Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 6 de 6
Filter
1.
J Food Biochem ; 46(5): e14062, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1627170

ABSTRACT

Therapeutic drugs based on natural products for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 are currently unavailable. This study was conducted to develop an anti-SARS-CoV-2 herbal medicine to face the urgent need for COVID-19 treatment. The bioactive components from ethanolic extract of Moringa oleifera fruits (MOFs) were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Molecular-docking analyses elucidated the binding effects of identified phytocomponents against SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein (PDB ID: 6VYB) and human ACE2 receptor (PDB ID: 1R42) through the Glide module of Maestro software. GC-MS analysis unveiled the presence of 33 phytocomponents. Eighteen phytocomponents exhibited good binding affinity toward ACE2 receptor, and thirteen phytocomponents had a high affinity with spike glycoprotein. This finding suggests that the top 11 hits (Docking score ≥ -3.0 kcal/mol) could inhibit SARS-CoV-2 propagation. Intriguingly, most of the phytoconstituents displayed drug-likeness with no predicted toxicity. However, further studies are needed to validate their effects and mechanisms of action. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Moringa oleifera (MO) also called "drumstick tree" has been used as an alternative food source to combat malnutrition and may act as an immune booster. GC-MS analysis unveiled that ethanolic extract of Moringa oleifera fruits (MOFs) possessed 33 active components of pyridine, aromatic fatty acid, oleic acid, tocopherol, methyl ester, diterpene alcohol, triterpene and fatty acid ester and their derivatives, which have various pharmacological and medicinal values. Virtual screening study of phytocomponents of MOF with human ACE2 receptor and SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein exhibited good binding affinity. Based on molecular docking, the top 11 hits (Docking score ≥-3.0 kcal/mol) might serve as potential lead molecules in antiviral drug development. Intriguingly, most of the phytoconstituents displayed drug-likeness with no predicted toxicity. Thus, MOF might be used as a valuable source for antiviral drug development to combat COVID-19, an ongoing pandemic.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , Moringa oleifera , Plant Extracts , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Esters/pharmacology , Fatty Acids/pharmacology , Fruit/metabolism , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Moringa oleifera/chemistry , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/pharmacology
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(1)2021 Dec 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580701

ABSTRACT

Using drugs to treat COVID-19 symptoms may induce adverse effects and modify patient outcomes. These adverse events may be further aggravated in obese patients, who often present different illnesses such as metabolic-associated fatty liver disease. In Rennes University Hospital, several drug such as hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) have been used in the clinical trial HARMONICOV to treat COVID-19 patients, including obese patients. The aim of this study is to determine whether HCQ metabolism and hepatotoxicity are worsened in obese patients using an in vivo/in vitro approach. Liquid chromatography high resolution mass spectrometry in combination with untargeted screening and molecular networking were employed to study drug metabolism in vivo (patient's plasma) and in vitro (HepaRG cells and RPTEC cells). In addition, HepaRG cells model were used to reproduce pathophysiological features of obese patient metabolism, i.e., in the condition of hepatic steatosis. The metabolic signature of HCQ was modified in HepaRG cells cultured under a steatosis condition and a new metabolite was detected (carboxychloroquine). The RPTEC model was found to produce only one metabolite. A higher cytotoxicity of HCQ was observed in HepaRG cells exposed to exogenous fatty acids, while neutral lipid accumulation (steatosis) was further enhanced in these cells. These in vitro data were compared with the biological parameters of 17 COVID-19 patients treated with HCQ included in the HARMONICOV cohort. Overall, our data suggest that steatosis may be a risk factor for altered drug metabolism and possibly toxicity of HCQ.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , COVID-19/drug therapy , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Hydroxychloroquine/metabolism , Aged , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/metabolism , Cell Line , Cell Survival/drug effects , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/metabolism , Correlation of Data , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Fatty Acids/pharmacology , Fatty Liver/complications , Fatty Liver/metabolism , Female , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Linear Models , Male , Metabolic Networks and Pathways , Middle Aged , Obesity/complications , Obesity/metabolism , Risk Factors
3.
Mar Drugs ; 19(1)2021 Jan 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1033055

