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1.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(1): e2143955, 2022 01 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1632975

ABSTRACT

Importance: Adverse events (AEs) after placebo treatment are common in randomized clinical drug trials. Systematic evidence regarding these nocebo responses in vaccine trials is important for COVID-19 vaccination worldwide especially because concern about AEs is reported to be a reason for vaccination hesitancy. Objective: To compare the frequencies of AEs reported in the placebo groups of COVID-19 vaccine trials with those reported in the vaccine groups. Data Sources: For this systematic review and meta-analysis, the Medline (PubMed) and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) databases were searched systematically using medical subheading terms and free-text keywords for trials of COVID-19 vaccines published up to July 14, 2021. Study Selection: Randomized clinical trials of COVID-19 vaccines that investigated adults aged 16 years or older were selected if they assessed solicited AEs within 7 days of injection, included an inert placebo arm, and provided AE reports for both the vaccine and placebo groups separately. Full texts were reviewed for eligibility by 2 independent reviewers. Data Extraction and Synthesis: Data extraction and quality assessment were performed independently by 2 reviewers, adhering to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guideline and using the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool. Meta-analyses were based on random-effects models. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcomes were the proportions of placebo recipients reporting overall, systemic, and local (injection-site) AEs as well as logarithmic odds ratios (ORs) to evaluate group differences. Outcomes were tested for significance using z tests with 95% CIs. Results: Twelve articles with AE reports for 45 380 participants (22 578 placebo recipients and 22 802 vaccine recipients) were analyzed. After the first dose, 35.2% (95% CI, 26.7%-43.7%) of placebo recipients experienced systemic AEs, with headache (19.3%; 95% CI, 13.6%-25.1%) and fatigue (16.7%; 95% CI, 9.8%-23.6%) being most common. After the second dose, 31.8% (95% CI, 28.7%-35.0%) of placebo recipients reported systemic AEs. The ratio between placebo and vaccine arms showed that nocebo responses accounted for 76.0% of systemic AEs after the first COVID-19 vaccine dose and for 51.8% after the second dose. Significantly more vaccine recipients reported AEs, but the group difference for systemic AEs was small after the first dose (OR, -0.47; 95% CI, -0.54 to -0.40; P < .001; standardized mean difference, -0.26; 95% CI, -0.30 to -0.22) and large after the second dose (OR, -1.36; 95% CI, -1.86 to -0.86; P < .001; standardized mean difference, -0.75; 95% CI, -1.03 to -0.47). Conclusions and Relevance: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, significantly more AEs were reported in vaccine groups compared with placebo groups, but the rates of reported AEs in the placebo arms were still substantial. Public vaccination programs should consider these high rates of AEs in placebo arms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Placebos/adverse effects , Arm Injuries/etiology , Fatigue/etiology , Headache/etiology , Humans , Injections, Intramuscular/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Front Public Health ; 9: 774553, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581111

ABSTRACT

The workload in the Infection Disease Nursing Unit (IDNU) is increasing dramatically due to COVID-19, and leads to the prevalence of fatigue among the frontline nurses, threatening their health, and safety. The built environment and design could fundamentally affect the fatigue of nurses for a long-term perspective. This article aims to extract the environmental factors of IDNU and explore nurses' perceptions of these factors on the work-related fatigue. It would produce evidences for mitigating the fatigue by environmental interferons. A cross-sectional design was employed by combination of focus group interview and written survey. Environmental factors of IDNU were collected from healthcare design experts (n = 8). Nurses (n = 64) with frontline COVID-19 experiences in IDNU were recruited to assess these factors individually. Four environmental factors were identified as: Nursing Distance (ND), Spatial Crowdness (SC), Natural Ventilation, and Light (NVL), and Spatial Privacy (SP). Among them, ND was considered as the most influential factor on the physical fatigue, while SP was on the psychological fatigue. Generally, these environmental factors were found to be more influential on the physical fatigue than the psychological fatigue. Technical titles were found to be associated with the nurses' perceptions of fatigue by these environmental factors. Nurse assistant and practical nurse were more likely to suffer from the physical fatigue by these factors than senior nurse. The result indicated that environmental factors of IDNU were associated with the nurses' fatigue, particularly on the physical aspect. Environmental interventions of design could be adopted to alleviate the fatigue by these factors such as reducing the ND and improving the spatial privacy. The accurate interventional measures should be applied to fit nurses' conditions due to their technical titles. More attention should be given to the low-ranking nurses, who account for the majority and are much vulnerable to the physical fatigue by environmental factors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nursing Staff, Hospital , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fatigue/epidemiology , Fatigue/etiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
5.
J Med Virol ; 93(12): 6588-6594, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1562422

ABSTRACT

This study is aimed to identify the adverse effects associated with three types of coronavirus disease 2019 vaccines. Approximately 1736 individuals agreed to participate in this study. The participants involved in the study were individuals who had received the first dose or full course (two doses) of the vaccine at least 30 days before the survey. A direct and interactive web-based system interview with a paper and electronic version of the questionnaire was used for all participants. A total of 1736 randomized individuals were identified. The reactogenicity of the vaccines including pain, redness, urticaria, and swelling at the site of the injection was reported in 34.56% of the participants. Local site reaction was reported in more individuals who had Pfizer and AstraZeneca vaccines than those who received the Sinopharm vaccine. The systemic events were more common with AstraZeneca and Pfizer vaccines, symptoms reported were fatigue, body pain, headache, muscle pain, fever, and gastrointestinal side effects. There were no correlations between age or gender, and the duration of the adverse effects for the three vaccines. Swelling and severe allergic reaction of the eyelids, severe hypotension, generalized body aches, shortness of breath, weakness and numbness on the injected arm, acute hyperglycemia, severe chest pain, and fever more than 39°C were among the unusual signs and symptoms reported by the participants. Pfizer, AstraZeneca, and Sinopharm vaccines were found to be safe and Sinopharm vaccine showed a lower prevalence of adverse effects compared with the other vaccines. The duration and severity of adverse effects were not affected by age or gender. Unusual side effects should be closely monitored to establish determine they are linked to the immunization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Fatigue/etiology , Female , Headache/etiology , Humans , Injection Site Reaction/etiology , Male , Middle Aged , Myalgia/etiology , Pain/etiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
6.
Drug Discov Ther ; 15(5): 278-280, 2021 Nov 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542929

ABSTRACT

To help stop the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, vaccines are currently the most critical tool. However, the COVID-19 mRNA vaccines frequently cause systemic side effects shortly after the injection, such as fever, headache and generalized fatigue. In our survey, after receiving the second dose of the COVID-19 vaccine, 80% developed fever, 62% headache and 69% generalized fatigue. Among people who required antipyretics, the average durations of fever and headache were significantly shorter in those who took non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as aspirin, loxoprofen and ibuprofen, than those who took acetaminophen. In our patch-clamp studies, NSAIDs effectively suppressed the delayed rectifier K+-channel (Kv1.3) currents in T-lymphocytes and thus exerted immunosuppressive effects. Because of this pharmacological property, the use of NSAIDs should be more effective in reducing the vaccine-induced systemic side effects that are caused primarily by the enhanced cellular immunity.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Acetaminophen/therapeutic use , Adolescent , Aspirin/therapeutic use , Fatigue/drug therapy , Fatigue/etiology , Fever/drug therapy , Fever/etiology , Headache/drug therapy , Headache/etiology , Humans , Ibuprofen/therapeutic use , Patch-Clamp Techniques , Phenylpropionates/therapeutic use , Young Adult
7.
Drug Discov Ther ; 15(5): 254-260, 2021 Nov 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542928

