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Rev Med Virol ; 31(6): e2288, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1384306


SARS Coronavirus-2 is one of the most widespread viruses globally during the 21st century, whose severity and ability to cause severe pneumonia and death vary. We performed a comprehensive systematic review of all studies that met our standardised criteria and then extracted data on the age, symptoms, and different treatments of Covid-19 patients and the prognosis of this disease during follow-up. Cases in this study were divided according to severity and death status and meta-analysed separately using raw mean and single proportion methods. We included 171 complete studies including 62,909 confirmed cases of Covid-19, of which 148 studies were meta-analysed. Symptoms clearly emerged in an escalating manner from mild-moderate symptoms, pneumonia, severe-critical to the group of non-survivors. Hypertension (Pooled proportion (PP): 0.48 [95% Confident interval (CI): 0.35-0.61]), diabetes (PP: 0.23 [95% CI: 0.16-0.33]) and smoking (PP: 0.12 [95% CI: 0.03-0.38]) were highest regarding pre-infection comorbidities in the non-survivor group. While acute respiratory distress syndrome (PP: 0.49 [95% CI: 0.29-0.78]), (PP: 0.63 [95% CI: 0.34-0.97]) remained one of the most common complications in the severe and death group respectively. Bilateral ground-glass opacification (PP: 0.68 [95% CI: 0.59-0.75]) was the most visible radiological image. The mortality rates estimated (PP: 0.11 [95% CI: 0.06-0.19]), (PP: 0.03 [95% CI: 0.01-0.05]), and (PP: 0.01 [95% CI: 0-0.3]) in severe-critical, pneumonia and mild-moderate groups respectively. This study can serve as a high evidence guideline for different clinical presentations of Covid-19, graded from mild to severe, and for special forms like pneumonia and death groups.

COVID-19/pathology , Cough/pathology , Dyspnea/pathology , Fatigue/pathology , Fever/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Comorbidity , Cough/drug therapy , Cough/mortality , Cough/virology , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/physiopathology , Dyspnea/drug therapy , Dyspnea/mortality , Dyspnea/virology , Fatigue/drug therapy , Fatigue/mortality , Fatigue/virology , Fever/drug therapy , Fever/mortality , Fever/virology , Humans , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/physiopathology , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Prognosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/physiopathology , Severity of Illness Index , Smoking/physiopathology , Survival Analysis
BMJ Support Palliat Care ; 10(4): 381-384, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-427517


The spread of pandemic COVID-19 has created unprecedented need for information. The pandemic is the cause of significant mortality and with this the need for rapidly disseminated information for palliative care professionals regarding the prevalence of symptoms, their intensity, their resistance or susceptibility to symptom control and the mode of death for patients. METHODS: We undertook a systematic review of published evidence for symptoms in patients with COVID-19 (with a specific emphasis on symptoms at end of life) and on modes of death. Inclusion: prospective or retrospective studies detailing symptom presence and/or cause or mode of death from COVID-19. RESULTS: 12 papers met the inclusion criteria and gave details of symptom burden: four of these specifically in the dying and two detailed the cause or mode of death. Cough, breathlessness, fatigue and myalgia are significant symptoms in people hospitalised with COVID-19. Dyspnoea is the most significant symptom in the dying. The mode of death was described in two papers and is predominantly through respiratory or heart failure. CONCLUSIONS: There remains a dearth of information regarding symptom burden and mode of death to inform decisions regarding end-of-life care in patients dying with COVID-19. Rapid data gathering on the mode of death and the profile of symptoms in the dying and their prevalence and severity in areas where COVID-19 is prevalent will provide important intelligence for clinicians. This should be done urgently, within ethical norms and the practicalities of a public health, clinical and logistical emergency.

Cause of Death , Coronavirus Infections , Dyspnea , Fatigue , Heart Failure , Myalgia , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Respiratory Insufficiency , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Dyspnea/etiology , Dyspnea/mortality , Fatigue/etiology , Fatigue/mortality , Heart Failure/etiology , Heart Failure/mortality , Humans , Myalgia/etiology , Myalgia/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/mortality