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1.
BMJ Open ; 12(11): e062463, 2022 11 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2137736

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To develop a vocal biomarker for fatigue monitoring in people with COVID-19. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Predi-COVID data between May 2020 and May 2021. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 1772 voice recordings were used to train an AI-based algorithm to predict fatigue, stratified by gender and smartphone's operating system (Android/iOS). The recordings were collected from 296 participants tracked for 2 weeks following SARS-CoV-2 infection. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Four machine learning algorithms (logistic regression, k-nearest neighbours, support vector machine and soft voting classifier) were used to train and derive the fatigue vocal biomarker. The models were evaluated based on the following metrics: area under the curve (AUC), accuracy, F1-score, precision and recall. The Brier score was also used to evaluate the models' calibrations. RESULTS: The final study population included 56% of women and had a mean (±SD) age of 40 (±13) years. Women were more likely to report fatigue (p<0.001). We developed four models for Android female, Android male, iOS female and iOS male users with a weighted AUC of 86%, 82%, 79%, 85% and a mean Brier Score of 0.15, 0.12, 0.17, 0.12, respectively. The vocal biomarker derived from the prediction models successfully discriminated COVID-19 participants with and without fatigue. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates the feasibility of identifying and remotely monitoring fatigue thanks to voice. Vocal biomarkers, digitally integrated into telemedicine technologies, are expected to improve the monitoring of people with COVID-19 or Long-COVID. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04380987.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Female , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , Prospective Studies , Cohort Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Biomarkers , Fatigue/diagnosis , Fatigue/etiology
2.
Am Fam Physician ; 106(5): 523-532, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2112176

ABSTRACT

Postacute sequelae of COVID-19, also known as long COVID, affects approximately 10% to 30% of the hundreds of millions of people who have had acute COVID-19. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention defines long COVID as the presence of new, returning, or ongoing symptoms associated with acute COVID-19 that persist beyond 28 days. The diagnosis of long COVID can be based on a previous clinical diagnosis of COVID-19 and does not require a prior positive polymerase chain reaction or antigen test result to confirm infection. Patients with long COVID report a broad range of symptoms, including abdominal pain, anosmia, chest pain, cognitive impairment (brain fog), dizziness, dyspnea, fatigue, headache, insomnia, mood changes, palpitations, paresthesias, and postexertional malaise. The presentation is variable, and symptoms can fluctuate or persist and relapse and remit. The diagnostic approach is to differentiate long COVID from acute sequelae of COVID-19, previous comorbidities, unmasking of preexisting health conditions, reinfections, new acute concerns, and complications of prolonged illness, hospitalization, or isolation. Many presenting symptoms of long COVID are commonly seen in a primary care practice, and management can be improved by using established treatment paradigms and supportive care. Although several medications have been suggested for the treatment of fatigue related to long COVID, the evidence for their use is currently lacking. Holistic treatment strategies for long COVID include discussion of pacing and energy conservation; individualized, symptom-guided, phased return to activity programs; maintaining adequate hydration and a healthy diet; and treatment of underlying medical conditions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , United States , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Headache/etiology , Chest Pain , Fatigue/etiology
3.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 19575, 2022 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119180

ABSTRACT

Patients with Post-COVID syndrome (PCS) are frequently referred for cardiologic evaluation. We assessed cardiac function and biomarkers in relation to functional status and fatigue in patients with PCS. This prospective single-center cohort study included 227 patients with persisting symptoms after COVID-19 infection. Most frequent complaints were fatigue (70%), dyspnea (56%), neurocognitive symptoms (34%) and chest pain (28%). Standardized questionnaires were used to assess Post-COVID-Functional-Scale (PCFS) and fatigue (MFI-20). The fatigue severity was inversely related to age and did not correlate with cardiovascular diseases, echocardiographic findings, or biomarkers. Similarly, mild to moderate functional impairment (PCFS 1-3) did not correlate with cardiovascular alterations. However, the subgroup of patients with significant functional impairment (PCFS = 4) had more frequent cardiovascular comorbidities, biomarkers and impaired global longitudinal strain (GLS). Patients with elevated troponin T showed abnormal GLS, reduced left ventricular ejection fraction and impaired tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion. The majority of patients with PCS shows a normal cardiac function. Only the small subgroup of patients with severe functional impairment and patients with elevated troponin T is at risk for impaired cardiac function and likely to benefit from specialized care by a cardiologist.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ventricular Function, Left , Humans , Stroke Volume , Prospective Studies , Troponin T , Cohort Studies , Functional Status , COVID-19/complications , Biomarkers , Fatigue/etiology
4.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(11): e2242106, 2022 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2118421

ABSTRACT

Importance: Identification of long-term post-COVID-19 symptoms among hospitalized and nonhospitalized patients is needed. Objective: To compare the presence of post-COVID-19 symptoms 2 years after acute SARS-CoV-2 infection between hospitalized and nonhospitalized patients. Design, Setting, and Participants: A cross-sectional cohort study was conducted at 2 urban hospitals and general practitioner centers from March 20 to April 30, 2020, among 360 hospitalized patients and 308 nonhospitalized patients with acute SARS-CoV-2 infection during the first wave of the pandemic. Follow-up was conducted 2 years later. Main Outcomes and Measures: Participants were scheduled for a telephone interview 2 years after acute infection. The presence of post-COVID-19 symptoms was systematically assessed, with particular attention to symptoms starting after infection. Hospitalization and clinical data were collected from medical records. Between-group comparisons and multivariate logistic regressions were conducted. Results: A total of 360 hospitalized patients (162 women [45.0%]; mean [SD] age, 60.7 [16.1] years) and 308 nonhospitalized patients (183 women [59.4%]; mean [SD] age, 56.7 [14.7] years) were included. Dyspnea was more prevalent at the onset of illness among hospitalized than among nonhospitalized patients (112 [31.1%] vs 36 [11.7%]; P < .001), whereas anosmia was more prevalent among nonhospitalized than among hospitalized patients (66 [21.4%] vs 36 [10.0%]; P = .003). Hospitalized patients were assessed at a mean (SD) of 23.8 (0.6) months after hospital discharge, and nonhospitalized patients were assessed at a mean (SD) of 23.4 (0.7) months after the onset of symptoms. The number of patients who exhibited at least 1 post-COVID-19 symptom 2 years after infection was 215 (59.7%) among hospitalized patients and 208 (67.5%) among nonhospitalized patients (P = .01). Among hospitalized and nonhospitalized patients, fatigue (161 [44.7%] vs 147 [47.7%]), pain (129 [35.8%] vs 92 [29.9%]), and memory loss (72 [20.0%] vs 49 [15.9%]) were the most prevalent post-COVID-19 symptoms 2 years after SARS-CoV-2 infection. No significant differences in post-COVID-19 symptoms were observed between hospitalized and nonhospitalized patients. The number of preexisting medical comorbidities was associated with post-COVID-19 fatigue (odds ratio [OR], 1.93; 95% CI, 1.09-3.42; P = .02) and dyspnea (OR, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.04-3.48; P = .03) among hospitalized patients. The number of preexisting medical comorbidities (OR, 3.75; 95% CI, 1.67-8.42; P = .001) and the number of symptoms at the onset of illness (OR, 3.84; 95% CI, 1.33-11.05; P = .01) were associated with post-COVID-19 fatigue among nonhospitalized patients. Conclusions and Relevance: This cross-sectional study suggested the presence of at least 1 post-COVID-19 symptom in 59.7% of hospitalized patients and 67.5% of nonhospitalized patients 2 years after infection. Small differences in symptoms at onset of COVID-19 were identified between hospitalized and nonhospitalized patients. Post-COVID-19 symptoms were similar between hospitalized and nonhospitalized patients; however, lack of inclusion of uninfected controls limits the ability to assess the association of SARS-CoV-2 infection with overall and specific post-COVID-19 symptoms 2 years after acute infection. Future studies should include uninfected control populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Female , Middle Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Hospitalization , Fatigue/epidemiology , Fatigue/etiology , Dyspnea/epidemiology , Dyspnea/etiology
5.
Prim Health Care Res Dev ; 23: e69, 2022 Nov 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2116696

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It is unclear, whether the initial disease severity may help to predict which COVID-19 patients at risk of developing persistent symptoms. AIM: The aim of this study was to examine whether the initial disease severity affects the risk of persistent symptoms in post-acute COVID-19 syndrome and long COVID. METHODS: A systematic search was conducted using PUBMED, Google Scholar, EMBASE, and ProQuest databases to identify eligible articles published after January 2020 up to and including 30 August 2021. Pooled odds ratio (OR) and confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using random effects meta-analysis. FINDINGS: After searching a total of 7733 articles, 20 relevant observational studies with a total of 7840 patients were selected for meta-analysis. The pooled OR for persistent dyspnea in COVID-19 survivors with a severe versus nonsevere initial disease was 2.17 [95%CI 1.62 to 2.90], and it was 1.33 [95%CI 0.75 to 2.33] for persistent cough, 1.30 [95%CI 1.06 to 1.58] for persistent fatigue, 1.02 [95%CI 0.73 to 1.40] for persistent anosmia, 1.22 [95%CI 0.69 to 2.16] for persistent chest pain, and 1.30 [95%CI 0.93 to 1.81] for persistent palpitation. CONCLUSIONS: Contrary to expectations, we did not observe an association between the initial COVID-19 disease severity and common persistent symptoms except for dyspnea and fatigue. In addition, it was found that being in the acute or prolonged post-COVID phase did not affect the risk of symptoms. Primary care providers should be alert to potential most prevalent persistent symptoms in all COVID-19 survivors, which are not limited to patients with critical-severe initial disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Dyspnea/diagnosis , Dyspnea/etiology , Fatigue/diagnosis , Fatigue/etiology , Severity of Illness Index
6.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 39 Suppl 130(3): 72-77, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2101115

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Fibromyalgia syndrome (FM) is a complex disease that is mainly characterised by chronic widespread pain, fatigue and sleep disturbances and may be precipitated or worsened by many stressors. The aim of this study was to observe the behaviour of FM symptoms during the course of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: Patients who had been diagnosed as having FM for ≥3 months were recruited between February and May 2020. The collected data were age, sex, educational level and marital status; height and weight; and the scores of the revised Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQR), the modified Fibromyalgia Assessment Status 2019 (FASmod), and the Polysymptomatic Distress Scale (PDS). The patients were divided into those with or without concomitant COVID-19 infection. RESULTS: Eight hundred and ninety-seven (93%) of the 965 patients (881 women [91.3%] and 84 men [8.7%]) were followed up on an outpatient basis because of FM and 68 (7.0%) were either followed up as out-patients or hospitalised because of COVID-19. There was no difference in the sociodemographic data of the two groups, but there were statistically significant between-group differences in the results of the clinimetric tests. The major differences between the score of the items (those with the greatest disease impact) were the following related symptoms: sleep quality (FIQR15), fatigue/energy (FIQR13), pain (FIQR12), stiffness (FIQR14). CONCLUSIONS: The mean total and subdomain scores of all the tests were significantly higher in the patients with COVID-19, which suggests that global FM symptoms are more severe in patients with infection. Further studies of the post-COVID19 patients are being carried out in order to discover whether the worsened symptomatology continues because of their hypersensitised state.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Fibromyalgia , Fatigue/epidemiology , Fatigue/etiology , Female , Fibromyalgia/diagnosis , Fibromyalgia/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Surveys and Questionnaires
7.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev ; 23(10): 3265-3271, 2022 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100938

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aims to measure the occupational fatigue level and describe the sources and consequences of occupational fatigue among middle and higher management at an international specialized cancer center during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A mixed-method design was used in this study. A convenience sampling technique was utilized to select the participants from King Hussein Cancer Center, Amman, Jordan. The data was collected through a self-administered questionnaire. This questionnaire included both quantitative and qualitative sections. We utilized Fatigue Risk Assessment and Management in High-Risk Environments (FRAME)-26 items scale for the quantitative section. Two main questions were included in the survey to identify the sources and consequences of occupational fatigue. RESULTS: The results show that the average mean of occupational fatigue was 2.95/5 (SD=0.70). The level of changes in fatigue levels after the COVID-19 pandemic increased by 0.87/3 (SD=1.45). The sources of occupational fatigue could be categorized into five themes: workload, work environment, staffing, psychological, and physical sources. There are four themes categorizing occupational fatigue: social, economic, health, and daily activity and lifestyle. CONCLUSION: This study affords valuable insight into the level, source, and consequences of occupational fatigue among middle and higher management at an international specialized cancer hospital in developing countries. The results indicate that the occupational fatigue level was moderate, and the fatigue level was negatively impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Fatigue/epidemiology , Fatigue/etiology , Workplace , Workload/psychology , Neoplasms/epidemiology
8.
Endocr J ; 69(10): 1173-1181, 2022 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098816

ABSTRACT

Symptoms of long COVID are complex and long-lasting, and endocrine dysfunction might be involved in the underlying mechanisms. In this study, to clarify the hormonal characteristics of long COVID patients, laboratory data for patients who visited the outpatient clinic for long COVID were evaluated. A retrospective analysis was performed for patients who visited Okayama University Hospital during the period from Feb 2021 to Dec 2021 with focus on the interrelationships between major symptoms and endocrine data. Information and laboratory data were obtained from medical records for 186 patients. The patients had various symptoms, and the most frequent symptoms were general malaise, dysosmia/dysgeusia, hair loss, headache, dyspnea, and sleeplessness. Patients who were suffering from fatigue and dysosmia/dysgeusia were younger, while hair loss was more frequent in older and female patients. As for the characteristics of patients suffering from general fatigue, the scores of depression and fatigue were positively correlated with serum levels of cortisol and free thyroxin (FT4), respectively. Also, patients suffering from general fatigue had lower levels of serum growth hormone and higher levels of serum FT4, while patients with dysosmia/dysgeusia had a significantly lower level of serum cortisol. Serum thyrotropin (TSH) levels were higher and the ratios of FT4/TSH were lower in the initially severe cases, suggesting occult hypothyroidism. In addition, the ratios of plasma adrenocorticotropin to serum cortisol were decreased in patients with relatively high titers of serum SARS-CoV-2 antibody. Thus, hormonal changes seem to be, at least in part, involved in the persistent symptoms of long COVID.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , Humans , Female , Aged , Thyrotropin , Hydrocortisone , Retrospective Studies , Dysgeusia , SARS-CoV-2 , Alopecia , Fatigue/epidemiology , Fatigue/etiology , Thyroxine
9.
BMJ Open ; 12(11): e062332, 2022 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2097988

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to evaluate recovery of participation in post-COVID-19 patients during the first year after intensive care unit (ICU) discharge. The secondary aim was to identify the early determinants associated with recovery of participation. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: COVID-19 post-ICU inpatient rehabilitation in the Netherlands, during the first epidemic wave between April and July 2020, with 1-year follow-up. PARTICIPANTS: COVID-19 ICU survivors ≥18 years of age needing inpatient rehabilitation. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Participation in society was assessed by the 'Utrecht Scale for Evaluation of Rehabilitation-Participation' (USER-P) restrictions scale. Secondary measures of body function impairments (muscle force, pulmonary function, fatigue (Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory), breathlessness (Medical Research Council (MRC) breathlessness scale), pain (Numerical Rating Scale)), activity limitations (6-minute walking test, Patient reported outcomes measurement information system (PROMIS) 8b), personal factors (coping (Utrecht Proactive Coping Scale), anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), post-traumatic stress (Global Psychotrauma Screen-Post Traumatic Stress Disorder), cognitive functioning (Checklist for Cognitive Consequences after an ICU-admission)) and social factors were used. STATISTICAL ANALYSES: linear mixed-effects model, with recovery of participation levels as dependent variable. Patient characteristics in domains of body function, activity limitations, personal and social factors were added as independent variables. RESULTS: This study included 67 COVID-19 ICU survivors (mean age 62 years, 78% male). Mean USER-P restrictions scores increased over time; mean participation levels increasing from 62.0, 76.5 to 86.1 at 1, 3 and 12 months, respectively. After 1 year, 50% had not fully resumed work and restrictions were reported in physical exercise (51%), household duties (46%) and leisure activities (29%). Self-reported complaints of breathlessness and fatigue, more perceived limitations in daily life, as well as personal factors (less proactive coping style and anxiety/depression complaints) were associated with delayed recovery of participation (all p value <0.05). CONCLUSIONS: This study supports the view that an integral vision of health is important when looking at the long-term consequence of post-ICU COVID-19. Personal factors such as having a less proactive coping style or mental impairments early on contribute to delayed recovery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Female , Prospective Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , Critical Care , Intensive Care Units , Fatigue/etiology , Dyspnea , Quality of Life
10.
J Neurol Sci ; 443: 120487, 2022 Dec 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2095674

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Limited data exists evaluating predictors of long-term outcomes after hospitalization for COVID-19. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, longitudinal cohort study of patients hospitalized for COVID-19. The following outcomes were collected at 6 and 12-months post-diagnosis: disability using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS), activities of daily living assessed with the Barthel Index, cognition assessed with the telephone Montreal Cognitive Assessment (t-MoCA), Neuro-QoL batteries for anxiety, depression, fatigue and sleep, and post-acute symptoms of COVID-19. Predictors of these outcomes, including demographics, pre-COVID-19 comorbidities, index COVID-19 hospitalization metrics, and life stressors, were evaluated using multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: Of 790 COVID-19 patients who survived hospitalization, 451(57%) completed 6-month (N = 383) and/or 12-month (N = 242) follow-up, and 77/451 (17%) died between discharge and 12-month follow-up. Significant life stressors were reported in 121/239 (51%) at 12-months. In multivariable analyses, life stressors including financial insecurity, food insecurity, death of a close contact and new disability were the strongest independent predictors of worse mRS, Barthel Index, depression, fatigue, and sleep scores, and prolonged symptoms, with adjusted odds ratios ranging from 2.5 to 20.8. Other predictors of poor outcome included older age (associated with worse mRS, Barthel, t-MoCA, depression scores), baseline disability (associated with worse mRS, fatigue, Barthel scores), female sex (associated with worse Barthel, anxiety scores) and index COVID-19 severity (associated with worse Barthel index, prolonged symptoms). CONCLUSIONS: Life stressors contribute substantially to worse functional, cognitive and neuropsychiatric outcomes 12-months after COVID-19 hospitalization. Other predictors of poor outcome include older age, female sex, baseline disability and severity of index COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Female , Activities of Daily Living , Prospective Studies , Quality of Life/psychology , Longitudinal Studies , Hospitalization , Fatigue/epidemiology , Fatigue/etiology
11.
BMC Pediatr ; 22(1): 613, 2022 10 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089174

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Several individual studies from specific countries have reported rising numbers of pediatric COVID-19 cases with inconsistent reports on the clinical symptoms including respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms as well as diverse reports on the mean age and household exposure in children. The epidemiological characteristics of COVID-19 in children are not fully understood, hence, comprehensive meta-analyses are needed to provide a better understanding of these characteristics. METHODS: This review was conducted in Medline, Scopus, Cochrane library, Embase, Web of Science, and published reports on COVID-19 in children. Data were extracted by two independent researchers and a third researcher resolved disputes. STATA software and the random-effect model were used in the synthesis of our data. For each model, the heterogeneity between studies was estimated using the Q Cochrane test. Heterogeneity and publication bias were calculated using the I2 statistic and Egger's/Begg's tests. RESULTS: The qualitative systematic review was performed on 32 articles. Furthermore, the meta-analysis estimated an overall rate of involvement at 12% (95% CI: 9-15%) among children, with an I2 of 98.36%. The proportion of household exposure was calculated to be 50.99% (95% CI: 20.80%-80.80%) and the proportion of admitted cases was calculated to be 45% (95% CI: 24%-67%). Additionally, the prevalence of cough, fatigue, fever and dyspnea was calculated to be 25% (95% CI: 0.16-0.36), 9% (95% CI: 0.03-0.18), 33% (95% CI: 0.21-0.47) and 9% (95% CI: 0.04-0.15), respectively. It is estimated that 4% (95% CI: 1-8%) of cases required intensive care unit admission. CONCLUSIONS: The pediatric clinical picture of COVID-19 is not simply a classic respiratory infection, but unusual presentations have been reported. Given the high incidence of household transmission and atypical clinical presentation in children, we strongly recommend their inclusion in research and population-based preventive measures like vaccination as well as clinical trials to ensure efficacy, safety, and tolerability in this age group.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Child , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Fever/complications , Cough/epidemiology , Cough/etiology , Fatigue/etiology
12.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(21)2022 Oct 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2081959

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The actual frequency and the risk factors of SARS-CoV-2 reinfection is still a matter of intense scientific discussion. In this case series, we report three elite athletes who underwent COVID-19 reinfection with a short time frame. CASE PRESENTATIONS: As a part of contact tracing, three speed skaters (22-, 24-, and 29-year-old males) were found to be SARS-CoV-2 positive by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests. Later on, only one of the athletes experienced mild symptoms, such as fatigue, loss of smell and taste and subfebrility, while the other two athletes were asymptomatic. Following the quarantine period, detailed return-to-play examinations, including laboratory testing, ECG, 24-h Holter monitoring, transthoracic echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, revealed no apparent abnormality; therefore, the athletes restarted training. After a median of 74 days, all three athletes presented with typical symptoms of COVID-19, such as fever, marked fatigue and headache. SARS-CoV-2 PCR tests were performed again, showing recurrent positivity. Repeated return-to-play assessments were initiated, finding no relevant abnormality. Athletes were also tested for SARS-CoV-2 anti-nucleoprotein antibody titers, showing only modest increases following the second infection. CONCLUSIONS: We report a small cluster of elite athletes who underwent a PCR-proven SARS-CoV-2 reinfection. According to these findings, athletes may be considered as a high-risk group in terms of recurrent COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Male , Humans , Reinfection/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Athletes , Fatigue/etiology
13.
BMJ Open ; 12(7): e062439, 2022 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2078988

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: A substantial proportion of individuals infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), report persisting symptoms weeks and months following acute infection. Estimates on prevalence vary due to differences in study designs, populations, heterogeneity of symptoms and the way symptoms are measured. Common symptoms include fatigue, cognitive impairment and dyspnoea. However, knowledge regarding the nature and risk factors for developing persisting symptoms is still limited. Hence, in this study, we aim to determine the prevalence, severity, risk factors and impact on quality of life of persisting symptoms in the first year following acute SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The LongCOVID-study is both a prospective and retrospective cohort study being conducted in the Netherlands, with a one year follow-up. Participants aged 5 years and above, with self-reported positive or negative tests for SARS-CoV-2 will be included in the study. The primary outcome is the prevalence and severity of persistent symptoms in participants that tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 compared with controls. Symptom severity will be assessed for fatigue (Checklist Individual Strength (CIS subscale fatigue severity)), pain (Rand-36/SF-36 subscale bodily pain), dyspnoea (Medical Research Council (mMRC)) and cognitive impairment (Cognitive Failure Questionnaire (CFQ)). Secondary outcomes include effect of vaccination prior to infection on persistent symptoms, loss of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and risk factors for persisting symptoms following infection with SARS-CoV-2. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The Utrecht Medical Ethics Committee (METC) declared in February 2021 that the Medical Research Involving Human Subjects Act (WMO) does not apply to this study (METC protocol number 21-124/C). Informed consent is required prior to participation in the study. Results of this study will be submitted for publication in a peer-reviewed journal.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Dyspnea/epidemiology , Dyspnea/etiology , Fatigue/epidemiology , Fatigue/etiology , Humans , Observational Studies as Topic , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Quality of Life , Retrospective Studies
14.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(20)2022 Oct 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071468

ABSTRACT

Post-COVID syndrome (PCS) is a medical condition characterized by the persistence of a wide range of symptoms after acute infection by SARS-CoV-2. The work capacity consequences of this disorder have scarcely been studied. We aimed to analyze the factors associated with occupational status in patients with PCS. This cross-sectional study involved 77 patients with PCS on active work before SARS-CoV-2 infection. Patients were evaluated 20.71 ± 6.50 months after clinical onset. We conducted a survey on occupational activity and cognitive and clinical symptoms. The association between occupational activity and fatigue, depression, anxiety, sleep quality, and cognitive testing was analyzed. Thirty-eight (49.4%) patients were working, and thirty-nine (50.6%) patients were not. Of those not working at the moment of the assessment, 36 (92.3%) patients were on sick leave. In 63 patients (81.8% of the sample), sick leave was needed at some point due to PCS. The mean duration of sick leave was 12.07 ± 8.07 months. According to the patient's perspective, the most disabling symptoms were cognitive complaints (46.8%) and fatigue (31.2%). Not working at the moment of the assessment was associated with higher levels of fatigue and lower cognitive performance in the Stroop test. No association was found between occupational status with depression and anxiety questionnaires. Our study found an influence of PCS on work capacity. Fatigue and cognitive issues were the most frequent symptoms associated with loss of work capacity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognitive Dysfunction , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19/complications , Fatigue/epidemiology , Fatigue/etiology , Fatigue/psychology , Employment , Cognitive Dysfunction/epidemiology , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology
15.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(10)2022 Oct 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066252

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: Changes in post COVID-19 condition (PCC) characteristics caused by viral variants have yet to be clarified. We aimed to characterize the differences between clinical backgrounds and manifestations in long COVID patients who were infected with the Delta variant and those who were infected with the Omicron variants. Materials and Methods: This study was a single-center retrospective observational study for patients who visited our COVID-19 aftercare outpatient clinic (CAC) established in Okayama University Hospital (Japan) during the period from 15 February 2021 to 15 July 2022. We classified the onset of COVID-19 in the patients into three groups, the preceding, Delta-dominant, and Omicron-dominant periods, based on the prevalent periods of the variants in our prefecture. Results: In a total of 353 patients, after excluding 8 patients, 110, 130, and 113 patients were classified into the preceding, Delta-dominant, and Omicron-dominant periods, respectively. Patients infected in the Omicron-dominant period had significantly fewer hospitalizations, milder illnesses, more vaccinations and earlier visit to the CAC than did patients infected in the Delta-dominant period. Patients infected in the Omicron-dominant period had significantly lower frequencies of dysosmia (12% vs. 45%, ** p < 0.01), dysgeusia (14% vs. 40%, ** p < 0.01) and hair loss (7% vs. 28%, ** p < 0.01) but had higher frequencies of fatigue (65% vs. 50%, * p < 0.05), insomnia (26% vs. 13%, * p < 0.05) and cough (20% vs. 7%, ** p < 0.01) than did patients infected in the Delta-dominant period. Conclusions: The transitional changes in long COVID symptoms caused by the two variants were characterized.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/complications , Japan/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Fatigue/epidemiology , Fatigue/etiology
16.
BMJ ; 379: e071050, 2022 10 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2064089

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To describe symptoms and symptom clusters of post-covid syndrome six to 12 months after acute infection, describe risk factors, and examine the association of symptom clusters with general health and working capacity. DESIGN: Population based, cross sectional study SETTING: Adults aged 18-65 years with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection between October 2020 and March 2021 notified to health authorities in four geographically defined regions in southern Germany. PARTICIPANTS: 50 457 patients were invited to participate in the study, of whom 12 053 (24%) responded and 11 710 (58.8% (n=6881) female; mean age 44.1 years; 3.6% (412/11 602) previously admitted with covid-19; mean follow-up time 8.5 months) could be included in the analyses. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Symptom frequencies (six to 12 months after versus before acute infection), symptom severity and clustering, risk factors, and associations with general health recovery and working capacity. RESULTS: The symptom clusters fatigue (37.2% (4213/11 312), 95% confidence interval 36.4% to 38.1%) and neurocognitive impairment (31.3% (3561/11 361), 30.5% to 32.2%) contributed most to reduced health recovery and working capacity, but chest symptoms, anxiety/depression, headache/dizziness, and pain syndromes were also prevalent and relevant for working capacity, with some differences according to sex and age. Considering new symptoms with at least moderate impairment of daily life and ≤80% recovered general health or working capacity, the overall estimate for post-covid syndrome was 28.5% (3289/11 536, 27.7% to 29.3%) among participants or at least 6.5% (3289/50 457) in the infected adult population (assuming that all non-responders had completely recovered). The true value is likely to be between these estimates. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the limitation of a low response rate and possible selection and recall biases, this study suggests a considerable burden of self-reported post-acute symptom clusters and possible sequelae, notably fatigue and neurocognitive impairment, six to 12 months after acute SARS-CoV-2 infection, even among young and middle aged adults after mild infection, with a substantial impact on general health and working capacity. TRIAL REGISTRATION: German registry of clinical studies DRKS 00027012.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fatigue/etiology , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Syndrome
17.
JAMA ; 328(16): 1604-1615, 2022 10 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2058991

ABSTRACT

Importance: Some individuals experience persistent symptoms after initial symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection (often referred to as Long COVID). Objective: To estimate the proportion of males and females with COVID-19, younger or older than 20 years of age, who had Long COVID symptoms in 2020 and 2021 and their Long COVID symptom duration. Design, Setting, and Participants: Bayesian meta-regression and pooling of 54 studies and 2 medical record databases with data for 1.2 million individuals (from 22 countries) who had symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection. Of the 54 studies, 44 were published and 10 were collaborating cohorts (conducted in Austria, the Faroe Islands, Germany, Iran, Italy, the Netherlands, Russia, Sweden, Switzerland, and the US). The participant data were derived from the 44 published studies (10 501 hospitalized individuals and 42 891 nonhospitalized individuals), the 10 collaborating cohort studies (10 526 and 1906), and the 2 US electronic medical record databases (250 928 and 846 046). Data collection spanned March 2020 to January 2022. Exposures: Symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection. Main Outcomes and Measures: Proportion of individuals with at least 1 of the 3 self-reported Long COVID symptom clusters (persistent fatigue with bodily pain or mood swings; cognitive problems; or ongoing respiratory problems) 3 months after SARS-CoV-2 infection in 2020 and 2021, estimated separately for hospitalized and nonhospitalized individuals aged 20 years or older by sex and for both sexes of nonhospitalized individuals younger than 20 years of age. Results: A total of 1.2 million individuals who had symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection were included (mean age, 4-66 years; males, 26%-88%). In the modeled estimates, 6.2% (95% uncertainty interval [UI], 2.4%-13.3%) of individuals who had symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection experienced at least 1 of the 3 Long COVID symptom clusters in 2020 and 2021, including 3.2% (95% UI, 0.6%-10.0%) for persistent fatigue with bodily pain or mood swings, 3.7% (95% UI, 0.9%-9.6%) for ongoing respiratory problems, and 2.2% (95% UI, 0.3%-7.6%) for cognitive problems after adjusting for health status before COVID-19, comprising an estimated 51.0% (95% UI, 16.9%-92.4%), 60.4% (95% UI, 18.9%-89.1%), and 35.4% (95% UI, 9.4%-75.1%), respectively, of Long COVID cases. The Long COVID symptom clusters were more common in women aged 20 years or older (10.6% [95% UI, 4.3%-22.2%]) 3 months after symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection than in men aged 20 years or older (5.4% [95% UI, 2.2%-11.7%]). Both sexes younger than 20 years of age were estimated to be affected in 2.8% (95% UI, 0.9%-7.0%) of symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infections. The estimated mean Long COVID symptom cluster duration was 9.0 months (95% UI, 7.0-12.0 months) among hospitalized individuals and 4.0 months (95% UI, 3.6-4.6 months) among nonhospitalized individuals. Among individuals with Long COVID symptoms 3 months after symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection, an estimated 15.1% (95% UI, 10.3%-21.1%) continued to experience symptoms at 12 months. Conclusions and Relevance: This study presents modeled estimates of the proportion of individuals with at least 1 of 3 self-reported Long COVID symptom clusters (persistent fatigue with bodily pain or mood swings; cognitive problems; or ongoing respiratory problems) 3 months after symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognition Disorders , Fatigue , Respiratory Insufficiency , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Bayes Theorem , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Fatigue/epidemiology , Fatigue/etiology , Pain/epidemiology , Pain/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Syndrome , Cognition Disorders/epidemiology , Cognition Disorders/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/epidemiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Internationality , Global Health/statistics & numerical data , Mood Disorders/epidemiology , Mood Disorders/etiology
18.
Public Health Nurs ; 39(5): 1132-1133, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2052906
19.
Neurosci Biobehav Rev ; 142: 104902, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2049711

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus 2 is responsible for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), and the main sequela is persistent fatigue. Post-viral fatigue is common and affects patients with mild, asymptomatic coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). However, the exact mechanisms involved in developing post-COVID-19 fatigue remain unclear. Furthermore, physical and cognitive impairments in these individuals have been widely described. Therefore, this review aims to summarize and propose tools from a multifaceted perspective to assess COVID-19 infection. Herein, we point out the instruments that can be used to assess fatigue in long-term COVID-19: fatigue in a subjective manner or fatigability in an objective manner. For physical and mental fatigue, structured questionnaires were used to assess perceived symptoms, and physical and cognitive performance assessment tests were used to measure fatigability using reduced performance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Fatigue , Humans , Cognition , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Fatigue Syndrome, Chronic/diagnosis , Fatigue Syndrome, Chronic/etiology , Fatigue Syndrome, Chronic/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Symptom Assessment , Fatigue/diagnosis , Fatigue/etiology , Fatigue/physiopathology , Mental Fatigue/diagnosis , Mental Fatigue/etiology , Mental Fatigue/physiopathology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Neuropsychological Tests
20.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(18)2022 Sep 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2032927

ABSTRACT

This study identified clinical nurses' fatigue and related factors during the COVID-19 pandemic. This was a cross-sectional study. Data were collected from South Korean hospitals on 234 nurses' general characteristics, fatigue, depression, occupational stress, insomnia, and perceived daytime sleepiness using a structured questionnaire. The prevalence of fatigue was 62.0%, depression 52.1%, insomnia 20.7%, and daytime sleepiness 36.1%. Insomnia, sleepiness, depression, and occupational stress were significantly associated with fatigue. Ward nurses who cared for COVID-19 patients within the past month had significantly higher occupational stress related to organizational climate than those who had not provided care, and ICU nurses who cared for COVID-19 patients had significantly higher job insecurity-related occupational stress. Nurses have a high prevalence of fatigue and depression during the pandemic. Thus, insomnia, sleepiness, depression, and occupational stress must be reduced to lower nurses' fatigue. Caring for COVID-19 patients was not significantly associated with fatigue, but there were significant differences in occupational stress between nurses who provided such care and those who did not. Work environment-specific strategies are needed to reduce nurses' occupational stress during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disorders of Excessive Somnolence , Nurses , Occupational Stress , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disorders of Excessive Somnolence/epidemiology , Fatigue/epidemiology , Fatigue/etiology , Humans , Occupational Stress/epidemiology , Pandemics , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Sleepiness , Surveys and Questionnaires
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