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1.
Int J Surg ; 101: 106614, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1859805

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Liver steatosis in morbidly obese individuals undergoing bariatric surgery increases liver volume and may complicate the surgical procedure. This study aimed to assess whether a 4-week supplementation with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is effective in reducing liver left lateral section (LLLS) volume. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This randomized controlled trial included morbidly obese individuals with metabolic syndrome undergoing bariatric surgery at 3 French bariatric centers between 2017 and 2020. The experimental group had a 4-week preoperative supplementation with omega-3 PUFA, whereas the control group had only placebo. The primary outcome was the reduction of the LLLS volume measured with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). RESULTS: 42 patients were randomized and 37 completed the study (19 in the experimental group and 18 in the placebo group). The mean LLLS volume decreased of 3.3% (±9.6) in the experimental group vs 1.0% (±18.3) in the placebo group, indicating that omega-3 PUFA were not effective in reducing the LLLS volume compared to the placebo (p = 0.3741). Omega-3 PUFA supplementation was not effective in reducing total liver volume, liver steatosis, rate of liver injuries during surgery and operative time. CONCLUSION: A 4-week preoperative supplementation with omega-3 PUFA was not effective in reducing LLLS volume in morbidly obese individuals undergoing bariatric surgery.


Subject(s)
Bariatric Surgery , Fatty Acids, Omega-3 , Fatty Liver , Obesity, Morbid , Dietary Supplements , Double-Blind Method , Fatty Acids, Omega-3/metabolism , Fatty Acids, Omega-3/therapeutic use , Fatty Liver/complications , Humans , Obesity, Morbid/complications , Obesity, Morbid/surgery
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(5)2021 Feb 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1120857

ABSTRACT

The beneficial effects of long-chain polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids (omega-3 PUFAs) in cardioprotection are widely known and generally accepted. In this literature review, we have focused on the known and postulated mechanisms of action of omega-3 PUFAs and their metabolites on various components of the haemostatic system, in particular on blood platelets and endothelium. We have also made an attempt to provide a comprehensive review of epidemiological studies with particular regard to clinical trials. Notably, the results of these studies are contradictory, and some of them failed to report the beneficial effects of taking or supplementing omega-3 PUFAs in the diet. A potential explanation, in our opinion, could be the need to use higher doses of omega-3 PUFAs and a proper ratio of omega-3 and omega-6 PUFAs. An additional problem which is difficult to solve is the use of a proper neutral placebo for interventional studies. Despite some controversies regarding the beneficial effects of supplementation of omega-3 PUFAs in cardiovascular disease, our review suggests that a promising aspect of future studies and applications is to focus on the anti-thrombotic properties of these compounds. An argument supporting this assumption is the recent use of omega-3 PUFAs as a supporting tool for the treatment of COVID-19 complications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy , Fatty Acids, Omega-3/administration & dosage , Blood Platelets/drug effects , Blood Platelets/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/blood , Cardiovascular Diseases/metabolism , Diet , Fatty Acids, Omega-3/metabolism , Fatty Acids, Omega-6/administration & dosage , Fibrinolytic Agents/administration & dosage , Hemostasis/drug effects , Humans , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Thrombosis/drug therapy
3.
Mol Aspects Med ; 77: 100943, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1051827

ABSTRACT

The health of the individual and the population in general is the result of interaction between genetics and various environmental factors, of which diet/nutrition is the most important. The focus of this paper is on the association of high n-6 PUFA or low n-3 PUFA due to genetic variation and/or dietary intake, with changes in specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPMs), cytokine storm, inflammation-resolution and Covid-19. Human beings evolved on a diet that was balanced in the n-6 and n-3 essential fatty acids with a ratio of n-6/n-3 of 1-2/1 whereas today this ratio is 16/1. Such a high ratio due to high amounts of n-6 fatty acids leads to a prothrombotic and proinflammatory state and is associated with obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and some forms of cancer. In addition to the high intake of n-6 fatty acids that increases inflammation there is genetic variation in the biosynthesis of n-6 linoleic acid (LA) to arachidonic acid (ARA) and of linolenic (ALA) to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Present day humans have two common FADS haplotypes that differ dramatically in their ability to generate long-chain fatty acids. The more efficient, evolutionary derived haplotype increases the efficiency of synthesizing essential long-chain fatty acids from precursors and could have provided an advantage in environments with limited access to dietary long-chain fatty acids ARA, EPA and DHA. In the modern world this haplotype has been associated with lifestyle-related diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, obesity, diabetes, all of which are characterized by increased levels of inflammation. African Americans and Latino populations have increased susceptibility and higher death rates from SARS-CoV-2 than whites. These populations are characterized by increased numbers of persons (about 80%) that are fast metabolizers, leading to increased production of ARA, as well as poor intake of fruits and vegetables. The combinations of fast metabolism and high n-6 intake increases their inflammatory status and possibly susceptibility of SARS-CoV-2. In vitro and human studies indicate that the specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPM) produced from the n-3, EPA and DHA influence the resolution of inflammation, allowing the tissues to return to function and homeostasis. The SPMs each counter-regulate cytokine storms, as well as proinflammatory lipid mediators via NFκB and inflammasome down regulation and reduce the proinflammatory eicosanoids produced from ARA. The nutritional availability of dietary n-3 fatty acids from marine oils enriched with SPM intermediate precursors, along with increasing local biosynthesis of SPMs to functional concentrations may be an approach of value during SARS-CoV2 infections, as well as in prevention, and shortening their recovery from infections. It is evident that populations differ in their genetic variants and their frequencies and their interactions with the food they eat. Gene-nutrient interactions is a very important area of study that provides specific dietary advice for individuals and subgroups within a population in the form of Precision Nutrition. Nutritional science needs to focus on Precision Nutrition, genetic variants in the population and a food supply composed of Nutrients that have been part of our diet throughout evolution, which is the diet that our genes are programmed to respond.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diet therapy , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , Docosahexaenoic Acids/metabolism , Eicosanoids/metabolism , Eicosapentaenoic Acid/analogs & derivatives , Eicosapentaenoic Acid/metabolism , Fatty Acids, Essential/metabolism , Fatty Acids, Omega-3/metabolism , Genetic Predisposition to Disease/genetics , Haplotypes , Humans , Inflammation/diet therapy , Inflammation/genetics , Inflammation/metabolism , Linoleic Acid/metabolism , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
4.
Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids ; 161: 102177, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-796199

ABSTRACT

As the infected cases of COVID-19 reach more than 20 million with more than 778,000 deaths globally, an increase in psychiatric disorders including anxiety and depression has been reported. Scientists globally have been searching for novel therapies and vaccines to fight against COVID-19. Improving innate immunity has been suggested to block progression of COVID-19 at early stages, while omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) have been shown to have immunomodulation effects. Moreover, n-3 PUFAs have also been shown to improve mood disorders, thus, future research is warranted to test if n-3 PUFAs may have the potential to improve our immunity to counteract both physical and mental impact of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Depression/prevention & control , Dietary Supplements , Fatty Acids, Omega-3/administration & dosage , Immunologic Factors/administration & dosage , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Anxiety/immunology , Anxiety/metabolism , Anxiety/virology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cytokines/biosynthesis , Cytokines/immunology , Dendritic Cells/drug effects , Dendritic Cells/immunology , Dendritic Cells/virology , Depression/immunology , Depression/metabolism , Depression/virology , Epithelial Cells/drug effects , Epithelial Cells/immunology , Epithelial Cells/virology , Fatty Acids, Omega-3/immunology , Fatty Acids, Omega-3/metabolism , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Immunologic Factors/immunology , Immunologic Factors/metabolism , Lymphocytes/drug effects , Lymphocytes/immunology , Lymphocytes/virology , Macrophages/drug effects , Macrophages/immunology , Macrophages/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(9)2020 Apr 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-133432

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: On the 31 December 2019, the World Health Organization (WHO) was informed of a cluster of cases of pneumonia of unknown origin detected in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China. The infection spread first in China and then in the rest of the world, and on the 11th of March, the WHO declared that COVID-19 was a pandemic. Taking into consideration the mortality rate of COVID-19, about 5-7%, and the percentage of positive patients admitted to intensive care units being 9-11%, it should be mandatory to consider and take all necessary measures to contain the COVID-19 infection. Moreover, given the recent evidence in different hospitals suggesting IL-6 and TNF-α inhibitor drugs as a possible therapy for COVID-19, we aimed to highlight that a dietary intervention could be useful to prevent the infection and/or to ameliorate the outcomes during therapy. Considering that the COVID-19 infection can generate a mild or highly acute respiratory syndrome with a consequent release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-6 and TNF-α, a dietary regimen modification in order to improve the levels of adiponectin could be very useful both to prevent the infection and to take care of patients, improving their outcomes.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Diet , Dietary Supplements , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Adiponectin/metabolism , Ascorbic Acid/administration & dosage , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Fatty Acids, Omega-3/administration & dosage , Fatty Acids, Omega-3/metabolism , Flavonoids/administration & dosage , Humans , Interleukin-6/immunology , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Lung Diseases/immunology , Lung Diseases/metabolism , Lung Diseases/therapy , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
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