ABSTRACT

Post COVID-19 sequelae are a constellation of symptoms often reported after recovering from COVID-19. There is a need to better understand the clinical spectrum and long-term course of this clinical entity. The aim of this study is to describe the clinical features and risk factors of post COVID-19 sequelae in the North Indian population. This prospective observational study was conducted at a tertiary healthcare centre in Northern India between October 2020 and February 2021. Patients aged >18 years with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 were recruited after at least two weeks of diagnosis, and details were captured. A total of 1234 patients were recruited and followed up for a median duration of 91 days (IQR: 45-181 days). Among them, 495 (40.1%) had persistent symptoms post-discharge or recovery. In 223 (18.1%) patients, the symptoms resolved within four weeks; 150 (12.1%) patients had symptoms till 12 weeks, and 122 (9.9%) patients had symptoms beyond 12 weeks of diagnosis/symptom-onset of COVID-19. Most common symptoms included myalgia (10.9%), fatigue (5.5%), shortness of breath (6.1%), cough (2.1%), insomnia (1.4%), mood disturbances (0.48%) and anxiety (0.6%). Patients who were hospitalized were more likely to report fatigue as a feature of long COVID. Hypothyroidism (OR: 4.13, 95% CI: 2.2-7.6, p-value < 0.001) and hypoxia (SpO2 ≤ 93%) (OR: 1.7, 95% CI: 1.1-2.4, p-value 0.012) were identified as risk factors for long COVID sequelae. In conclusion, long COVID symptoms were common (22%), and 9.9% had the post COVID-19 syndrome. Myalgias, fatigue and dyspnoea were common symptoms. Patients with hypothyroidism and hypoxia during acute illness were at higher risk of long COVID.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/pathology , Cough/epidemiology , Cough/etiology , Dyspnea/epidemiology , Dyspnea/etiology , Fatigue/epidemiology , Fatigue/etiology , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Myalgia/epidemiology , Myalgia/etiology , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/etiology , Young Adult
8.
J Med Virol ; 93(12): 6566-6574, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1530179

ABSTRACT

Post recovery manifestations have become another concern in patients who have recovered from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Numerous reports have shown that COVID-19 has a variety of long-term effects on almost all systems including respiratory, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, neurological, psychiatric, and dermatological systems. We aimed to investigate the prevalence and characteristics of the post-COVID syndrome among COVID-19 survivors and to determine the factors associated with persistent symptoms. This prospective study enrolled in patients with COVID-19 followed in hospital or outpatient clinics in Ankara City Hospital. We performed a special questionnaire to inquire about the presence of persistent symptoms beyond 12 weeks from the first diagnosis. Demographic data, comorbid diseases, characteristics of acute COVID-19, presence of persistent symptoms by systems, and knowledge about outpatient clinic visits after recovery were assessed. Of a total of 1007 participants, 39.0% had at least one comorbidity, and 47.5% had persistent symptoms. Fatigue/easy fatigability, myalgia, and loss of weight were the most frequent persistent symptoms (overall 29.3%) followed by respiratory symptoms (25.4%). A total of 235 participants had visited outpatient clinics due to several reasons during the post-COVID-19 period, and 17 of them were hospitalized. Severe acute COVID-19, hospitalization, and presence of comorbidity were independent factors for the development of persistent symptoms. Fully understanding the spectrum of the post-COVID syndrome is essential for appropriate management of all its long-term effects. Our study once again underlined the fact that the prevalence of post-COVID syndrome is higher than expected and concerns many systems, and a multidisciplinary follow-up should be provided to COVID-19 survivors in the post recovery period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/pathology , Fatigue/etiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Myalgia/etiology , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , Weight Loss , Young Adult
9.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(11): e2134803, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1516698

ABSTRACT

Importance: Infection with SARS-CoV-2 is associated with fatigue and sleep problems long after the acute phase of COVID-19. In addition, there are concerns of SARS-CoV-2 infection causing psychiatric illness; however, evidence of a direct effect is inconclusive. Objective: To assess risk of risk of incident or repeat psychiatric illness, fatigue, or sleep problems following SARS-CoV-2 infection and to analyze changes according to demographic subgroups. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study assembled matched cohorts using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink Aurum, a UK primary care registry of 11 923 499 individuals aged 16 years or older. Patients were followed-up for up to 10 months, from February 1 to December 9, 2020. Individuals with less than 2 years of historical data or less than 1 week follow-up were excluded. Individuals with positive results on a SARS-CoV-2 test without prior mental illness or with anxiety or depression, psychosis, fatigue, or sleep problems were matched with up to 4 controls based on sex, general practice, and year of birth. Controls were individuals who had negative SARS-CoV-2 test results. Data were analyzed from January to July 2021. Exposure: SARS-CoV-2 infection, determined via polymerase chain reaction testing. Main Outcomes and Measures: Cox proportional hazard models estimated the association between a positive SARS-CoV-2 test result and subsequent psychiatric morbidity (depression, anxiety, psychosis, or self-harm), sleep problems, fatigue, or psychotropic prescribing. Models adjusted for comorbidities, ethnicity, smoking, and body mass index. Results: Of 11 923 105 eligible individuals (6 011 020 [50.4%] women and 5 912 085 [49.6%] men; median [IQR] age, 44 [30-61] years), 232 780 individuals (2.0%) had positive result on a SARS-CoV-2 test. After applying selection criteria, 86 922 individuals were in the matched cohort without prior mental illness, 19 020 individuals had prior anxiety or depression, 1036 individuals had psychosis, 4152 individuals had fatigue, and 4539 individuals had sleep problems. After adjusting for observed confounders, there was an association between positive SARS-CoV-2 test results and psychiatric morbidity (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.83; 95% CI, 1.66-2.02), fatigue (aHR, 5.98; 95% CI, 5.33-6.71), and sleep problems (aHR, 3.16; 95% CI, 2.64-3.78). However, there was a similar risk of incident psychiatric morbidity for those with a negative SARS-CoV-2 test results (aHR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.65-1.77) and a larger increase associated with influenza (aHR, 2.98; 95% CI, 1.55-5.75). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study of individuals registered at an English primary care practice during the pandemic, there was consistent evidence that SARS-CoV-2 infection was associated with increased risk of fatigue and sleep problems. However, the results from the negative control analysis suggest that unobserved confounding may be responsible for at least some of the positive association between COVID-19 and psychiatric morbidity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Fatigue/etiology , Pandemics , Psychological Distress , Psychotropic Drugs/therapeutic use , Sleep Wake Disorders/etiology , Sleep , Adult , Anxiety/drug therapy , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/etiology , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/virology , Cohort Studies , Depression/drug therapy , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/etiology , England/epidemiology , Fatigue/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Primary Health Care , Psychotic Disorders/drug therapy , Psychotic Disorders/epidemiology , Psychotic Disorders/etiology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep Wake Disorders/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/etiology
10.
J Nurs Adm ; 51(11): 543-545, 2021 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504076

ABSTRACT

Sufficient sleep is vital to the health and safety of healthcare workers and patients alike. Despite this, formal sleep promotion programs rarely exist within healthcare. Guidance does exist for how to incorporate strategies within healthcare organizations. Nurse leaders can spearhead efforts by promoting healthy sleep and instituting change through scheduling practices, unit policies, and supporting staff when barriers to healthy sleep develop.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Health Personnel/psychology , Nursing Staff, Hospital/psychology , Organizational Innovation , Sleep/physiology , Fatigue/etiology , Humans , Leadership , Organizational Culture
11.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21464, 2021 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1500513

ABSTRACT

The Sputnik V is a COVID- 19 vaccine developed by the Gamalia institute of epidemiology and microbiology and released on August 11, 2020. We provided independent evidence on side effects and immunogenicity following the administration of the Sputnik V COVID-19 in Iran. In this observational study, the healthcare workers who were vaccinated with the Sputnik V COVID-19 vaccine within February and April 2021 were evaluated. Among a total of 13,435 vaccinated healthcare workers, we received 3236 self-declaration reports of Sputnik V associated adverse events with the mean age 39.32 ± 10.19 years old which 38.8% were men and 61.2% were women. Totally 68.8% of females versus 66.2% of males reported side effects after receiving the first dose and 31.2% of females versus 33.8% of males reported side effects after the second dose of vaccine. The most common side effect was a pain in the injection site (56.9%), fatigue (50.9%), body pain (43.9%), headache (35.7%), fever (32.9%), joint pain (30.3%), chilling (29.8%) and drowsiness (20.3%). Side effects of the vaccine were significantly more frequent in females and younger individuals. Among a total of 238 participants, more than 90% after the first and second dose of vaccine had a detectable level of SARS-CoV-2 RBD antibody and SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibody. Although the overall rate of adverse effects was higher than the interim results from randomized controlled trials, our findings support the manufacturer's reports about the high humoral immunogenicity of vaccine against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunity, Humoral , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Fatigue/etiology , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Iran , Male , Middle Aged , Pain/etiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sex Factors , Young Adult
12.
Nurse Pract ; 46(11): 44-49, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1483542

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Up to 80% of patients have symptoms lasting 4-12 weeks or longer post infection with COVID-19. Persistent symptoms can be diverse and may include myalgia, insomnia, mobility issues, hair loss, loss of smell/taste, shortness of breath, chest pain, fatigue, cognitive impairment, and depression. More evidence will be forthcoming regarding long-term COVID-19 sequelae.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognitive Dysfunction , Fatigue/etiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
13.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(9): e2127403, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1441917

ABSTRACT

Importance: The long-term health outcomes and symptom burden of COVID-19 remain largely unclear. Objective: To evaluate health outcomes of COVID-19 survivors 1 year after hospital discharge and to identify associated risk factors. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective, multicenter cohort study was conducted at 2 designated hospitals, Huoshenshan Hospital and Taikang Tongji Hospital, both in Wuhan, China. All adult patients with COVID-19 discharged between February 12 and April 10, 2020, were screened for eligibility. Of a consecutive sample of 3988 discharged patients, 1555 were excluded (796 declined to participate and 759 were unable to be contacted) and the remaining 2433 patients were enrolled. All patients were interviewed via telephone from March 1 to March 20, 2021. Statistical analysis was performed from March 28 to April 18, 2021. Exposures: COVID-19. Main Outcomes and Measures: All patients participated in telephone interviews using a series of questionnaires for evaluation of symptoms, along with a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) assessment test (CAT). Logistic regression models were used to evaluate risk factors for fatigue, dyspnea, symptom burden, or higher CAT scores. Results: Of 2433 patients at 1-year follow-up, 1205 (49.5%) were men and 680 (27.9%) were categorized into the severe disease group as defined by the World Health Organization guideline; the median (IQR) age was 60.0 (49.0-68.0) years. In total, 1095 patients (45.0%) reported at least 1 symptom. The most common symptoms included fatigue, sweating, chest tightness, anxiety, and myalgia. Older age (odds ratio [OR], 1.02; 95% CI, 1.01-1.02; P < .001), female sex (OR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.06-1.52; P = .008), and severe disease during hospital stay (OR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.18-1.74; P < .001) were associated with higher risks of fatigue. Older age (OR, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.01-1.03; P < .001) and severe disease (OR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.14-1.99; P = .004) were associated with higher risks of having at least 3 symptoms. The median (IQR) CAT score was 2 (0-4), and a total of 161 patients (6.6%) had a CAT score of at least 10. Severe disease (OR, 1.84; 95% CI, 1.31-2.58; P < .001) and coexisting cerebrovascular diseases (OR, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.07-3.54; P = .03) were independent risk factors for CAT scores of at least 10. Conclusions and Relevance: This study found that patients with COVID-19 with severe disease during hospitalization had more postinfection symptoms and higher CAT scores.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hospitals , Patient Discharge , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/etiology , Severity of Illness Index , Survivors , Aged , Anxiety/etiology , China , Cities , Dyspnea/etiology , Fatigue/etiology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Myalgia/etiology , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
14.
PLoS Med ; 18(9): e1003773, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440981

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Long-COVID refers to a variety of symptoms affecting different organs reported by people following Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. To date, there have been no robust estimates of the incidence and co-occurrence of long-COVID features, their relationship to age, sex, or severity of infection, and the extent to which they are specific to COVID-19. The aim of this study is to address these issues. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study based on linked electronic health records (EHRs) data from 81 million patients including 273,618 COVID-19 survivors. The incidence and co-occurrence within 6 months and in the 3 to 6 months after COVID-19 diagnosis were calculated for 9 core features of long-COVID (breathing difficulties/breathlessness, fatigue/malaise, chest/throat pain, headache, abdominal symptoms, myalgia, other pain, cognitive symptoms, and anxiety/depression). Their co-occurrence network was also analyzed. Comparison with a propensity score-matched cohort of patients diagnosed with influenza during the same time period was achieved using Kaplan-Meier analysis and the Cox proportional hazard model. The incidence of atopic dermatitis was used as a negative control. Among COVID-19 survivors (mean [SD] age: 46.3 [19.8], 55.6% female), 57.00% had one or more long-COVID feature recorded during the whole 6-month period (i.e., including the acute phase), and 36.55% between 3 and 6 months. The incidence of each feature was: abnormal breathing (18.71% in the 1- to 180-day period; 7.94% in the 90- to180-day period), fatigue/malaise (12.82%; 5.87%), chest/throat pain (12.60%; 5.71%), headache (8.67%; 4.63%), other pain (11.60%; 7.19%), abdominal symptoms (15.58%; 8.29%), myalgia (3.24%; 1.54%), cognitive symptoms (7.88%; 3.95%), and anxiety/depression (22.82%; 15.49%). All 9 features were more frequently reported after COVID-19 than after influenza (with an overall excess incidence of 16.60% and hazard ratios between 1.44 and 2.04, all p < 0.001), co-occurred more commonly, and formed a more interconnected network. Significant differences in incidence and co-occurrence were associated with sex, age, and illness severity. Besides the limitations inherent to EHR data, limitations of this study include that (i) the findings do not generalize to patients who have had COVID-19 but were not diagnosed, nor to patients who do not seek or receive medical attention when experiencing symptoms of long-COVID; (ii) the findings say nothing about the persistence of the clinical features; and (iii) the difference between cohorts might be affected by one cohort seeking or receiving more medical attention for their symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Long-COVID clinical features occurred and co-occurred frequently and showed some specificity to COVID-19, though they were also observed after influenza. Different long-COVID clinical profiles were observed based on demographics and illness severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Survivors , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Dyspnea/epidemiology , Dyspnea/etiology , Fatigue/epidemiology , Fatigue/etiology , Female , Gastrointestinal Diseases/epidemiology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/etiology , Humans , Incidence , Influenza, Human/complications , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Male , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/etiology , Middle Aged , Pain/epidemiology , Pain/etiology , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
15.
Am J Nurs ; 121(10): 16, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1434515

ABSTRACT

Patients report a wide range of symptoms as researchers work to pinpoint their cause.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , Chest Pain/etiology , Fatigue/etiology , Fever/etiology , Headache/etiology , Humans , Longitudinal Studies
16.
J Microbiol ; 59(10): 941-948, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1432635

ABSTRACT

Several follow-up studies have found that COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) patients had persistent symptoms after discharge. Gut microbiota play an important role in human health and immune responses. Therefore, this study investigated the gut microbiota of recovered COVID-19 patients and the correlations between gut microbiota and persistent symptoms after discharge. Stool samples were collected from 15 recovered healthcare workers (HCWs) with COVID-19 at three months after discharge, in addition, stool samples were collected from 14 healthy controls (HCs) to perform 16S rRNA gene sequencing between May and July 2020. Compared with HCs, recovered HCWs had reduced bacterial diversity at three months after discharge, with a significantly higher relative abundance of opportunistic pathogens, and a significantly lower relative abundance of beneficial bacteria. In addition, Escherichia unclassified was positively correlated with persistent symptoms at three months after discharge, including fatigue (r = 0.567, p = 0.028), chest tightness after activity (r = 0.687, p = 0.005), and myalgia (r = 0.523, p = 0.045). Intestinibacter bartlettii was positively correlated with anorexia (r = 0.629, p = 0.012) and fatigue (r = 0.545, p = 0.036). However, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii was negatively correlated with chest tightness after activity (r = -0.591, p = 0.02), and Intestinimonas butyriciproducens was negatively correlated with cough (r = -0.635, p = 0.011). In conclusion, the gut microbiota of recovered HCWs with COVID-19 at three months after discharge was different from that of HCs, and altered gut microbiota was correlated with persistent symptoms after discharge, highlighting that gut microbiota may play an important role in the recovery of patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/isolation & purification , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/microbiology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Adult , Bacteria/classification , Bacteria/genetics , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , Fatigue/etiology , Fatigue/microbiology , Feces/microbiology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Myalgia/etiology , Myalgia/microbiology , Patient Discharge , Phylogeny , Survivors/statistics & numerical data
17.
J Med Virol ; 93(12): 6588-6594, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1400909

ABSTRACT

This study is aimed to identify the adverse effects associated with three types of coronavirus disease 2019 vaccines. Approximately 1736 individuals agreed to participate in this study. The participants involved in the study were individuals who had received the first dose or full course (two doses) of the vaccine at least 30 days before the survey. A direct and interactive web-based system interview with a paper and electronic version of the questionnaire was used for all participants. A total of 1736 randomized individuals were identified. The reactogenicity of the vaccines including pain, redness, urticaria, and swelling at the site of the injection was reported in 34.56% of the participants. Local site reaction was reported in more individuals who had Pfizer and AstraZeneca vaccines than those who received the Sinopharm vaccine. The systemic events were more common with AstraZeneca and Pfizer vaccines, symptoms reported were fatigue, body pain, headache, muscle pain, fever, and gastrointestinal side effects. There were no correlations between age or gender, and the duration of the adverse effects for the three vaccines. Swelling and severe allergic reaction of the eyelids, severe hypotension, generalized body aches, shortness of breath, weakness and numbness on the injected arm, acute hyperglycemia, severe chest pain, and fever more than 39°C were among the unusual signs and symptoms reported by the participants. Pfizer, AstraZeneca, and Sinopharm vaccines were found to be safe and Sinopharm vaccine showed a lower prevalence of adverse effects compared with the other vaccines. The duration and severity of adverse effects were not affected by age or gender. Unusual side effects should be closely monitored to establish determine they are linked to the immunization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Fatigue/etiology , Female , Headache/etiology , Humans , Injection Site Reaction/etiology , Male , Middle Aged , Myalgia/etiology , Pain/etiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
18.
Lancet ; 398(10302): 747-758, 2021 08 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1376121

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The full range of long-term health consequences of COVID-19 in patients who are discharged from hospital is largely unclear. The aim of our study was to comprehensively compare consequences between 6 months and 12 months after symptom onset among hospital survivors with COVID-19. METHODS: We undertook an ambidirectional cohort study of COVID-19 survivors who had been discharged from Jin Yin-tan Hospital (Wuhan, China) between Jan 7 and May 29, 2020. At 6-month and 12-month follow-up visit, survivors were interviewed with questionnaires on symptoms and health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and received a physical examination, a 6-min walking test, and laboratory tests. They were required to report their health-care use after discharge and work status at the 12-month visit. Survivors who had completed pulmonary function tests or had lung radiographic abnormality at 6 months were given the corresponding tests at 12 months. Non-COVID-19 participants (controls) matched for age, sex, and comorbidities were interviewed and completed questionnaires to assess prevalent symptoms and HRQoL. The primary outcomes were symptoms, modified British Medical Research Council (mMRC) score, HRQoL, and distance walked in 6 min (6MWD). Multivariable adjusted logistic regression models were used to evaluate the risk factors of 12-month outcomes. FINDINGS: 1276 COVID-19 survivors completed both visits. The median age of patients was 59·0 years (IQR 49·0-67·0) and 681 (53%) were men. The median follow-up time was 185·0 days (IQR 175·0-198·0) for the 6-month visit and 349·0 days (337·0-361·0) for the 12-month visit after symptom onset. The proportion of patients with at least one sequelae symptom decreased from 68% (831/1227) at 6 months to 49% (620/1272) at 12 months (p<0·0001). The proportion of patients with dyspnoea, characterised by mMRC score of 1 or more, slightly increased from 26% (313/1185) at 6-month visit to 30% (380/1271) at 12-month visit (p=0·014). Additionally, more patients had anxiety or depression at 12-month visit (26% [331/1271] at 12-month visit vs 23% [274/1187] at 6-month visit; p=0·015). No significant difference on 6MWD was observed between 6 months and 12 months. 88% (422/479) of patients who were employed before COVID-19 had returned to their original work at 12 months. Compared with men, women had an odds ratio of 1·43 (95% CI 1·04-1·96) for fatigue or muscle weakness, 2·00 (1·48-2·69) for anxiety or depression, and 2·97 (1·50-5·88) for diffusion impairment. Matched COVID-19 survivors at 12 months had more problems with mobility, pain or discomfort, and anxiety or depression, and had more prevalent symptoms than did controls. INTERPRETATION: Most COVID-19 survivors had a good physical and functional recovery during 1-year follow-up, and had returned to their original work and life. The health status in our cohort of COVID-19 survivors at 12 months was still lower than that in the control population. FUNDING: Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences Innovation Fund for Medical Sciences, the National Natural Science Foundation of China, the National Key Research and Development Program of China, Major Projects of National Science and Technology on New Drug Creation and Development of Pulmonary Tuberculosis, the China Evergrande Group, Jack Ma Foundation, Sino Biopharmaceutical, Ping An Insurance (Group), and New Sunshine Charity Foundation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Survivors , Aged , Anxiety/etiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/etiology , Exercise Tolerance , Fatigue/etiology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Lung/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Muscle Weakness/etiology , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , Walk Test
19.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0256142, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1374146

ABSTRACT

Long-COVID-19 is a proposed syndrome negatively affecting the health of COVID-19 patients. We present data on self-rated health three to eight months after laboratory confirmed COVID-19 disease compared to a control group of SARS-CoV-2 negative patients. We followed a cohort of 8786 non-hospitalized patients who were invited after SARS-CoV-2 testing between February 1 and April 15, 2020 (794 positive, 7229 negative). Participants answered online surveys at baseline and follow-up including questions on demographics, symptoms, risk factors for SARS-CoV-2, and self-rated health compared to one year ago. Determinants for a worsening of self-rated health as compared to one year ago among the SARS-CoV-2 positive group were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression and also compared to the population norm. The follow-up questionnaire was completed by 85% of the SARS-CoV-2 positive and 75% of the SARS-CoV-2 negative participants on average 132 days after the SARS-CoV-2 test. At follow-up, 36% of the SARS-CoV-2 positive participants rated their health "somewhat" or "much" worse than one year ago. In contrast, 18% of the SARS-CoV-2 negative participants reported a similar deterioration of health while the population norm is 12%. Sore throat and cough were more frequently reported by the control group at follow-up. Neither gender nor follow-up time was associated with the multivariate odds of worsening of self-reported health compared to one year ago. Age had an inverted-U formed association with a worsening of health while being fit and being a health professional were associated with lower multivariate odds. A significant proportion of non-hospitalized COVID-19 patients, regardless of age, have not returned to their usual health three to eight months after infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/virology , Fatigue/etiology , Female , Fever/etiology , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , RNA, Viral/analysis , RNA, Viral/metabolism , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Self Report , Surveys and Questionnaires , Time Factors , Young Adult
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