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1.
Int J Surg ; 101: 106614, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1859805

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Liver steatosis in morbidly obese individuals undergoing bariatric surgery increases liver volume and may complicate the surgical procedure. This study aimed to assess whether a 4-week supplementation with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is effective in reducing liver left lateral section (LLLS) volume. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This randomized controlled trial included morbidly obese individuals with metabolic syndrome undergoing bariatric surgery at 3 French bariatric centers between 2017 and 2020. The experimental group had a 4-week preoperative supplementation with omega-3 PUFA, whereas the control group had only placebo. The primary outcome was the reduction of the LLLS volume measured with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). RESULTS: 42 patients were randomized and 37 completed the study (19 in the experimental group and 18 in the placebo group). The mean LLLS volume decreased of 3.3% (±9.6) in the experimental group vs 1.0% (±18.3) in the placebo group, indicating that omega-3 PUFA were not effective in reducing the LLLS volume compared to the placebo (p = 0.3741). Omega-3 PUFA supplementation was not effective in reducing total liver volume, liver steatosis, rate of liver injuries during surgery and operative time. CONCLUSION: A 4-week preoperative supplementation with omega-3 PUFA was not effective in reducing LLLS volume in morbidly obese individuals undergoing bariatric surgery.


Subject(s)
Bariatric Surgery , Fatty Acids, Omega-3 , Fatty Liver , Obesity, Morbid , Dietary Supplements , Double-Blind Method , Fatty Acids, Omega-3/metabolism , Fatty Acids, Omega-3/therapeutic use , Fatty Liver/complications , Humans , Obesity, Morbid/complications , Obesity, Morbid/surgery
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(1)2021 Dec 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580701

ABSTRACT

Using drugs to treat COVID-19 symptoms may induce adverse effects and modify patient outcomes. These adverse events may be further aggravated in obese patients, who often present different illnesses such as metabolic-associated fatty liver disease. In Rennes University Hospital, several drug such as hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) have been used in the clinical trial HARMONICOV to treat COVID-19 patients, including obese patients. The aim of this study is to determine whether HCQ metabolism and hepatotoxicity are worsened in obese patients using an in vivo/in vitro approach. Liquid chromatography high resolution mass spectrometry in combination with untargeted screening and molecular networking were employed to study drug metabolism in vivo (patient's plasma) and in vitro (HepaRG cells and RPTEC cells). In addition, HepaRG cells model were used to reproduce pathophysiological features of obese patient metabolism, i.e., in the condition of hepatic steatosis. The metabolic signature of HCQ was modified in HepaRG cells cultured under a steatosis condition and a new metabolite was detected (carboxychloroquine). The RPTEC model was found to produce only one metabolite. A higher cytotoxicity of HCQ was observed in HepaRG cells exposed to exogenous fatty acids, while neutral lipid accumulation (steatosis) was further enhanced in these cells. These in vitro data were compared with the biological parameters of 17 COVID-19 patients treated with HCQ included in the HARMONICOV cohort. Overall, our data suggest that steatosis may be a risk factor for altered drug metabolism and possibly toxicity of HCQ.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , COVID-19/drug therapy , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Hydroxychloroquine/metabolism , Aged , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/metabolism , Cell Line , Cell Survival/drug effects , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/metabolism , Correlation of Data , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Fatty Acids/pharmacology , Fatty Liver/complications , Fatty Liver/metabolism , Female , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Linear Models , Male , Metabolic Networks and Pathways , Middle Aged , Obesity/complications , Obesity/metabolism , Risk Factors
3.
J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 36(1): 204-207, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1032413

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has attracted increasing worldwide attention. While diabetes is known to aggravate COVID-19 severity, it is not known whether nondiabetic patients with metabolic dysfunction are also more prone to more severe disease. The association of metabolic associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) with COVID-19 severity in nondiabetic patients was investigated here. METHODS: The study cohort comprised 65 patients with (i.e. cases) and 65 patients without MAFLD (i.e. controls). Each case was randomly matched with one control by sex (1:1) and age (±5 years). The association between the presence of MAFLD (as exposure) and COVID-19 severity (as the outcome) was assessed by binary logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: In nondiabetic patients with COVID-19, the presence of MAFLD was associated with a four-fold increased risk of severe COVID-19; the risk increased with increasing numbers of metabolic risk factors. The association with COVID-19 severity persisted after adjusting for age, sex, and coexisting morbid conditions. CONCLUSION: Health-care professionals caring for nondiabetic patients with COVID-19 should be cognizant of the increased likelihood of severe COVID-19 in patients with MAFLD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Fatty Liver/complications , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Case-Control Studies , China , Cohort Studies , Fatty Liver/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
5.
Dig Dis Sci ; 66(9): 3192-3198, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-800932

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) is a global pandemic. Obesity has been associated with increased disease severity in COVID-19, and obesity is strongly associated with hepatic steatosis (HS). However, how HS alters the natural history of COVID-19 is not well characterized, especially in Western populations. AIMS: To characterize the impact of HS on disease severity and liver injury in COVID-19. METHODS: We examined the association between HS and disease severity in a single-center cohort study of hospitalized COVID-19 patients at Michigan Medicine. HS was defined by either hepatic steatosis index > 36 (for Asians) or > 39 (for non-Asians) or liver imaging demonstrating steatosis > 30 days before onset of COVID-19. The primary predictor was HS. The primary outcomes were severity of cardiopulmonary disease, transaminitis, jaundice, and portal hypertensive complications. RESULTS: In a cohort of 342 patients, metabolic disease was highly prevalent including nearly 90% overweight. HS was associated with increased transaminitis and need for intubation, dialysis, and vasopressors. There was no association between HS and jaundice or portal hypertensive complications. In a sensitivity analysis including only patients with liver imaging > 30 days before onset of COVID-19, imaging evidence of hepatic steatosis remained associated with disease severity and risk of transaminitis. CONCLUSIONS: HS was associated with increased disease severity and transaminitis in COVID-19. HS may be relevant in predicting risk of complications related to COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , Fatty Liver/complications , Fatty Liver/pathology , Liver/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Cohort Studies , Humans , Prevalence , Severity of Illness Index
6.
Dig Liver Dis ; 53(2): 153-157, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-773751

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The association between metabolic-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) and disease progression in patients with the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are unclear. AIMS: To explore the association between MAFLD and the severity of COVID-19 by meta-analysis. METHODS: We conducted a literature search using PubMed, EMBASE, Medline (OVID), and MedRxiv from inception to July 6, 2020. Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) and Stata 14.0 were used for quality assessment of included studies as well as for performing a pooled analysis. RESULTS: A total of 6 studies with 1,293 participants were included after screening. Four studies reported the prevalence of MAFLD patients with COVID-19, with a pooled prevalence of 0.31 for MAFLD (95CI 0.28, 0.35, I2 = 38.8%, P = 0.179). MAFLD increased the risk of COVID-19 disease severity, with a pooled OR of 2.93 (95CI 1.87, 4.60, I2 = 34.3%, P = 0.166). CONCLUSION: In this meta-analysis, we found that a high percentage of patients with COVID-19 had MAFLD. Meanwhile, MAFLD increased the risk of disease progression among patients with COVID-19. Thus, better intensive care and monitoring are needed for MAFLD patients infected by SARS-COV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Fatty Liver , Patient Care Management/methods , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Disease Progression , Fatty Liver/complications , Fatty Liver/metabolism , Humans , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index
7.
BMJ Case Rep ; 13(8)2020 Aug 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-712861

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has presented many diagnostic challenges and uncertainties. Little is known about common pathologies complicating pregnancy and how their behaviour is modified by the presence of SARS-CoV-2. Pregnancy itself can alter the body's response to viral infection, which can cause more severe symptoms. We report the first case of a patient affected with sudden-onset severe pre-eclampsia complicated by acute fatty liver disease of pregnancy, HELLP (haemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelet) syndrome and acute kidney injury following SARS-CoV-2 infection. Although an initial diagnostic dilemma, a multidisciplinary team approach was required to ensure a favourable outcome for both the mother and the baby. Our case report highlights the need for health professionals caring for pregnant women to be aware of the complex interplay between SARS-CoV-2 infection and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/complications , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Fatty Liver/complications , HELLP Syndrome/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pre-Eclampsia/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/blood , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Adult , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Fatty Liver/blood , Fatty Liver/diagnosis , Female , HELLP Syndrome/blood , Humans , Kidney Function Tests , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pre-Eclampsia/blood , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications/blood , Pregnancy Complications/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/blood , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Abdom Radiol (NY) ; 45(9): 2748-2754, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-656433

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Recent studies have demonstrated that obesity is significantly associated with increased disease severity, hospitalizations and mortality in COVID-19, with a potential role in the pathogenesis and prevalence in the new pandemic. The association with hepatic steatosis, however, a condition closely related to obesity within the spectrum of systemic metabolic dysfunctions, remains to be elucidated. We aimed to evaluate the frequency of hepatic steatosis as incidentally detected in chest CT examinations of COVID-19 positive patients in comparison to non-infected controls. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed with 316 patients (204 RT-PCR positive; 112 RT-PCR negative and chest CT negative). Steatosis was measured with placement of a single ROI in the right lobe of the liver (segments VI-VII) and defined as a liver attenuation value ≤ 40 HU. RESULTS: The frequency of hepatic steatosis was higher in the RT-PCR positive group in comparison to controls (31.9% vs. 7.1%, p < 0.001). Logistic linear regression analysis showed a 4.7 times odds of steatosis in the COVID-19 positive group as compared to controls after adjusting for age and sex (OR 4.698; 95% IC 2.12-10.41, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: A significantly higher prevalence of steatosis was found among COVID-19 positive individuals. These findings are in accordance with other recent studies linking obesity and COVID-19 infection, as there is an intricate relationship between liver steatosis, metabolic syndrome and obesity. Further studies are required to confirm if such association remains after accounting for multiple variables, as well as possible relationships with disease severity and worst clinical outcomes.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Fatty Liver/complications , Fatty Liver/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Adult , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Liver/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Liver Int ; 40(9): 2160-2163, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-611716

ABSTRACT

The Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has attracted increasing worldwide attention. While metabolic-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) affects a quarter of world population, its impact on COVID-19 severity has not been characterized. We identified 55 MAFLD patients with COVID-19, who were 1:1 matched by age, sex and obesity status to non-aged severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-infected patients without MAFLD. Our results demonstrate that in patients aged less than 60 years with COVID-19, MAFLD is associated with an approximately fourfold increase (adjusted odds ratio 4.07, 95% confidence interval 1.20-13.79, P = .02) in the probability for severe disease, after adjusting for confounders. Healthcare professionals caring for patients with COVID-19 need to be aware that there is a positive association between MAFLD and severe illness with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Fatty Liver/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Adult , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 14(5): 825-827, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-601333

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Liver involvement is common in COVID-19. Elevated aspartate and alanine amino transaminase (AST/ALT) and borderline increase in serum bilirubin and serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) are the commonest findings. Patients with associated co morbid conditions like obesity, cardiovascular disease, renal disease, malignancy, hypertension and old age are prone to develop severe disease. Limited data is available in patients with COVID-19 and metabolic dysfunction associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD).The aim of this review is to analyse the effect of MAFLD on severity of COVID-19. METHODS: We systematically searched the PubMed database till May 20, 2020 and retrieved all the articles published on COVID-19 and fatty liver/MAFLD/NAFLD. RESULTS: Limited studies done had shown four to six fold high risk of severe COVID-19 in patients with MAFLD. Patients with MAFLD and associated obesity, severe fibrosis and age <60 yrs are more prone to develop severe COVID-19. CONCLUSION: MAFLD is associated with 4-6 fold increase in severity of COVID-19 compared to non MAFLD patients. Physician and hepatologist should follow these patients cautiously and preventive measures to be taken strictly in these high risk patients.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Fatty Liver/complications , Fatty Liver/epidemiology , Metabolic Diseases/epidemiology , Metabolic Diseases/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Adult , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Humans , Liver Function Tests , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
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