctly or does not occur as often as it should. The purpose of this study was to assess the relative impact of (i) the convenience and accessibility of hand washing facilities; (ii) the maintenance of hand washing supplies, (iii) multiunit status, (iv) having a certified food protection manager, and (v) having a food safety management system for compliance with proper hand washing. Results revealed marked differences in hand washing behaviors between fast-food and full-service restaurants; 45% of 425 fast-food restaurants and 57% of 396 full-service restaurants were out of compliance for washing hands correctly, and 57% of fast-food restaurants and 78% of full-service restaurants were out of compliance for employee hands being washed when required. Logistic regression results indicated the benefits of accessibility and maintenance of the hand washing sink and of a food safety management system for increasing the likelihood of employees washing hands when they are supposed to and washing them correctly when they do.


Subject(s)
Hand Disinfection , Restaurants , Fast Foods , Risk Factors , United States , United States Food and Drug Administration
11.
Appetite ; 173: 105976, 2022 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1712443

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic caused widespread non-essential business closures in the U.S., which may have disproportionately impacted food consumption in lower-income communities, in part due to reduced access to healthy and affordable foods, as well as occupations that may have required working outside the home. The aims of this study were to examine restaurant dining behaviors (including drive-through, takeout, and delivery) at fast-food and non-fast-food (i.e., fast casual and full-service ['other']) restaurants and the impact on diet quality among racially/ethnically diverse low-income adults during the early months of the pandemic. Participants completed an online survey using CloudResearch regarding restaurant dining behaviors in the past week (during June 2020) and during a typical week prior to the pandemic. Diet quality was measured using the Prime Diet Quality Score (PDQS). Surveys from 1,756 low-income adults (incomes <250% of the Federal Poverty Level) were analyzed using chi-squared tests to examine differences in demographic characteristics among those dining at restaurants during the pandemic, as well as to examine differences in dining frequency compared with prior to COVID-19. Negative binomial regressions were used to examine the mean frequency of eating food from fast-food and other restaurants, adjusted for socio-demographic characteristics. This study found reductions in fast-food and other restaurant dining compared with prior to COVID-19, although overall restaurant consumption remained high with over half of participants reporting fast-food consumption in the week prior (average consumption of twice per week). Greater fast-food consumption was associated with poorer diet quality. In conclusion, while fast-food consumption was slightly lower during the pandemic, the overall high levels observed among socioeconomically disadvantaged adults remains concerning, highlighting the continued need for initiatives and policies to encourage greater access to and consumption of affordable and healthier foods.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Restaurants , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Energy Intake , Fast Foods , Humans , Pandemics , Poverty , United States/epidemiology
12.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 48: 220-226, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1693774

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Social distancing may lead to changes in lifestyle, such as the reduction in physical exercise practice, dietary changes, weight alterations, as well as intestinal rhythm. Our study aimed to investigate the intestinal transit rhythm of adults during social distancing due to the COVID-19 pandemic, in association with sociodemographic variables, physical activity, nutritional status, frequency of food intake, and water intake. METHODS: Our cross-sectional study comprised an online questionnaire that was shared by the internet concerning demographic information (sex and age); physical activity; anthropometric data (reported weight and height); dietary habits information (food frequency of simple high-carbohydrates foods, whole food, and processed foods; water intake; intestinal transit rhythm). The survey was conducted from April and July 2020. Statistical analysis was performed using Pearson's chi-square test (χ2) or Fisher's exact test, considering p < 0.05. RESULTS: During social distancing, 72.5% of the respondents presented an adequate intestinal transit rhythm, and 27.5% had inadequate intestinal transit rhythm (19.0% slow and 8.5% rapid intestinal transit rhythm). Intestinal transit rhythm differs between sex, with women presenting significantly higher odds for altered bowel rhythm, compared to men (OR (95% CI) = 2.324 (1.027-5.257); p = 0.043). Also, results showed that individuals who frequently ingest simple high carb foods have high prevalence of slow intestinal transit rhythm (63%, p = 0.032). CONCLUSION: In this study, we found a higher prevalence of adequate intestinal transit during social distancing due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Women had significantly higher odds for altered bowel rhythm, compared to men. Frequent consumption of simple carbohydrates was associated with a higher prevalence of slow intestinal transit rhythm.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fast Foods , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Pilot Projects
13.
Nutrients ; 14(3)2022 Jan 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1667258

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused changes in the family food environment, resulting in more families relying on convenience food options. This study aimed to investigate diet quality by convenience food options (namely instant, frozen, and take-out foods) among Japanese school children during the COVID-19 pandemic. We examined the relationship between the frequency of consumption of convenience food options and nutritional status of the school children. The participants (671 children, 10-14 years old) were chosen to form a nationally representative sample of the Japanese population. Using questionnaires completed by the participants' guardians, information was collected on the frequency of instant, frozen, and take-out food consumption. Habitual food and nutrient intake were collected using a validated food frequency questionnaire, completed by the children with help from their guardian(s). "Frequent" consumption was defined as consumption of instant, frozen, and/or take-out foods on more than 5 days per week. Using 19 nutrients and their respective dietary reference intake (DRI) values, an index was created to label each child's nutrient intake as "Adequate", "Inadequate", "Excess", or "Deficient." Compared to children with non-frequent consumption, school children with frequent instant food consumption had significantly higher rates of inadequate nutrient intake (risk ratio (RR) = 3.0 [95% CI: 1.6-5.6]) and excess nutrient intake (RR = 2.3 [95% CI: 1.3-4.2]), while school children with frequent take-out food consumption had significantly higher rates of inadequate nutrient intake (RR = 2.1 [95% CI: 1.3-3.3]). There were no significant differences for children with frequent frozen-food intake. These associations did not change when adjusting for sociodemographic factors. Our results suggest that the frequent consumption of instant or take-out foods among school children results in non-adequate nutritional intake.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Fast Foods , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Eating , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 47: 206-214, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1641187

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & AIM: Psychological disorders are an important health problem worldwide. A healthy diet is recommended as one of the measures to prevent and control mental disorders. Epidemiological studies have shown important associations between the consumption of diets rich in nutrients and a lower risk of developing anxiety and depression. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the association between the prevalence of anxiety and depression symptoms and food consumption, according to the degree of processing, during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: An epidemiological household survey was conducted in two cities in Brazil. Anxiety and depression symptoms were assessed using validated scales (Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item/Patient Health Questionnaire-9), and food consumption was assessed using a qualitative food frequency questionnaire referring to consumption within the last 3 months. The foods were categorized according to the NOVA classification for fresh/minimally processed food and ultra-processed food, using the average weekly consumption as the cutoff. For data analysis, adjusted Poisson regression with robust variance was utilized to estimate the prevalence ratio and 95% confidence interval (CI). RESULTS: The consumption of fresh/minimally processed foods above the weekly average frequency was associated with a lower prevalence of symptoms of depression (PR: 0.5, 95% CI: 0.3; 0.7). Consumption above the weekly average of ultra-processed foods was associated with a higher prevalence of anxiety (PR: 1.5 and 95% CI: 1.03; 2.3) and depression symptoms (PR: 1.5, 95% CI: 1.0; 2.1, P = 0.034). CONCLUSION: Increased consumption of ultra-processed foods is associated with a higher occurrence of anxiety and depression symptoms; therefore, we recommend an increase in the consumption of fresh/minimally processed foods, as endorsed by the Dietary Guidelines for the Brazilian Population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders , Depression/epidemiology , Energy Intake , Fast Foods , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 18(1): 167, 2021 12 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1634087

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The home environment is thought to influence children's weight trajectories. However, few studies utilise composite measures of the home environment to examine associations with energy balance behaviours and weight. The present study aimed to adapt and update a comprehensive measure of the obesogenic home environment previously developed for pre-schoolers, and explore associations with school-aged children's energy balance behaviours and weight. METHODS: Families from the Gemini cohort (n = 149) completed the Home Environment Interview (HEI) via telephone when their children were 12 years old. The HEI comprises four composite scores: one for each domain (food, activity and media) of the environment, as well as a score for the overall obesogenic home environment. The primary caregiver also reported each child's height and weight (using standard scales and height charts), diet, physical activity and sedentary screen-based behaviours. A test-retest sample (n = 20) of caregivers completed the HEI a second time, 7-14 days after the initial interview, to establish test-retest reliability. RESULTS: Children (n = 298) living in 'higher-risk' home environments (a 1 unit increase in the HEI obesogenic risk score) were less likely to consume fruits (OR; 95% CI = 0.40; 0.26-0.61, p < 0.001), and vegetables (0.30; 0.18-0.52, p < 0.001), and more likely to consume energy-dense snack foods (1.71; 1.08-2.69, p = 0.022), convenience foods (2.58; 1.64-4.05, p < 0.001), and fast foods (3.09; 1.90-5.04, p < 0.001). Children living in more obesogenic home environments also engaged in more screen-time (ß (SE) = 4.55 (0.78), p < 0.001), spent more time playing video games (ß (SE) = 1.56 (0.43), p < 0.001), and were less physically active (OR; 95% CI = 0.57; 0.40-0.80, p < 0.01). Additionally, there was a positive association between higher-risk overall home environment composite score and higher BMI-SDS (ß (SE) = 0.23 (0.09), p < 0.01). This finding was mirrored for the home media composite (ß (SE) = 0.12 (0.03), p < 0.001). The individual home food and activity composite scores were not associated with BMI-SDS. CONCLUSION: Findings reveal associations between the overall obesogenic home environment and dietary intake, activity levels and screen-based sedentary behaviours, as well as BMI in 12 year olds. These findings suggest that the home environment, and in particular the home media environment, may be an important target for obesity prevention strategies.


