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2.
J Med Virol ; 94(7): 3240-3250, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1767360

ABSTRACT

To observe the predictive effect of fasting blood glucose (FBG) level on the prognosis, clinical sequelae, and pulmonary absorption in hospitalized coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with and without a history of diabetes, respectively, and to evaluate the correlation between the dynamic changes of FBG and poor prognosis. In this bidirectional cohort study, we enrolled 2545 hospitalized COVID-19 patients (439 diabetics and 2106 without a diabetic history) and followed up for 1 year. The patients were divided according to the level of admission FBG. The dynamic changes of FBG were compared between the survival and the death cases. The prediction effect of FBG on 1-year mortality and sequelae was analyzed. The 1-year all cause mortality rate and in-hospital mortality rate of COVID-19 patients were J-curve correlated with FBG (p < 0.001 for both in the nondiabetic history group, p = 0.004 and p = 0.01 in the diabetic history group). FBG ≥ 7.0 mmol/L had a higher risk of developing sequelae (p = 0.025) and have slower recovery of abnormal lung scans (p < 0.001) in patients who denied a history of diabetes. Multivariable Cox regression analysis showed that FBG ≥ 7.0 mmol/L was an independent risk factor for the mortality of COVID-19 regardless of the presence or deny a history of diabetes (hazard atio [HR] = 10.63, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 7.15-15.83, p < 0.001; HR = 3.9, 95% CI: 1.56-9.77, p = 0.004, respectively). Our study shows that FBG ≥ 7.0 mmol/L can be a predictive factor of 1-year all-cause mortality in COVID-19 patients, independent of diabetes history. FBG ≥ 7.0 mmol/L has an advantage in predicting the severity, clinical sequelae, and pulmonary absorption in COVID-19 patients without a history of diabetes. Early detection, timely treatment, and strict control of blood glucose when finding hyperglycemia in COVID-19 patients (with or without diabetes) are critical for their prognosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Blood Glucose/analysis , COVID-19/complications , Cohort Studies , Disease Progression , Fasting , Humans , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
3.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 186: 109812, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1739664

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Muslim people with T1DM should be actively discouraged from fasting during the COVID-19 pandemic, as diabetes has emerged as a significant risk factor for adverse outcomes of COVID-19 infection. We report the experience of young patients with type 1, type 2 and other types diabetes who fasted during Ramadan 2020 at the time of the COVID-19 pandemic time lockdown. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A Post- Ramadan survey was designed for young patients who fasted during Ramadan in 2020 during COVID pandemic time. The study was conducted to compared the basal characteristics and other parameters in children and adolescents (<18 years), with young adults (≥18 years) with diabetes at Paediatric Diabetes Center in BIRDEM in Bangladesh. RESULTS: Among the study participants, a significantly higher number of participants were in older age group who fasted for more than 15 days (p = 0.045). A considerable proportion (30.7%) of patients developed mild hypoglycaemia, and only eight patients (2.6%) developed moderate to severe hypoglycemia. There was significant reduction of post Ramadan basal insulin dose in both groups (p = 0.001). Although increased bolus insulin dose requirements were observed in older age group, but decreased requirement was observed in younger age group during Ramadan (p = 0.001). Post Ramadan median HbA1C in both groups was increased with marked increase in older age group compared to younger age group though it did not reach the statistical significance. (p = 0.239) CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 pandemic had minor impact on fasting during Ramadan in our cohort, they could fast safely with less complications during Ramadan. Our data supports Ramadan focused diabetes education with ample self-care, young people with diabetes can fast safely during Ramadan.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Hypoglycemia , Adolescent , Aged , Bangladesh/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Fasting/adverse effects , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Humans , Hypoglycemia/epidemiology , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Insulin/therapeutic use , Islam , Pandemics , Young Adult
4.
J Diabetes Res ; 2022: 7424748, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1685760

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a serious global health threat and has spread dramatically worldwide. Prolonged viral shedding is associated with a more severe disease course and inflammatory reaction. Blood glucose levels were significantly associated with an increased hazard ratio (HR) for poor outcomes in COVID-19 patients. OBJECTIVE: Previous studies focused primarily on the relationship between blood glucose and mortality or severe outcomes, but there were few research studies on the relationship between fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and duration of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA positive status. To explore the relationship between FPG levels and prolonged duration of SARS-CoV-2 viral positivity, the clinical data of COVID-19 patients were analyzed. METHOD: In this retrospective study, 99 cases of COVID-19 patients in Beijing Ditan Hospital were recruited, and their clinical and laboratory findings at admission were collected and analyzed. Furthermore, the risk factors for prolonged duration of SARS-CoV-2 RNA shedding were identified, and the relationship between FPG levels and the prolonged presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA was evaluated. RESULT: We found that elevated FPG levels were correlated with longer duration of SARS-CoV-2 RNA positivity, classification of COVID-19, imaging changes of chest CT, inflammation-related biomarkers, and CD8+ T cell number in COVID-19 patients. In a logistic regression model, after adjusting for gender and age, COVID-19 patients with elevated FPG were more likely to had longer duration of SARS-CoV-2 RNA positivity than those with normal FPG levels (OR 3.053 [95% CI 1.343, 6.936]). CONCLUSION: Higher FPG levels (≥6.1 mmol/l) at admission was an independent predictor for prolonged SARS-CoV-2 shedding, regardless of a known history of diabetes. It suggests that intensive monitoring and control of blood glucose are important for all COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose/analysis , COVID-19/blood , Patient Admission , Adult , COVID-19/therapy , Fasting/blood , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies
5.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 185: 109210, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1664841

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Psychological concerns relating to "diabetes distress" (DD) and depressive symptoms (DS) in individuals with type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) may negatively impact adherence to medical treatments and overall mental health. Thus, this study was undertaken to investigate DS and DD in relation to fasting during the month of Ramadan. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 735 patients with T2DM in 2021. DD and DS were measured by the Problem Areas in Diabetes scale and Patient Health Questionnaire-9, respectively. Logistic regression and correlation analyses were executed. RESULTS: More than one-third of the participants (41.2%) had DD and DS (36.9%). DS was significantly higher in participants who did not fast (p = 0.027). Participants who had higher dietary diversity were less likely to have DD (p = 0.004) and DS (p = 0.001). Females (AOR = 1.89, 95% CI: 1.25-2.85) and those who lived alone (AOR = 1.89, 95% CI: 1.25-2.85) were more likely to have DS. Participants with diabetes-related complications were more likely to experience DS (AOR = 2.17; 95% CI: 1.5-3.13) and DD (AOR = 3.46; 95% CI: 2.42-4.95). DD was also associated with being younger (p = 0.003), having hypertension (p = 0.030), having heart disease (p = 0.012), and taking insulin (p = 0.010). CONCLUSIONS: Individuals with T2DM who were not fasting experienced more mental health concerns. Psychosocial support and other interventions from health professionals should be examined and empirical interventions should be implemented to promote the mental health and well-being of individuals with T2DM.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Bangladesh , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/etiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Fasting , Female , Humans , Prevalence
7.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0262530, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1627791

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The effect of fasting on immunity is unclear. Prolonged fasting is thought to increase the risk of infection due to dehydration. This study describes antibiotic prescribing patterns before, during, and after Ramadan in a primary care setting within the Pakistani and Bangladeshi populations in the UK, most of whom are Muslims, compared to those who do not observe Ramadan. METHOD: Retrospective controlled interrupted time series analysis of electronic health record data from primary care practices. The study consists of two groups: Pakistanis/Bangladeshis and white populations. For each group, we constructed a series of aggregated, daily prescription data from 2007 to 2017 for the 30 days preceding, during, and after Ramadan, respectively. FINDINGS: Controlling for the rate in the white population, there was no evidence of increased antibiotic prescription in the Pakistani/Bangladeshi population during Ramadan, as compared to before Ramadan (IRR: 0.994; 95% CI: 0.988-1.001, p = 0.082) or after Ramadan (IRR: 1.006; 95% CI: 0.999-1.013, p = 0.082). INTERPRETATION: In this large, population-based study, we did not find any evidence to suggest that fasting was associated with an increased susceptibility to infection.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Disease Susceptibility/metabolism , Fasting/adverse effects , Adult , Aged , Arabs , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Communicable Diseases/drug therapy , Communicable Diseases/transmission , Electronic Health Records , Female , Humans , Interrupted Time Series Analysis/methods , Islam , Male , Middle Aged , Practice Patterns, Physicians' , Primary Health Care/trends , Retrospective Studies , United Kingdom/epidemiology
8.
Nat Metab ; 4(1): 29-43, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1612214

ABSTRACT

Severe cases of infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are associated with elevated blood glucose levels and metabolic complications. However, the molecular mechanisms for how SARS-CoV-2 infection alters glycometabolic control are incompletely understood. Here, we connect the circulating protein GP73 with enhanced hepatic gluconeogenesis during SARS-CoV-2 infection. We first demonstrate that GP73 secretion is induced in multiple tissues upon fasting and that GP73 stimulates hepatic gluconeogenesis through the cAMP/PKA signaling pathway. We further show that GP73 secretion is increased in cultured cells infected with SARS-CoV-2, after overexpression of SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid and spike proteins and in lungs and livers of mice infected with a mouse-adapted SARS-CoV-2 strain. GP73 blockade with an antibody inhibits excessive glucogenesis stimulated by SARS-CoV-2 in vitro and lowers elevated fasting blood glucose levels in infected mice. In patients with COVID-19, plasma GP73 levels are elevated and positively correlate with blood glucose levels. Our data suggest that GP73 is a glucogenic hormone that likely contributes to SARS-CoV-2-induced abnormalities in systemic glucose metabolism.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Glucose/metabolism , Hyperglycemia/etiology , Hyperglycemia/metabolism , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Biomarkers , Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases/metabolism , Diet, High-Fat , Disease Models, Animal , Fasting , Gene Expression , Gluconeogenesis/drug effects , Gluconeogenesis/genetics , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Hyperglycemia/blood , Liver/metabolism , Liver/pathology , Membrane Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Membrane Proteins/blood , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Mice , Mice, Knockout , Organ Specificity/genetics
9.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 791476, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581361

ABSTRACT

Background: We aimed to understand how glycaemic levels among COVID-19 patients impact their disease progression and clinical complications. Methods: We enrolled 2,366 COVID-19 patients from Huoshenshan hospital in Wuhan. We stratified the COVID-19 patients into four subgroups by current fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels and their awareness of prior diabetic status, including patients with FBG<6.1mmol/L with no history of diabetes (group 1), patients with FBG<6.1mmol/L with a history of diabetes diagnosed (group 2), patients with FBG≥6.1mmol/L with no history of diabetes (group 3) and patients with FBG≥6.1mmol/L with a history of diabetes diagnosed (group 4). A multivariate cause-specific Cox proportional hazard model was used to assess the associations between FBG levels or prior diabetic status and clinical adversities in COVID-19 patients. Results: COVID-19 patients with higher FBG and unknown diabetes in the past (group 3) are more likely to progress to the severe or critical stage than patients in other groups (severe: 38.46% vs 23.46%-30.70%; critical 7.69% vs 0.61%-3.96%). These patients also have the highest abnormal level of inflammatory parameters, complications, and clinical adversities among all four groups (all p<0.05). On day 21 of hospitalisation, group 3 had a significantly higher risk of ICU admission [14.1% (9.6%-18.6%)] than group 4 [7.0% (3.7%-10.3%)], group 2 [4.0% (0.2%-7.8%)] and group 1 [2.1% (1.4%-2.8%)], (P<0.001). Compared with group 1 who had low FBG, group 3 demonstrated 5 times higher risk of ICU admission events during hospitalisation (HR=5.38, 3.46-8.35, P<0.001), while group 4, where the patients had high FBG and prior diabetes diagnosed, also showed a significantly higher risk (HR=1.99, 1.12-3.52, P=0.019), but to a much lesser extent than in group 3. Conclusion: Our study shows that COVID-19 patients with current high FBG levels but unaware of pre-existing diabetes, or possibly new onset diabetes as a result of COVID-19 infection, have a higher risk of more severe adverse outcomes than those aware of prior diagnosis of diabetes and those with low current FBG levels.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Fasting/blood , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
10.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 107(3): e1009-e1019, 2022 02 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496303

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To assess whether dysglycemia diagnosed during severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 pneumonia may become a potential public health problem after resolution of the infection. In an adult cohort with suspected coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia, we integrated glucose data upon hospital admission with fasting blood glucose (FBG) in the year prior to COVID-19 and during postdischarge follow-up. METHODS: From February 25 to May 15, 2020, 660 adults with suspected COVID-19 pneumonia were admitted to the San Raffaele Hospital (Milan, Italy). Through structured interviews/ medical record reviews, we collected demographics, clinical features, and laboratory tests upon admission and additional data during hospitalization or after discharge and in the previous year. Upon admission, we classified participants according to American Diabetes Association criteria as having (1) preexisting diabetes, (2) newly diagnosed diabetes, (3) hyperglycemia not in the diabetes range, or (4) normoglycemia. FBG prior to admission and during follow-up were classified as normal or impaired fasting glucose and fasting glucose in the diabetes range. RESULTS: In patients with confirmed COVID (n = 589), the proportion with preexisting or newly diagnosed diabetes, hyperglycemia not in the diabetes range and normoglycemia was 19.6%, 6.7%, 43.7%, and 30.0%, respectively. Patients with dysglycemia associated to COVID-19 had increased markers of inflammation and organs' injury and poorer clinical outcome compared to those with normoglycemia. After the infection resolved, the prevalence of dysglycemia reverted to preadmission frequency. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19-associated dysglycemia is unlikely to become a lasting public health problem. Alarmist claims on the diabetes risk after COVID-19 pneumonia should be interpreted with caution.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose/analysis , COVID-19/metabolism , Hyperglycemia/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , Fasting/metabolism , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
11.
Pharmacol Res Perspect ; 9(5): e00846, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1460269

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has forced clinical studies to accommodate imposed limitations. In this study, the bioequivalence part could not be conducted as planned. Thus, the aim was to demonstrate bioequivalence, using an adaptive study design, of tadalafil in fixed-dose combination (FDC) tablets of macitentan/tadalafil with single macitentan and tadalafil (Canadian-sourced) tablets and assess the effect of food on FDC tablets in healthy subjects. This Phase 1, single-center, open-label, single-dose, two-part, two-period, randomized, crossover study enrolled 62 subjects. Tadalafil bioequivalence as part of FDC of macitentan/tadalafil (10/40 mg) with single-component tablets of macitentan (10 mg) and tadalafil (40 mg) was determined by pharmacokinetic (PK) assessment under fasted conditions. The effect of food on FDC was evaluated under fed and fasted conditions. Fasted 90% confidence intervals (CIs) for geometric mean ratios (GMRs) were within bioequivalence limits for tadalafil and macitentan. Fed and fasted 90% CIs for area under the curve (AUC) GMR were within bioequivalence limits. However, 90% CIs for maximum plasma concentration (Cmax ) GMR for macitentan and tadalafil were outside bioequivalence limits. One FDC-treated subject experienced a serious adverse event of transient ischemic attack (bioequivalence part). To address pandemic-imposed limitations, an adaptive study design was implemented to demonstrate that the FDC tablet was bioequivalent to the free combination of macitentan and tadalafil (Canadian-sourced). No clinically significant differences in PK were determined between fed and fasted conditions; the FDC formulation could be taken irrespective of meals. The FDC formulation under fasted and fed conditions was well tolerated with no clinically relevant differences in safety profiles between the treatment groups. NCT Number: NCT04235270.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Fasting/blood , Food-Drug Interactions/physiology , Pyrimidines/blood , Research Design , Sulfonamides/blood , Tadalafil/blood , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Over Studies , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pyrimidines/administration & dosage , Research Design/trends , Sulfonamides/administration & dosage , Tadalafil/administration & dosage , Therapeutic Equivalency , Young Adult
12.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 180: 109041, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1401412

ABSTRACT

AIMS: We aimed to investigate the role of Fasting Plasma Glucose (FPG) and glucose fluctuation in the prognosis of COVID-19 patients stratified by pre-existing diabetes. METHODS: The associations of FPG and glucose fluctuation indexes with prognosis of COVID-19 in 2,642 patients were investigated by multivariate Cox regression analysis. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality; the secondary outcome was disease progression. The longitudinal changes of FPG over time were analyzed by the latent growth curve model in COVID-19 patients stratified by diabetes and severity of COVID-19. RESULTS: We found FPG as an independent prognostic factor of overall survival after adjustment for age, sex, diabetes and severity of COVID-19 at admission (HR: 1.15, 95% CI: 1.06-1.25, P = 1.02 × 10-3). Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that the standard deviation of blood glucose (SDBG) and largest amplitude of glycemic excursions (LAGE) were also independent risk factors of COVID-19 progression (P = 0.03 and 0.04, respectively). The growth trajectory of FPG over the first 3 days of hospitalization was steeper in patients with critical COVID-19 in comparison to moderate patients. CONCLUSIONS: Hyperglycemia and glucose fluctuation were adverse prognostic factors of COVID-19 regardless of pre-existing diabetes. This stresses the importance of glycemic control in addition to other therapeutic management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Blood Glucose , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Fasting , Glucose , Humans , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Clin Med (Lond) ; 21(5): e492-e498, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1404074

ABSTRACT

Fasting in the month of Ramadan is an obligatory act for healthy adult Muslims. It requires abstinence from food and drink from dawn to sunset. Although there are exemptions from fasting, many patients are keen to fulfil what they see as a religious obligation, even if this may be against medical advice in some cases. Solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients often ask healthcare professionals for advice on fasting. Studies on the effect of fasting in transplant patients have all been done in the Middle East and North Africa where the average fasting duration is between 12 and 14 hours. In comparison, in temperate regions in the summer, fasting duration can be as long as 20 hours. Fasting when patients have to take immunosuppression 12 hours apart with little time variation poses unique challenges. In this review, current literature is reviewed, and a decision-making tool has been developed to assist clinicians in discussing the risks of fasting in transplant recipients, with consideration also given to circumstances such as the COVID-19 pandemic.Our review highlights that SOT recipients wishing to fast should undergo a thorough risk assessment, ideally 3 months before Ramadan. They may require medication changes and a plan for regular monitoring of graft function and electrolytes in order to fast safely. Recommendations have been based on risk tiers (very high risk, high risk and low/moderate risk) established by the International Diabetes Federation and the Diabetes and Ramadan International Alliance. Patients in the 'very high risk' and 'high risk' categories should be encouraged to explore alternative options to fasting such as winter fasting or Fidyah. Those in the 'low/moderate' category may be able to cautiously fast with guidance from their clinician. Prior to the commencement of Ramadan, all patients must receive up-to-date education on sick-day rules, instructions on when to terminate their fast or abstain from fasting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Organ Transplantation , Adult , Delivery of Health Care , Fasting , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Transplant Recipients
15.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254847, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1320548

ABSTRACT

IMPORTANCE: Patients with diabetes are known to be at increased risk for infections including severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) but the relationship between COVID-19 severity and specific pre-infection glucose levels is not known. OBJECTIVE: To assess the differential effects of pre-infection glucose levels on the risk for severe COVID-19 amongst patients with and without diabetes. DESIGN: Population based historical cohort study. SETTING: National state-mandated HMO. PATIENTS: All adult patients with a positive SARS-COV2 test between March-October 2020. EXPOSURE: Recent fasting blood glucose (FBG) and glycated hemoglobin (HBA1C), age, gender, body mass index (BMI) and diagnoses of diabetes, hypertension, ischemic heart disease. OUTCOME: Risk for severe COVID-19, defined as resulting in ≥10 hospitalization days, ICU admission or death. RESULTS: 37,121 patients with a positive SARS-COV2 test were identified; 707 defined as severe (1.9%). Unadjusted risk factors for severe disease were age (OR = 1.1 for every year increase; 95% CI 1.09-1.11, p < 0.001), male gender (OR = 1.34, 95% CI 1.06-1.68, p = 0.012); BMI (OR = 1.02 for 1 kg/m2 increase, 95% CI 1.00-1.04, p = 0.025). Controlling for these factors, we found an association between pre-infection FBG and the risk of severe COVID-19, with a differential effect in patients with and without a diagnosis of diabetes. For patients without diabetes, elevated FBG in the pre-diabetes range (106-125 mg/dl) was associated with severe COVID-19 (OR 1.55 95% CI 1.04-2.26 p = 0.027). For patients with a diagnosis of diabetes, we found a J-shaped association between pre-infection glucose control and the risk for severe COVID-19 where the lowest risk for was for patients with FBG 106-125 mg/dl; the risk increased with higher pre-infection glucose levels but strikingly also for patients with a low pre-infection FBG (<100mg/dl) or HbA1C (<5.7%). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Elevated pre-infection blood glucose is a risk factor for severe COVID-19 even in non-diabetics. For patients with a diagnosis of diabetes both high as well as low pre-infection glucose levels are risk factors for severe COVID-19. Further research is required to assess whether these associations are causal, but we believe these findings can already have clinical implications for COVID-19 risk assessment and stratification.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Cohort Studies , Fasting/blood , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors
16.
Trends Endocrinol Metab ; 32(9): 706-720, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1284569

ABSTRACT

Obesity is strongly and independently associated with an increased risk of severe illness and death from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The pathophysiological changes that result from elevated body weight lead to metabolic dysfunction, chronic inflammation, impaired immunological responses, and multisystem disorders, which increase vulnerability to severe illness from COVID-19. While vaccination strategies are under way across the world, the second and third waves of the pandemic, along with the emergence of novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) strains, continue to threaten the stability of medical systems worldwide. Furthermore, evidence from previous pandemics suggests that vaccines are less effective in obese individuals than in their healthy-weight counterparts over the long term. Therefore, a consideration of lifestyle changes that can boost metabolic health and immunity is critical to reduce the risk of complications and severe illness from viral infection. In this review, we discuss the potential mechanisms linking excess body weight with COVID-19 morbidity. We also present evidence that intermittent fasting (IF), a dietary program that has gained popularity in recent years, may be an effective strategy to improve metabolic health and immunity and thus reduce the impact of obesity on COVID-19 morbidity and mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Fasting , Obesity , COVID-19/diet therapy , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Obesity/complications , Obesity/diet therapy
17.
18.
Acta Diabetol ; 58(11): 1481-1490, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258218

ABSTRACT

AIM: The aim of this study was to understand whether the dysglycemia associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection persists or reverts when the viral infection resolves. METHODS: We analyzed fasting blood glucose (FBG) after hospital discharge in a cohort of 621 adult cases with suspected COVID-19 pneumonia. RESULTS: At admission, 18.8% of the patients in our cohort had pre-existing diabetes, 9.3% fasting glucose in the diabetes range without a prior diagnosis (DFG), 26% impaired fasting glucose (IFG), 44.9% normal fasting glucose (NFG), while 2% had no FBG available. FBG categories were similarly distributed in the 71 patients without confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia. During follow-up (median time 6 month) FBG was available for 321 out of the 453 (70.9%) surviving patients and showed a trend to a marginal increase [from 97 (87-116) to 100 (92-114) mg/dL; p = 0.071]. Transitions between FBG categories were analyzed in subjects without pre-existing diabetes (265 out of 321). We identified three groups: (i) patients who maintained or improved FBG during follow-up [Group A, n = 185; from 100 (86-109) to 94 (88-99) mg/dL; p < 0.001]; (ii) patients who moved from the NFG to IFG category [Group B, n = 66: from 89 (85-96) to 106 (102-113) mg/dl; p < 0.001]; (iii) patients who maintained or reached DFG during follow-up [Group C, n = 14: from 114 (94-138) to 134 (126-143) mg/dl; p = 0.035]. Male sex and ICU admission during the hospitalization were more prevalent in Group C compared to Group A or B. CONCLUSIONS: Six months after the SARS-CoV-2 infection DFG was evident in only few patients who experienced severe COVID-19 pneumonia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Blood Glucose , Cohort Studies , Fasting , Humans , Male , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Isr Med Assoc J ; 23(4): 203-207, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1200602

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This year Ramadan occurs during the global coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Data has shown that patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are prone to severe disease with COVID-19 and with increased mortality. Acute complications such as dehydration, starvation ketosis, ketoacidosis, and the increased risk of coagulopathy and thrombosis should be considered particularly during this pandemic period. Fasting during Ramadan this year and the COVID-19 pandemic is more challenging, not only for patients with T2DM but also for healthcare providers. We present healthcare providers with important aspects to consider during the COVID-19 pandemic for patients with T2DM who intend to fast during Ramadan and other fasting days.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Fasting , Islam , Humans , Risk Factors
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