Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 9 de 9
Filter
1.
J Transl Med ; 19(1): 128, 2021 03 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1158209

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n3-PUFAs) may exert beneficial effects on the immune system of patients with viral infections. This paper aimed to examine the effect of n3-PUFA supplementation on inflammatory and biochemical markers in critically ill patients with COVID-19. METHODS: A double-blind, randomized clinical trial study was conducted on 128 critically ill patients infected with COVID-19 who were randomly assigned to the intervention (fortified formula with n3-PUFA) (n = 42) and control (n = 86) groups. Data on 1 month survival rate, blood glucose, sodium (Na), potassium (K), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (Cr), albumin, hematocrit (HCT), calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), mean arterial pressure (MAP), O2 saturation (O2sat), arterial pH, partial pressure of oxygen (PO2), partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2), bicarbonate (HCO3), base excess (Be), white blood cells (WBCs), Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), hemoglobin (Hb), platelet (Plt), and the partial thromboplastin time (PTT) were collected at baseline and after 14 days of the intervention. RESULTS: The intervention group had significantly higher 1-month survival rate and higher levels of arterial pH, HCO3, and Be and lower levels of BUN, Cr, and K compared with the control group after intervention (all P < 0.05). There were no significant differences between blood glucose, Na, HCT, Ca, P, MAP, O2sat, PO2, PCO2, WBCs, GCS, Hb, Plt, PTT, and albumin between two groups. CONCLUSION: Omega-3 supplementation improved the levels of several parameters of respiratory and renal function in critically ill patients with COVID-19. Further clinical studies are warranted. Trial registry Name of the registry: This study was registered in the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (IRCT); Trial registration number: IRCT20151226025699N3; Date of registration: 2020.5.20; URL of trial registry record: https://en.irct.ir/trial/48213.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diet therapy , COVID-19/diagnosis , Critical Illness/therapy , Fatty Acids, Omega-3/pharmacology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/analysis , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Gas Analysis , Blood Glucose/drug effects , Blood Glucose/metabolism , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , Critical Illness/mortality , Dietary Supplements , Double-Blind Method , Fatty Acids, Omega-3/administration & dosage , Female , Hematocrit , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/analysis , Inflammation Mediators/blood , Iran/epidemiology , Kidney/drug effects , Kidney/physiopathology , Kidney/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Prognosis , Respiratory System/drug effects , Respiratory System/physiopathology , Respiratory System/virology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Survival Analysis , Treatment Outcome
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(5)2021 Feb 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1120857

ABSTRACT

The beneficial effects of long-chain polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids (omega-3 PUFAs) in cardioprotection are widely known and generally accepted. In this literature review, we have focused on the known and postulated mechanisms of action of omega-3 PUFAs and their metabolites on various components of the haemostatic system, in particular on blood platelets and endothelium. We have also made an attempt to provide a comprehensive review of epidemiological studies with particular regard to clinical trials. Notably, the results of these studies are contradictory, and some of them failed to report the beneficial effects of taking or supplementing omega-3 PUFAs in the diet. A potential explanation, in our opinion, could be the need to use higher doses of omega-3 PUFAs and a proper ratio of omega-3 and omega-6 PUFAs. An additional problem which is difficult to solve is the use of a proper neutral placebo for interventional studies. Despite some controversies regarding the beneficial effects of supplementation of omega-3 PUFAs in cardiovascular disease, our review suggests that a promising aspect of future studies and applications is to focus on the anti-thrombotic properties of these compounds. An argument supporting this assumption is the recent use of omega-3 PUFAs as a supporting tool for the treatment of COVID-19 complications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy , Fatty Acids, Omega-3/administration & dosage , Blood Platelets/drug effects , Blood Platelets/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/blood , Cardiovascular Diseases/metabolism , Diet , Fatty Acids, Omega-3/metabolism , Fatty Acids, Omega-6/administration & dosage , Fibrinolytic Agents/administration & dosage , Hemostasis/drug effects , Humans , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Thrombosis/drug therapy
4.
Trials ; 21(1): 942, 2020 Nov 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-940031

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate a therapeutic role for omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in the treatment of olfactory dysfunction associated with COVID-19 infection TRIAL DESIGN: Randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial PARTICIPANTS: Eligible patients are adults with self-reported new-onset olfactory dysfunction of any duration associated with laboratory-confirmed or clinically suspected COVID-19 patients. Exclusion criteria include patients with pre-existing olfactory dysfunction, history of chronic rhinosinusitis or history of sinus surgery, current use of nasal steroid sprays or omega-3 supplementation, fish allergy, or inability to provide informed consent for any reason. The trial is conducted at Mount Sinai Hospital INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: The intervention group will receive 2000 mg daily of omega-3 supplementation in the form of two "Fish Oil, Ultra Omega-3" capsules (product of Pharmavite®) daily. The comparator group will take 2 placebo capsules of identical size, shape, and odor daily for 6 weeks. MAIN OUTCOMES: Each subject will take a Brief Smell Identification Test at study enrolment and completion after 6 weeks. The primary outcome will be change in Brief Smell Identification Test over the 6-week period. RANDOMISATION: Patients will be randomized by the Investigational Drug Pharmacy at the Icahn School of Medicine at Sinai via a computer-generated sequence in a 1:1 allocation to treatment or control arms. BLINDING (MASKING): Both participants and researchers will be blinded. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMISED (SAMPLE SIZE): There will be 88 participants randomized to each group. A total of 176 participants will be randomized. TRIAL STATUS: Protocol Version 1, 8/3/2020 Recruitment is ongoing, started 8/5/2020 with estimated completion 11/30/2020. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial is registered on ClinicalTrials.gov with Protocol Identifier: NCT04495816 . TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04495816 . Registered 3 August 2020 FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1).


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Dietary Supplements/adverse effects , Fatty Acids, Omega-3/therapeutic use , Olfaction Disorders/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Betacoronavirus/genetics , COVID-19 , Case-Control Studies , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Dietary Supplements/statistics & numerical data , Double-Blind Method , Fatty Acids, Omega-3/administration & dosage , Humans , New York/epidemiology , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Pandemics , Placebos/administration & dosage , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Smell/drug effects , Smell/physiology
5.
Pharmacol Ther ; 219: 107703, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-813821

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has currently led to a global pandemic with millions of confirmed and increasing cases around the world. The novel SARS-CoV-2 not only affects the lungs causing severe acute respiratory dysfunction but also leads to significant dysfunction in multiple organs and physiological systems including the cardiovascular system. A plethora of studies have shown the viral infection triggers an exaggerated immune response, hypercoagulation and oxidative stress, which contribute significantly to poor cardiovascular outcomes observed in COVID-19 patients. To date, there are no approved vaccines or therapies for COVID-19. Accordingly, cardiovascular protective and supportive therapies are urgent and necessary to the overall prognosis of COVID-19 patients. Accumulating literature has demonstrated the beneficial effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) toward the cardiovascular system, which include ameliorating uncontrolled inflammatory reactions, reduced oxidative stress and mitigating coagulopathy. Moreover, it has been demonstrated the n-3 PUFAs, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are precursors to a group of potent bioactive lipid mediators, generated endogenously, which mediate many of the beneficial effects attributed to their parent compounds. Considering the favorable safety profile for n-3 PUFAs and their metabolites, it is reasonable to consider n-3 PUFAs as potential adjuvant therapies for the clinical management of COVID-19 patients. In this article, we provide an overview of the pathogenesis of cardiovascular complications secondary to COVID-19 and focus on the mechanisms that may contribute to the likely benefits of n-3 PUFAs and their metabolites.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Fatty Acids, Omega-3/administration & dosage , Animals , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant/methods , Cytokine Release Syndrome/diagnosis , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Humans , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic/methods
6.
Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids ; 161: 102177, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-796199

ABSTRACT

As the infected cases of COVID-19 reach more than 20 million with more than 778,000 deaths globally, an increase in psychiatric disorders including anxiety and depression has been reported. Scientists globally have been searching for novel therapies and vaccines to fight against COVID-19. Improving innate immunity has been suggested to block progression of COVID-19 at early stages, while omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) have been shown to have immunomodulation effects. Moreover, n-3 PUFAs have also been shown to improve mood disorders, thus, future research is warranted to test if n-3 PUFAs may have the potential to improve our immunity to counteract both physical and mental impact of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Depression/prevention & control , Dietary Supplements , Fatty Acids, Omega-3/administration & dosage , Immunologic Factors/administration & dosage , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Anxiety/immunology , Anxiety/metabolism , Anxiety/virology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cytokines/biosynthesis , Cytokines/immunology , Dendritic Cells/drug effects , Dendritic Cells/immunology , Dendritic Cells/virology , Depression/immunology , Depression/metabolism , Depression/virology , Epithelial Cells/drug effects , Epithelial Cells/immunology , Epithelial Cells/virology , Fatty Acids, Omega-3/immunology , Fatty Acids, Omega-3/metabolism , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Immunologic Factors/immunology , Immunologic Factors/metabolism , Lymphocytes/drug effects , Lymphocytes/immunology , Lymphocytes/virology , Macrophages/drug effects , Macrophages/immunology , Macrophages/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Nutrition ; 81: 110900, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-691202