Subject(s)
Feeding Behavior , Home Environment , Body Mass Index , Child , Fast Foods , Feasibility Studies , Humans , Obesity/etiology , Obesity/prevention & control , Reproducibility of Results
16.
Nutrients ; 14(2)2022 Jan 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1623734

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic may have changed the habitual lifestyles of children and adolescents, in particular, due to the closure of kindergartens and schools. To investigate the impact of the pandemic on nutrients and food intake of children and adolescents in Germany, we analyzed repeated 3-day weighed dietary records from 108 participants (3-18 years; females: n = 45, males: n = 63) of the Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed (DONALD) study. Polynomial mixed-effects regression models were used to identify prospective changes in dietary intake (total energy (TEI), carbohydrates, fat, protein, free sugar, ultra-processed foods, fruits and vegetables, sugar sweetened beverages and juices) before and during the first months of the COVID-19 pandemic. For the current analysis, we have chosen the first months of the pandemic (March 2020-August 2020), as this was the period with the most restrictions in Germany so far (kindergarten, school and restaurant closures; contact and outdoor activity restrictions). No significant changes in either the selected nutrients or food groups were observed. However, children and adolescents recorded a significantly lower TEI during the pandemic (ß = -109.65, p = 0.0062). Results remained significant after the exclusion of participants with under-reported records (ß = -95.77, p = 0.0063). While macronutrient intake did not change, descriptive data indicate a non-significant decrease in sugar sweetened beverages and ultra-processed foods intake. We suggest that children and adolescents from high socioeconomic families may have adapted lifestyle changes during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diet/statistics & numerical data , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Diet Records , Eating/psychology , Energy Intake , Fast Foods/statistics & numerical data , Feeding Behavior/psychology , Female , Germany , Humans , Male , Models, Statistical , Nutrients/analysis , Prospective Studies , Quarantine/psychology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sugar-Sweetened Beverages/statistics & numerical data
17.
East. Mediterr. health j ; 27(9): 855-942, 2021-09.
Article in Arabic, English, French | WHOIRIS | ID: gwh-346285

ABSTRACT

Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal is the official health journal published by the Eastern Mediterranean Regional Office of the World Health Organization. It is a forum for the presentation and promotion of new policies and initiatives in health services; and for the exchange of ideas concepts epidemiological data research findings and other information with special reference to the Eastern Mediterranean Region. It addresses all members of the health profession medical and other health educational institutes interested NGOs WHO Collaborating Centres and individuals within and outside the Region


المجلة الصحية لشرق المتوسط هى المجلة الرسمية التى تصدرعن المكتب الاقليمى لشرق المتوسط بمنظمة الصحة العالمية. وهى منبر لتقديم السياسات والمبادرات الجديدة فى الصحة العامة والخدمات الصحية والترويج لها، و لتبادل الاراء و المفاهيم والمعطيات الوبائية ونتائج الابحاث وغير ذلك من المعلومات، و خاصة ما يتعلق منها باقليم شرق المتوسط. وهى موجهة الى كل اعضاء المهن الصحية، والكليات الطبية وسائر المعاهد التعليمية، و كذا المنظمات غير الحكومية المعنية، والمراكز المتعاونة مع منظمة الصحة العالمية والافراد المهتمين بالصحة فى الاقليم و خارجه


La Revue de Santé de la Méditerranée Orientale est une revue de santé officielle publiée par le Bureau régional de l’Organisation mondiale de la Santé pour la Méditerranée orientale. Elle offre une tribune pour la présentation et la promotion de nouvelles politiques et initiatives dans le domaine de la santé publique et des services de santé ainsi qu’à l’échange d’idées de concepts de données épidémiologiques de résultats de recherches et d’autres informations se rapportant plus particulièrement à la Région de la Méditerranée orientale. Elle s’adresse à tous les professionnels de la santé aux membres des instituts médicaux et autres instituts de formation médico-sanitaire aux ONG Centres collaborateurs de l’OMS et personnes concernés au sein et hors de la Région


Subject(s)
Health Services , Family Planning Services , COVID-19 , Perinatal Care , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic , Obesity , Influenza Vaccines , Telemedicine , Tuberculosis , Health Services Research , Leishmaniasis , Fast Foods , Breast Feeding , Hepatitis , HIV Infections , Sexually Transmitted Diseases
18.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Sep 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438685

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on multiple lifestyle changes among adults in the United States (USA). METHODS: We conducted a survey, the Health, Ethnicity, and Pandemic (HEAP) Study, in October 2020 among USA adults. Participants were selected from the United States using 48 sampling strata, including age, race, ethnicity, education, and gender, and were asked to report five lifestyle behaviors (i.e., exercise time, screen time, fast-food meal consumption, alcohol drinking, and cigarette smoking) before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. The associations of sociodemographic factors with each lifestyle change were estimated using weighted multivariable logistic regression models. RESULTS: All 2709 HEAP participants were included in this study. Compared to pre-pandemic, the time spent on exercise decreased (32.06 vs. 38.65 min/day; p < 0.001) and screen time increased (6.79 vs. 5.06 h/day; p < 0.001) during the pandemic. The percentage of individuals who reported consuming fast-food meals ≥3 times/week decreased from 37.7% before the pandemic to 33.3% during the pandemic. The percentage of heavy drinkers (≥5 times/week) increased from 20.9% before the pandemic to 25.7% during the pandemic. Among smokers, heavy smoking (≥11 cigarettes/day) increased from 5.8% before the pandemic to 7.9% during the pandemic. We also identified subgroups who were more vulnerable to adverse influences from the pandemic, including racial/ethnic minority groups and young adults. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic had negative impacts on multiple lifestyle behaviors among Americans. Mitigating such negative impacts of COVID-19 requires effective interventions, particularly for some vulnerable subgroups.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Cigarette Smoking/epidemiology , Exercise/psychology , Fast Foods/statistics & numerical data , Screen Time , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Alcohol Drinking/psychology , Cigarette Smoking/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ethnicity/psychology , Ethnicity/statistics & numerical data , Female , Health Behavior , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Racial Groups/psychology , Racial Groups/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
19.
Nutrition ; 91-92: 111419, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1410478

ABSTRACT

In recent years, consumption of ultra-processed food around the world has been increasing. The nutritional profile of an ultra-processed diet is associated with the development of cellular alterations that lead to oxidative stress. The chronic prooxidative state leads to an environment that influences the proliferation, apoptosis, and signaling pathways of immune cells. Likewise, the decrease in the transcription factor NRF2, owing to exacerbated production of reactive oxygen species, leads to changes in immune function and response to infections. This review aims to analyze the connection between an ultra-processed diet, systemic oxidative stress, and immune tolerance, as a contribution to the scientific evidence on the impact of oxidative stress on health and the possible risk of infections-an important consideration in the association of eating pattern and the immune response.


Subject(s)
Diet , Fast Foods , Feeding Behavior , Food Handling , Immune Tolerance , Oxidative Stress
20.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Sep 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1405463

ABSTRACT

Early care and education (ECE) settings are important avenues for reaching young children and their families with food and nutrition resources, including through the U.S. federally funded Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP). Researchers conducted a cross-sectional survey of ECE providers in two U.S. states in November 2020 to identify approaches used to connect families with food and nutrition resources amid the COVID-19 pandemic. Logistic regression models were used to estimate odds of sites reporting no approaches and adjusted Poisson models were used to estimate the incidence rate ratio of the mean number of approaches, comparing sites that participate in CACFP to those that did not. A total of 589 ECE sites provided responses. Of those, 43% (n = 255) participated in CACFP. CACFP participating sites were more likely to report using any approaches to connecting families to food resources and significantly more likely to report offering "grab and go" meals, providing meal delivery, distributing food boxes to families, and recommending community food resources than non-CACFP sites. This study suggests that CACFP sites may have greater capacity to connect families to food resources amid emergencies than non-CACFP participating sites.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child Day Care Centers/statistics & numerical data , Food Assistance/statistics & numerical data , Food Services/statistics & numerical data , Food Supply/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Arizona , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fast Foods , Female , Food Supply/methods , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Pennsylvania , Poisson Distribution , SARS-CoV-2
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