ABSTRACT

Microalgae are at the start of the food chain, and many are known producers of a significant amount of lipids with essential fatty acids. However, the bioactivity of microalgal lipids for anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic activities have rarely been investigated. Therefore, for a sustainable source of the above bioactive lipids, the present study was undertaken. The total lipids of microalga Chlorococcum sp., isolated from the Irish coast, were fractionated into neutral-, glyco-, and phospho-lipids, and were tested in vitro for their anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic activities. All tested lipid fractions showed strong anti-platelet-activating factor (PAF) and antithrombin activities in human platelets (half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values ranging ~25-200 µg of lipid) with the highest activities in glyco- and phospho-lipid fractions. The structural analysis of the bioactive lipid fraction-2 revealed the presence of specific sulfoquinovosyl diacylglycerols (SQDG) bioactive molecules and the HexCer-t36:2 (t18:1/18:1 and 18:2/18:0) cerebrosides with a phytosphingosine (4-hydrosphinganine) base, while fraction-3 contained bioactive phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) molecules. These novel bioactive lipids of Chlorococcum sp. with putative health benefits may indicate that marine microalgae can be a sustainable alternative source for bioactive lipids production for food supplements and nutraceutical applications. However, further studies are required towards the commercial technology pathways development and biosafety analysis for the use of the microalga.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/chemistry , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/pharmacology , Fibrinolytic Agents/chemistry , Fibrinolytic Agents/pharmacology , Lipids/chemistry , Lipids/pharmacology , Microalgae/chemistry , Antithrombins/pharmacology , Blood Platelets/drug effects , Fatty Acids/chemistry , Fatty Acids/pharmacology , Humans , Platelet Activating Factor/antagonists & inhibitors , Platelet Aggregation/drug effects , Water Microbiology
4.
Comput Biol Chem ; 89: 107408, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-898662

ABSTRACT

Caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the COVID-19 pandemic is ongoing, with no proven safe and effective vaccine to date. Further, effective therapeutic agents for COVID-19 are limited, and as a result, the identification of potential small molecule antiviral drugs is of particular importance. A critical antiviral target is the SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro), and our aim was to identify lead compounds with potential inhibitory effects. We performed an initial molecular docking screen of 300 small molecules, which included phenolic compounds and fatty acids from our OliveNet™ library (224), and an additional group of curated pharmacological and dietary compounds. The prototypical α-ketoamide 13b inhibitor was used as a control to guide selection of the top 30 compounds with respect to binding affinity to the Mpro active site. Further studies and analyses including blind docking were performed to identify hypericin, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside and SRT2104 as potential leads. Molecular dynamics simulations demonstrated that hypericin (ΔG = -18.6 and -19.3 kcal/mol), cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (ΔG = -50.8 and -42.1 kcal/mol), and SRT2104 (ΔG = -8.7 and -20.6 kcal/mol), formed stable interactions with the Mpro active site. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay indicated that, albeit, not as potent as the covalent positive control (GC376), our leads inhibited the Mpro with activity in the micromolar range, and an order of effectiveness of hypericin and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside > SRT2104 > SRT1720. Overall, our findings, and those highlighted by others indicate that hypericin and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside are suitable candidates for progress to in vitro and in vivo antiviral studies.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Coronavirus Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Small Molecule Libraries/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Coronavirus Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Fatty Acids/chemistry , Fatty Acids/pharmacology , Humans , Ligands , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Models, Molecular , Phenols/chemistry , Phenols/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Small Molecule Libraries/chemistry
5.
J Anim Sci ; 98(1)2020 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-825369

ABSTRACT

An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary medium-chain fatty acid (MCFA) addition on nursery pig growth performance, fecal microbial composition, and mitigation of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) following storage. A total of 360 pigs (DNA 400 × 200, Columbus, NE; initially 6.7 ± 0.07 kg) were randomized to pens (5 pigs per pen) on the day of weaning (approximately 20 d of age), allowed a 6-d acclimation, blocked by BW, and randomized to dietary treatment (9 pens per treatment). All MCFA (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) were guaranteed ≥98% purity, including hexanoic (C6:0), octanoic (C8:0), and decanoic (C10:0) acids. Treatment diets were formulated in 2 phases (7 to 11 and 11 to 23 kg BW) and formulated to meet or exceed NRC requirement estimates. Treatments (n = 8) were a dose response including 0%, 0.25%, 0.5%, 1.0%, and 1.5% added MCFA blend (1:1:1 ratio C6:0, C8:0, and C10:0), as well as treatments with individual additions of 0.5% C6:0, C8:0, or C10:0. Fecal samples were collected from pigs fed control and 1.5% MCFA blend diets on days 0 and 14 and analyzed using 16s rDNA sequencing. Following feed manufacture, feed was stored in bags at barn temperature and humidity for 40 d before laboratory inoculation with PEDV. Subsamples of retained feed were inoculated with PEDV to achieve a titer of 104 TCID50/g and separate sample bottles were analyzed on 0 and 3 d post-inoculation (dpi). Overall, ADG and ADFI were increased (linear, P ≤ 0.010) and feed efficiency (G:F) improved (linear, P = 0.004) with increasing MCFA blend. Pigs fed 0.5% C8:0 had greater (P = 0.038) ADG compared with pigs fed the control diet, and G:F was improved (P ≤ 0.024) when pigs were fed 0.5% C6:0, 0.5% C8:0, or 0.5% C10:0 compared with control. An inclusion level × day interaction was observed (quadratic, P = 0.023), where PEDV Ct values increased (quadratic, P = 0.001) on 0 dpi with increasing levels of MCFA blend inclusion and also increased on 3 dpi (linear, P < 0.001). Fecal microbial diversity and composition were similar between control and 1.5% MCFA blend. In summary, the use of MCFA in nursery pig diets improves growth performance, provides residual mitigation activity against PEDV, and does not significantly alter fecal microbial composition.


Subject(s)
Animal Feed/analysis , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Fatty Acids/pharmacology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/drug effects , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/drug effects , Swine Diseases/prevention & control , Animals , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Diet/veterinary , Feces/microbiology , Female , Male , Swine , Swine Diseases/virology , Weaning
6.
J Anim Sci ; 98(6)2020 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-478332

ABSTRACT

Feed has been shown to be a vector for viral transmission. Four experiments were conducted to: 1) determine if medium chain fatty acids (MCFA) are effective mitigants when applied to feed both pre- and post-porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) inoculation measured by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), 2) evaluate varying levels and combinations of MCFA measured by qRT-PCR, and 3) evaluate selected treatments in bioassay to determine infectivity. In exp. 1, treatments were arranged in a 2 × 2 + 1 factorial with main effects of treatment (0.3% commercial formaldehyde [CF] product, Sal CURB [Kemin Industries, Inc.; Des Moines, IA], or 1% MCFA blend (Blend) of 1:1:1 C6:C8:C10 [PMI, Arden Hills, MN]) and timing of application (pre- or post-inoculation with PEDV) plus a positive control (PC; feed inoculated with PEDV and no treatment). All combinations of treatment and timing decreased detectable PEDV compared with the PC (P < 0.05). Pre-inoculation treatment elicited decreased magnitude of PEDV detection (cycle threshold value) compared with post-inoculation (P = 0.009). Magnitude of PEDV detection was decreased for CF compared with Blend (P < 0.0001). In exp. 2, pre-inoculation treatments consisted of: 1) PC, 2) 0.3% CF, 3 to 5) 0.125% to 0.33% C6:0, 6 to 8) 0.125% to 0.33% C8:0, 9 to 11) 0.125% to 0.33% C10:0, and 12 to 15) 0.125% to 0.66% C5:0. Treating feed with 0.33% C8:0 resulted in decreased (P < 0.05) PEDV detection compared with all other treatments. Increasing concentration of each individual MCFA decreased PEDV detectability (P < 0.042). In exp. 3, pre-inoculation treatments consisted of: 1) PC, 2) 0.3% CF, 3 to 7) 0.25% to 1% Blend, 8 to 10) 0.125% to 0.33% C6:0 + C8:0, 11 to 13) 0.125% to 0.33% C6:0 + C10:0, and 14 to 16) 0.125% to 0.33% C8:0 + C10:0. Treating feed with CF, 0.5% Blend, 0.75% Blend, 1% Blend, all levels of C6:0+C8:0, 0.25% C6:0 + 0.25% C10:0, 0.33% C6:0 + 0.33% C10:0, 0.25% C8:0 + 0.25% C10:0, or 0.33% C8:0 + 0.33% C10:0 elicited decreased detection of PEDV compared with PC (P < 0.05). Increasing concentration of each MCFA combination decreased PEDV detectability (linear, P < 0.012). In exp. 4, feed was treated pre-inoculation with: 1) no treatment (PC), 2) 0.3% CF, 3) 0.5% Blend, or 4) 0.3% C8:0 and analyzed via qRT-PCR and bioassay. Adding 0.5% Blend or 0.3% C8:0 resulted in decreased PEDV compared with PC and only PC resulted in a positive bioassay. Therefore, MCFA can decrease detection of PEDV in feed. Further, inclusion of lower levels of MCFA than previously evaluated are effective against PEDV.


Subject(s)
Animal Feed/virology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Fatty Acids/analysis , Fatty Acids/pharmacology , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/drug effects , Swine Diseases/prevention & control , Animal Feed/analysis , Animals , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Food Contamination/analysis , Swine , Swine Diseases/virology
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL