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1.
Drug Discov Ther ; 15(5): 278-280, 2021 Nov 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542929

ABSTRACT

To help stop the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, vaccines are currently the most critical tool. However, the COVID-19 mRNA vaccines frequently cause systemic side effects shortly after the injection, such as fever, headache and generalized fatigue. In our survey, after receiving the second dose of the COVID-19 vaccine, 80% developed fever, 62% headache and 69% generalized fatigue. Among people who required antipyretics, the average durations of fever and headache were significantly shorter in those who took non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as aspirin, loxoprofen and ibuprofen, than those who took acetaminophen. In our patch-clamp studies, NSAIDs effectively suppressed the delayed rectifier K+-channel (Kv1.3) currents in T-lymphocytes and thus exerted immunosuppressive effects. Because of this pharmacological property, the use of NSAIDs should be more effective in reducing the vaccine-induced systemic side effects that are caused primarily by the enhanced cellular immunity.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Acetaminophen/therapeutic use , Adolescent , Aspirin/therapeutic use , Fatigue/drug therapy , Fatigue/etiology , Fever/drug therapy , Fever/etiology , Headache/drug therapy , Headache/etiology , Humans , Ibuprofen/therapeutic use , Patch-Clamp Techniques , Phenylpropionates/therapeutic use , Young Adult
2.
Rev Med Virol ; 31(6): e2288, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1384306

ABSTRACT

SARS Coronavirus-2 is one of the most widespread viruses globally during the 21st century, whose severity and ability to cause severe pneumonia and death vary. We performed a comprehensive systematic review of all studies that met our standardised criteria and then extracted data on the age, symptoms, and different treatments of Covid-19 patients and the prognosis of this disease during follow-up. Cases in this study were divided according to severity and death status and meta-analysed separately using raw mean and single proportion methods. We included 171 complete studies including 62,909 confirmed cases of Covid-19, of which 148 studies were meta-analysed. Symptoms clearly emerged in an escalating manner from mild-moderate symptoms, pneumonia, severe-critical to the group of non-survivors. Hypertension (Pooled proportion (PP): 0.48 [95% Confident interval (CI): 0.35-0.61]), diabetes (PP: 0.23 [95% CI: 0.16-0.33]) and smoking (PP: 0.12 [95% CI: 0.03-0.38]) were highest regarding pre-infection comorbidities in the non-survivor group. While acute respiratory distress syndrome (PP: 0.49 [95% CI: 0.29-0.78]), (PP: 0.63 [95% CI: 0.34-0.97]) remained one of the most common complications in the severe and death group respectively. Bilateral ground-glass opacification (PP: 0.68 [95% CI: 0.59-0.75]) was the most visible radiological image. The mortality rates estimated (PP: 0.11 [95% CI: 0.06-0.19]), (PP: 0.03 [95% CI: 0.01-0.05]), and (PP: 0.01 [95% CI: 0-0.3]) in severe-critical, pneumonia and mild-moderate groups respectively. This study can serve as a high evidence guideline for different clinical presentations of Covid-19, graded from mild to severe, and for special forms like pneumonia and death groups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Cough/pathology , Dyspnea/pathology , Fatigue/pathology , Fever/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Comorbidity , Cough/drug therapy , Cough/mortality , Cough/virology , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/physiopathology , Dyspnea/drug therapy , Dyspnea/mortality , Dyspnea/virology , Fatigue/drug therapy , Fatigue/mortality , Fatigue/virology , Fever/drug therapy , Fever/mortality , Fever/virology , Humans , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/physiopathology , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Prognosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/physiopathology , Severity of Illness Index , Smoking/physiopathology , Survival Analysis
3.
Biofactors ; 47(2): 232-241, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1178977

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 leads to severe respiratory problems, but also to long-COVID syndrome associated primarily with cognitive dysfunction and fatigue. Long-COVID syndrome symptoms, especially brain fog, are similar to those experienced by patients undertaking or following chemotherapy for cancer (chemofog or chemobrain), as well in patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) or mast cell activation syndrome (MCAS). The pathogenesis of brain fog in these illnesses is presently unknown but may involve neuroinflammation via mast cells stimulated by pathogenic and stress stimuli to release mediators that activate microglia and lead to inflammation in the hypothalamus. These processes could be mitigated by phytosomal formulation (in olive pomace oil) of the natural flavonoid luteolin.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Cognitive Dysfunction/drug therapy , Fatigue/drug therapy , Luteolin/therapeutic use , Brain/drug effects , Brain/physiopathology , Brain/virology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/virology , Cognitive Dysfunction/complications , Cognitive Dysfunction/physiopathology , Cognitive Dysfunction/virology , Cytokines/genetics , Fatigue/complications , Fatigue/physiopathology , Fatigue/virology , Humans , Mast Cells/drug effects , Mast Cells/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
4.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Mar 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1160962

ABSTRACT

Fatigue is common not only in cancer patients but also after viral and other infections. Effective treatment options are still very rare. Therefore, the present knowledge on the pathophysiology of fatigue and the potential positive impact of treatment with vitamin C is illustrated. Additionally, the effectiveness of high-dose IV vitamin C in fatigue resulting from various diseases was assessed by a systematic literature review in order to assess the feasibility of vitamin C in post-viral, especially in long COVID, fatigue. Nine clinical studies with 720 participants were identified. Three of the four controlled trials observed a significant decrease in fatigue scores in the vitamin C group compared to the control group. Four of the five observational or before-and-after studies observed a significant reduction in pre-post levels of fatigue. Attendant symptoms of fatigue such as sleep disturbances, lack of concentration, depression, and pain were also frequently alleviated. Oxidative stress, inflammation, and circulatory disorders, which are important contributors to fatigue, are also discussed in long COVID fatigue. Thus, the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, endothelial-restoring, and immunomodulatory effects of high-dose IV vitamin C might be a suitable treatment option.


Subject(s)
Ascorbic Acid/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Fatigue/drug therapy , Fatigue/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Ascorbic Acid/administration & dosage , COVID-19/pathology , Feasibility Studies , Humans , Injections, Intravenous
5.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(2): e210369, 2021 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1084243

ABSTRACT

Importance: There is limited evidence regarding early treatment of novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection to mitigate symptom progression. Objective: To examine whether high-dose zinc and/or high-dose ascorbic acid reduce the severity or duration of symptoms compared with usual care among ambulatory patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Design, Setting, and Participants: This multicenter, single health system randomized clinical factorial open-label trial enrolled 214 adult patients with a diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection confirmed with a polymerase chain reaction assay who received outpatient care in sites in Ohio and Florida. The trial was conducted from April 27, 2020, to October 14, 2020. Intervention: Patients were randomized in a 1:1:1:1 allocation ratio to receive either 10 days of zinc gluconate (50 mg), ascorbic acid (8000 mg), both agents, or standard of care. Outcomes: The primary end point was the number of days required to reach a 50% reduction in symptoms, including severity of fever, cough, shortness of breath, and fatigue (rated on a 4-point scale for each symptom). Secondary end points included days required to reach a total symptom severity score of 0, cumulative severity score at day 5, hospitalizations, deaths, adjunctive prescribed medications, and adverse effects of the study supplements. Results: A total of 214 patients were randomized, with a mean (SD) age of 45.2 (14.6) years and 132 (61.7%) women. The study was stopped for a low conditional power for benefit with no significant difference among the 4 groups for the primary end point. Patients who received usual care without supplementation achieved a 50% reduction in symptoms at a mean (SD) of 6.7 (4.4) days compared with 5.5 (3.7) days for the ascorbic acid group, 5.9 (4.9) days for the zinc gluconate group, and 5.5 (3.4) days for the group receiving both (overall P = .45). There was no significant difference in secondary outcomes among the treatment groups. Conclusions and Relevance: In this randomized clinical trial of ambulatory patients diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection, treatment with high-dose zinc gluconate, ascorbic acid, or a combination of the 2 supplements did not significantly decrease the duration of symptoms compared with standard of care. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04342728.


Subject(s)
Ascorbic Acid/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Dietary Supplements , Zinc/therapeutic use , Adult , Ambulatory Care , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Cough/drug therapy , Cough/etiology , Dyspnea/drug therapy , Dyspnea/etiology , Fatigue/drug therapy , Fatigue/etiology , Female , Fever/drug therapy , Fever/etiology , Gluconates/therapeutic use , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Standard of Care , Trace Elements/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome
7.
J Neurovirol ; 27(1): 12-25, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-996484

ABSTRACT

With the growing number of COVID-19 cases in recent times. significant set of patients with extra pulmonary symptoms has been reported worldwide. Here we venture out to summarize the clinical profile, investigations, and radiological findings among patients with SARS-CoV-2-associated meningoencephalitis in the form of a systemic review. This review was carried out based on the existing PRISMA (Preferred Report for Systematic Review and Meta analyses) consensus statement. The data for this review was collected from four databases: Pubmed/Medline, NIH Litcovid, Embase, and Cochrane library and Preprint servers up till 30 June 2020. Search strategy comprised of a range of keywords from relevant medical subject headings which includes "SARS-COV-2," "COVID-19," and "meningoencephalitis." All peer reviewed, case-control, case report, pre print articles satisfying our inclusion criteria were involved in the study. Quantitative data was expressed in mean ± SD, while the qualitative date in percentages. Paired t test was used for analysing the data based on differences between mean and respective values with a p < 0.05 considered to be statistically significant. A total of 61 cases were included from 25 studies after screening from databases and preprint servers, out of which 54 of them had completed investigation profile and were included in the final analysis. Clinical, laboratory findings, neuroimaging abnormalities, and EEG findings were analyzed in detail. This present review summarizes the available evidences related to the occurrence of meningoencephalitis in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Cough/physiopathology , Fatigue/physiopathology , Fever/physiopathology , Meningoencephalitis/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adult , Aged , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Confusion/diagnostic imaging , Confusion/drug therapy , Confusion/physiopathology , Confusion/virology , Cough/diagnostic imaging , Cough/drug therapy , Cough/virology , Dyspnea/diagnostic imaging , Dyspnea/drug therapy , Dyspnea/physiopathology , Dyspnea/virology , Electroencephalography , Fatigue/diagnostic imaging , Fatigue/drug therapy , Fatigue/virology , Female , Fever/diagnostic imaging , Fever/drug therapy , Fever/virology , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Male , Meningoencephalitis/diagnostic imaging , Meningoencephalitis/drug therapy , Meningoencephalitis/virology , Middle Aged , Neuroimaging , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
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