ABSTRACT

The new coronavirus associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV-2), surprisingly, does not affect only the lungs. The severe response to SARS-CoV-2 appears to include a "cytokine storm," which indicates a state of hyperinflammation and subsequent dysfunction of multiple organs and tissues in the most severe cases. This could be the reason why populations at the highest risk for death from the SARS-CoV-2 infection-induced disease (coronavirus disease 2019 [COVID-19]) are those suffering from chronic low-grade inflammation, but prone to hyperinflammation. This includes individuals of advanced age and those with obesity, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and metabolic syndrome. Inflammation resolution is strongly dependent on lipid mediators, the specialized pro-resolution mediators (SPMs). ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) are precursors of very potent SPMs, including resolvins, protectins, and maresins. Additionally, they are associated with a less aggressive inflammatory initiation, after competing with ω-6 fatty acids for eicosanoid synthesis. Therefore, it makes sense to consider the use of ω-3 PUFAs for clinical management of COVID-19 patients. ω-3 PUFAs may be given by oral, enteral, or parenteral routes; however, the parenteral route favors faster incorporation into plasma phospholipids, blood cells, and tissues. Here, we discuss these aspects to propose the parenteral infusion of ω-3 PUFAs as adjuvant immunopharmacotherapy for hospitalized patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Fish Oils/administration & dosage , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Fatty Acids, Omega-3/administration & dosage , Humans , Inflammation/diet therapy , Inflammation/immunology , Infusions, Parenteral , Models, Biological , Nutritional Physiological Phenomena , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(9)2020 Apr 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-133432

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: On the 31 December 2019, the World Health Organization (WHO) was informed of a cluster of cases of pneumonia of unknown origin detected in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China. The infection spread first in China and then in the rest of the world, and on the 11th of March, the WHO declared that COVID-19 was a pandemic. Taking into consideration the mortality rate of COVID-19, about 5-7%, and the percentage of positive patients admitted to intensive care units being 9-11%, it should be mandatory to consider and take all necessary measures to contain the COVID-19 infection. Moreover, given the recent evidence in different hospitals suggesting IL-6 and TNF-α inhibitor drugs as a possible therapy for COVID-19, we aimed to highlight that a dietary intervention could be useful to prevent the infection and/or to ameliorate the outcomes during therapy. Considering that the COVID-19 infection can generate a mild or highly acute respiratory syndrome with a consequent release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-6 and TNF-α, a dietary regimen modification in order to improve the levels of adiponectin could be very useful both to prevent the infection and to take care of patients, improving their outcomes.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Diet , Dietary Supplements , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Adiponectin/metabolism , Ascorbic Acid/administration & dosage , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Fatty Acids, Omega-3/administration & dosage , Fatty Acids, Omega-3/metabolism , Flavonoids/administration & dosage , Humans , Interleukin-6/immunology , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Lung Diseases/immunology , Lung Diseases/metabolism , Lung Diseases/therapy , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
9.
Nutrients ; 12(4)2020 Apr 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-108781

ABSTRACT

Public health practices including handwashing and vaccinations help reduce the spread and impact of infections. Nevertheless, the global burden of infection is high, and additional measures are necessary. Acute respiratory tract infections, for example, were responsible for approximately 2.38 million deaths worldwide in 2016. The role nutrition plays in supporting the immune system is well-established. A wealth of mechanistic and clinical data show that vitamins, including vitamins A, B6, B12, C, D, E, and folate; trace elements, including zinc, iron, selenium, magnesium, and copper; and the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid play important and complementary roles in supporting the immune system. Inadequate intake and status of these nutrients are widespread, leading to a decrease in resistance to infections and as a consequence an increase in disease burden. Against this background the following conclusions are made: (1) supplementation with the above micronutrients and omega-3 fatty acids is a safe, effective, and low-cost strategy to help support optimal immune function; (2) supplementation above the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA), but within recommended upper safety limits, for specific nutrients such as vitamins C and D is warranted; and (3) public health officials are encouraged to include nutritional strategies in their recommendations to improve public health.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Immune System/physiology , Nutritional Status , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Fatty Acids, Omega-3/administration & dosage , Humans , Micronutrients/administration & dosage , Nutritional Physiological Phenomena , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Trace Elements/administration & dosage , Virus Diseases/immunology , Virus Diseases/prevention & control , Vitamins/administration & dosage
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL