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1.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 26(3)set-dez. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-2205380

ABSTRACT

A pandemia de COVID-19 e as medidas de controle para conter a disseminação do vírus, como o distanciamento social, trouxeram mudanças à rotina das pessoas, mundialmente. Esse contexto pode gerar impactos adversos para a saúde mental dos indivíduos, especialmente, àqueles em maior vulnerabilidade, os idosos. O objetivo desse estudo foi analisar na literatura os impactos reais e/ou potenciais da pandemia de COVID-19 na saúde mental de idosos. Trata-se de uma revisão integrativa de literatura com buscas realizadas na Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde, que utilizou a seguinte estratégia de busca: (Coronavírus OR "Infecções por Coronavirus" OR "Coronavirus Infections" OR COVID-19) AND (idoso OR elderly OR aged) AND ("Saúde Mental" OR "Mental Health"). Foram critérios de inclusão: artigos acessados na íntegra, sem distinção de ano e idioma, indexados até o dia 11 de novembro de 2020; e os critérios de exclusão: artigos com fuga do escopo da pesquisa, revisões de literatura, arquivos multimídia e duplicados. Foram encontrados 241 registros, e após a aplicação dos critérios de elegibilidade estabelecidos restaram 27 artigos para discussão. Dentre os impactos reais/potenciais da pandemia de COVID-19 na saúde mental dos idosos, abordados nos estudos, destaca-se a ansiedade, depressão, solidão, estresse, sensação de medo ou pânico, tristeza, suicídio/ideação suicida e insônia. Apesar disso, considera-se que há uma quantidade ainda escassa de estudos voltados especificamente para a população idosa que permitam aprofundar as discussões sobre esse tema.


The COVID-19 pandemic and control measures to contain the spread of the virus, such as social detachment, have brought changes to people's routine, worldwide. This context can generate adverse impacts on the mental health of individuals, especially those most vulnerable, the older adults. The aim of this study was to analyze in the literature the real and / or potential impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on the mental health of the older adults. It is an integrative literature review with searches performed in the Virtual Health Library, which used the following search strategy: (Coronavírus OR "Infecções por Coronavirus" OR "Coronavirus Infections" OR COVID- 19) AND (idoso OR elderly OR aged) AND ("Saúde Mental" OR "Mental Health"). Inclusion criteria were: articles accessed in full, without distinction of year and language, indexed until November 11, 2020; and exclusion criteria: articles with escape the scope of the research, literature reviews, multimedia and duplicate files, 241 records were found, and after applying the established eligibility criteria, 27 articles remained for discussion, among the actual / potential impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on older people, addressed in the studies, anxiety, depression, loneliness, stress, feeling of fear or panic, sadness, suicide / suicidal ideation and insomnia stand out. Despite this, there is still a small amount studies specifically aimed at the older population that allow further discussions on this topic.


La pandemia de covid-19 y las medidas de control para contener la propagación del virus, como el distanciamiento social, han supuesto cambios en la rutina de las personas en todo el mundo. Este contexto puede generar impactos adversos a la salud mental de los individuos, especialmente a los más vulnerables, los ancianos. El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar en la literatura los impactos reales y/o potenciales de la pandemia de COVID-19 en la salud mental de los ancianos. Se trata de una revisión bibliográfica integradora con búsquedas realizadas en la Biblioteca Virtual de Salud, que utilizó la siguiente estrategia de búsqueda: (Coronavirus OR "Coronavirus Infections" OR "Coronavirus Infections" OR COVID-19) AND (elderly OR aged) AND ("Mental Health" OR "Mental Health"). Los criterios de inclusión fueron: artículos accedidos en su totalidad, independientemente del año y el idioma, indexados hasta el 11 de noviembre de 2020; y los criterios de exclusión: artículos que estuvieran fuera del ámbito de la investigación, revisiones bibliográficas, archivos multimedia y duplicados. Se encontraron un total de 241 registros, y tras aplicar los criterios de elegibilidad establecidos, quedaron 27 artículos para su discusión. Entre los impactos reales/potenciales de la pandemia de COVID-19 en la salud mental de los ancianos, abordados en los estudios, destacan la ansiedad, la depresión, la soledad, el estrés, la sensación de miedo o pánico, la tristeza, la ideación suicida/suicida y el insomnio. A pesar de ello, se considera que todavía hay una escasa cantidad de estudios dirigidos específicamente a la población de edad avanzada que permitan profundizar en las discusiones sobre este tema.


Subject(s)
Aged/psychology , Mental Health , Coronavirus Infections/etiology , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Anxiety/psychology , Panic , Suicide/psychology , Aging/physiology , Depression/psychology , Fear/psychology , Sadness/psychology , Psychological Distress , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/etiology , Loneliness/psychology
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(21): e25945, 2021 May 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2191011

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: To investigate the prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms and the associated risk factors among first-line medical staff in Wuhan during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic.From March 5 to 15, 2020, the Hamilton Anxiety Scale and Hamilton Depression scale were used to investigate the anxiety and depression status of medical staff in Wuhan Cabin Hospital (a Hospital). Two hundred seventy-six questionnaires were received from 96 doctors and 180 nurses, including 79 males and 197 females.During the COVID-19 epidemic, the prevalence rate of anxiety and depression was 27.9% and 18.1%, respectively, among 276 front-line medical staff in Wuhan. The prevalence rate of anxiety and depression among doctors was 19.8% and 11.5%, respectively, and the prevalence rate of anxiety and depression among nurses was 32.2% and 21.7%, respectively. Females recorded higher total scores for anxiety and depression than males, and nurses recorded higher scores for anxiety and depression than doctors.During the COVID-19 epidemic, some first-line medical staff experienced mental health problems such as depression and anxiety. Nurses were more prone to anxiety and depression than doctors. Effective strategies toward to improving the mental health should be provided to first-line medical staff, especially female medical staff and nurses.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Medical Staff/psychology , Mobile Health Units/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/transmission , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/psychology , Fear , Female , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional , Male , Medical Staff/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prevalence , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Self Report/statistics & numerical data , Sex Factors , Workload/psychology
3.
Asian J Psychiatr ; 54: 102384, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2149257

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pandemic, in addition to being a global health emergency, has multiple socioeconomic and psychological ramifications. COVID-19 research and media reports have revealed a rise in fears related to contracting the virus. Though fear is a common psychological outcome during pandemics, the COVID-19 pandemic is a continuously evolving disease outbreak and has unique risk factors. Therefore, fear related to COVID-19 might manifest in not only fear and anxiety related to disease contraction and dying, but also associated sociooccupational stress. We attempt to understand the psychosocial process of the development of coronaphobia and postulate what constitutes coronaphobia, a new emerging phobia specific to COVID-19. We present a conceptual model delineating the risk factors causing coronaphobia and the underlying mechanisms, for a better understanding of its developmental process. From review of relevant research, the factors identified are, an unforeseen reality, unending uncertainties, need of acquiring new practices and avoidance behavior, loss of faith in health infrastructure, contraction of COVID-19 by head of states, cautionary statements from international bodies, and infodemia. These factors are assumed to cause interference with routine life, catastrophizing interpretation of benign symptoms, and social amplification of risk which lead to coronaphobia. The conceptualization of coronaphobia and the model will aid future research in developing psychometric measure of coronaphobia for use in clinical and research settings and design of policies and interventions for mitigating risk factors.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Fear/psychology , Mental Health , Uncertainty , Humans , Pandemics
5.
BMC Cancer ; 22(1): 141, 2022 Feb 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2162322

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As the combination of systemic and targeted chemotherapies is associated with severe adverse side effects and long-term health complications, there is interest in reducing treatment intensity for patients with early-stage breast cancer (EBC). Clinical trials are needed to determine the feasibility of reducing treatment intensity while maintaining 3-year recurrence-free survival of greater than 92%. To recruit participants for these trials, it is important to understand patient perspectives on reducing chemotherapy. METHODS: We collected qualitative interview data from twenty-four patients with Stage II-III breast cancer and sixteen patient advocates. Interviews explored potential barriers and facilitators to participation in trials testing reduced amounts of chemotherapy. As the COVID-19 pandemic struck during data collection, seventeen participants were asked about the potential impact of COVID-19 on their interest in these trials. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed, and researchers used qualitative content analysis to code for dominant themes. RESULTS: Seventeen participants (42.5%) expressed interest in participating in a trial of reduced chemotherapy. Barriers to reducing chemotherapy included (1) fear of recurrence and inefficacy, (2) preference for aggressive treatment, (3) disinterest in clinical trials, (4) lack of information about expected outcomes, (5) fear of regret, and (6) having young children. Facilitators included (1) avoiding physical toxicity, (2) understanding the scientific rationale of reducing chemotherapy, (3) confidence in providers, (4) consistent monitoring and the option to increase dosage, (5) fewer financial and logistical challenges, and (6) contributing to scientific knowledge. Of those asked, nearly all participants said they would be more motivated to reduce treatment intensity in the context of COVID-19, primarily to avoid exposure to the virus while receiving treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Among individuals with EBC, there is significant interest in alleviating treatment-related toxicity by reducing chemotherapeutic intensity. Patients will be more apt to participate in trials testing reduced amounts of chemotherapy if these are framed in terms of customizing treatment to the individual patient and added benefit-reduced toxicities, higher quality of life during treatment and lower risk of long-term complications-rather than in terms of taking treatments away or doing less than the standard of care. Doctor-patient rapport and provider support will be crucial in this process.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , Breast Neoplasms/psychology , Patient Advocacy/psychology , Adult , Aged , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Decision Making , Fear/psychology , Female , Humans , Interviews as Topic , Middle Aged , Motivation , Qualitative Research , Quality of Life
7.
Nurs Res ; 71(3): E21-E27, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2152267

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Millions of Americans have tested positive for COVID-19. The illness has a range of clinical symptoms with varying degrees of symptom severity; there is limited research about the lived experience of having COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: The study aim was to understand the lived experience of having COVID-19, provide detail on the length and severity of symptoms as well as coping mechanisms of those with the illness, and identify issues individuals face when accessing healthcare. METHODS: This phenomenological qualitative study included semistructured interviews of 45 people ages 18 years and older living in the United States who tested positive for COVID-19. Inductive content analysis was employed for subjective interpretation of the text through a systematic coding classification to identify themes for analysis and conclusions. RESULTS: This study details a variety of symptom presentations of individuals who tested positive for COVID-19 as well as mental health concerns related to fear and living with COVID-19. DISCUSSION: Individuals expressed varying emotions when finding they tested positive for COVID-19. Many conveyed fear of having COVID-19 and indicated it was a traumatic experience. This fear is an important clinical finding that policymakers and providers should consider when treating acute and chronic COVID-19 patients. Finally, many participants, commonly referred to as "long haulers," experienced ongoing and lingering symptoms highlighting an area in need of further research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adaptation, Psychological , Adolescent , Emotions , Fear , Humans , Qualitative Research
8.
BMC Psychiatry ; 22(1): 732, 2022 Nov 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139203

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has induced high levels of stress. The aim of the study was to assess the relationship between emotional stress (COVID-19 related fear, anger, frustration, and loneliness) and the use of coping strategies among adults in Nigeria during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Data from adults aged 18 years and above were collected through an online survey from July to December 2020. The dependent variables were COVID-19 related fear (fear of infection and infecting others with COVID-19), anger, frustration, and loneliness. The independent variables were coping strategies (use of phones to communicate with family and others, video conferencing, indoor exercises, outdoor exercises, meditation/mindfulness practices, engaging in creative activities, learning a new skill, following media coverage related to COVID-19) and alcohol consumption. Five logistic regression models were developed to identify the factors associated with each dependent variables. All models were adjusted for sociodemographic variables (age, sex at birth, and the highest level of education). RESULTS: Respondents who consumed alcohol, followed media coverage for COVID-19 related information, and who spoke with friends or family on the phone had higher odds of having fear of contracting COVID-19 or transmitting infection to others, and of feeling angry, frustrated, or lonely (p < 0.05). Respondents who exercised outdoors (AOR: 0.69) or learned a new skill (AOR: 0.79) had significantly lower odds of having fear of contracting COVID-19. Respondents who practiced meditation or mindfulness (AOR: 1.47) had significantly higher odds of feeling angry. Those who spoke with friends and family on the phone (AOR: 1.32) and exercised indoors (AOR: 1.23) had significantly higher odds of feeling frustrated. Those who did video conferencing (AOR: 1.41), exercised outdoors (AOR: 1.32) and engaged with creative activities (AOR: 1.25) had higher odds of feeling lonely. CONCLUSION: Despite the significant association between emotional stress and use of coping strategies among adults in Nigeria during the COVID-19 pandemic, it appears that coping strategies were used to ameliorate rather than prevent emotional stress. Learning new skills and exercising outdoors were used to ameliorate the fear of contracting COVID-19 in older respondents.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychological Distress , Adult , Infant, Newborn , Humans , Aged , Nigeria/epidemiology , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Adaptation, Psychological , Fear/psychology
9.
Psychiatr Danub ; 34(3): 578-586, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2146179

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 pandemic, which still continues to affect the whole world, has led to an increase in PTSD symptoms in societies, especially individuals who have been diagnosed with the disease and recovered are at significant risk for PTSD have been reported. Although it has been observed that PTSD symptoms of individuals who were infected in the past epidemics such as SARS and Ebola continued for a long time even after the epidemic, it is noteworthy that the studies conducted during the COVID-19 process do not focus enough on people who survived the COVID-19 disease. The purpose of this study is to determine the direct and indirect impact of positivity on PTSD symptoms of individuals who have recovered from COVID-19 and the role of rumination and fear of COVID-19 as potential mediators in this effect. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: In the study, the Impact of Event Scale-Revised, Ruminative Response Scale, Positivity Scale, and Fear of COVID-19 Scale were applied to 551 Turkish participants, who survived the COVID-19 disease. SEM-based mediation analysis was used to test hypothesized relationships. RESULTS: Mediating roles of fear of COVID-19 and rumination between positivity and PTSD were tested. Results indicated that rumination and fear of COVID-19 had a full mediating role in the relationship between positivity and PTSD. CONCLUSION: These findings pointed out that positivity might be an indirect protective disposition against COVID-19-related PTSD and might reduce risk factors associated with PTSD among COVID-19 survivors. Mental health practices for COVID-19 patients should aim to increase positive thinking, since they have ruminative thoughts about transmission of the virus and hospitalization process and these thoughts may lead to negative mental health conditions. In this sense, positive psychology-focused implementations can be organized for COVID-19 patients and survivors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Humans , COVID-19/psychology , Fear , Pandemics , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Survivors/psychology
10.
Indian J Public Health ; 66(Supplement): S76-S79, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2144161

ABSTRACT

Background: The emergence of COVID-19 and its consequences is causing widespread fears, anxiety, and worries. To overcome the transmission of COVID-19, people resorted to compulsive behaviors. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCSs) due to COVID-19 pandemic, the prevalence of level of fear due to COVID-19 pandemic, and to assess the factors associated with OCSs due to COVID-19 pandemic among the undergraduate medical students of in tertiary unit in Southern India. Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted in 250 undergraduate medical students (both MBBS and BDS, from 1st to 4th year) in the institute. Students who had consented in the study were included as study participants. The Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale and Fear of COVID-19 Scale (FCV-19 S) were used in assessing OCSs and the level of fear due to COVID-19. Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression were used to compute the factors associated with OCS. Results: The mean age of the respondents was 21 ± 1.313 years. The prevalence of OCS in undergraduate medical students was 36 (14.4%), and the level of FCV-19 was 107 (42.8%). Male students (17.8%, 44.2%) had higher OCSs and levels of fear as compared to female students (13.6%, 42.4%). Students with FCV-19 were three (adjusted odds ratio-3.418, 95% confidence interval-1.596, 7.319) times more likely to manifest OCSs while factors such as age, gender, and course were not significantly associated with OCS. Conclusion: Psychological counseling for undergraduate students should be pivotal, especially during pandemics and outbreaks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder , Students, Medical , Humans , Male , Female , Young Adult , Adult , Prevalence , Pandemics , Tertiary Healthcare , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/epidemiology , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/diagnosis , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , India/epidemiology , Fear
11.
Front Public Health ; 10: 992466, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2142334

ABSTRACT

During this pandemic, it is crucial to implement early interventions to help nurses manage their mental wellbeing by providing them with information regarding coping skills, preventive risk assessment approaches (such as hospital preparedness and rapid risk assessment), and the ability to respond. This study evaluated the effect of fear and risk assessment management on nurses' mental wellbeing during the COVID-19 pandemic in Saudi Arabia. A total of 507 nurses who worked in tertiary public hospitals were asked to take a descriptive design survey. Three survey scales were used to assess the survey: the Risk Assessment Scale, the Fear of COVID-19 Scale, and the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale. Independent t-tests and a one-way ANOVA were used to examine the association between fear of COVID-19 and nurses' demographic characteristics on their mental wellbeing. A multiple regression analysis was performed to examine the predictors associated with mental wellbeing. Findings revealed that almost half of the participants showed moderate positive mental wellbeing, 49.7%, while only 14% had low levels of fear on the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well being Scale. Most of the respondents had low levels of fear on the Fear of COVID-19 Scale, 45%, while only 15% had high levels of fear on the scale. Then, some demographic variables, such as "age," "nationality," "total years of experience in the current hospital," and "region you work at" had statistically significant differences with p < 0.5. Meanwhile, risk assessment is also associated with mental wellbeing scores. All items on the Fear of COVID-19 Scale showed no significant difference with a P > 0.05. In conclusion, most nurses providing direct patient care to a patient with COVID-19 emphasized the importance of wearing PPE and performing hand hygiene before and after any clean or aseptic procedure. Meanwhile, although almost all nurses were vaccinated, they were still afraid of a COVID-19 infection. Additionally, the results reported that the older the nurses are, the better their mental wellbeing scores. Non-Saudi nurses had higher perceived mental wellbeing scores than Saudi nurses, and different working environments corresponded to different mental wellbeing scores. Finally, nurses' risk assessment was associated with mental wellbeing scores.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nurses , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fear , Risk Assessment , Perception
12.
Front Public Health ; 10: 967125, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2142325

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 created difficulties and problems in almost everyone's daily life routine. Educational institutions too had to reschedule their academic activities. This shift caused attitudinal and behavioral changes in students' learning patterns. Using stress theory, the present study tries to determine the association of fear of COVID-19 with students' performance. In addition, the present study also attempts to check the impact of fear of COVID-19 on anxiety. Further, this study tries to find the association of anxiety with students' performance. This study also attempts to determine the mediating role of anxiety and the moderating role of mindfulness. For empirical investigation, the current study collected data from 320 HSK students from different colleges and universities in China. The present study applied partial least square structural equation modeling for the empirical investigation of hypotheses by using Smart-PLS software. The present study's findings confirmed that fear of COVID-19 negatively affects students' performance, and it positively correlates with anxiety. The study's outcomes revealed that anxiety negatively affects students' performance. The outcomes also confirmed that anxiety negatively mediates the relationship between fear of COVID-19 and students' performance. The present study's findings acknowledged that mindfulness does not moderate the relationship between fear of COVID-19 and student performance and has a positive moderation between anxiety and student performance. The present study offers important practical, theoretical, and managerial implications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mindfulness , Humans , Fear , Students , Perception
13.
Creat Nurs ; 28(4): 213-220, 2022 Nov 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141072

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, nurses were placed in an unprecedented context in which they engaged with community members, family members, and friends while positioned between dire hospital situations and community disbelief about the seriousness of the pandemic, often along political lines. A secondary analysis of a qualitative study exploring experiences of 39 nurses in the United States and Brazil in engaging with the community and political discourse during the pandemic provided insights into the impact of these interactions on nurses, and implications for how nurses may emerge from this pandemic time stronger and more supported by those in administrative positions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , United States , Humans , Brazil , COVID-19/epidemiology , Fear , Family
14.
J Dev Behav Pediatr ; 43(9): e581-e589, 2022 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2135649

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: During the COVID-19 pandemic, caregivers who are facing high stress levels and decreased emotional well-being may parent their children differently. Certain children are experiencing greater fear in response to COVID-19, and research is needed to identify parenting behaviors significantly linked with children's COVID-19 fear. The purpose of this article was to evaluate whether the association between parenting stress and children's COVID-19 fear could be explained by parents' COVID-19 information management and emotional well-being. METHODS: Participants were recruited through Amazon Mechanical Turk. The sample consisted of 595 caregivers of children during the COVID-19 pandemic; 40.0% men, 69.2% non-Latinx White, 12.1% Black, 10.1% Latinx, 6.6% Asian, and <2% others. Children had an average age of 11.3 years. Parents completed self-report measures. RESULTS: The bootstrapped confidence interval (0.040, 0.148) for the indirect effect (0.090) revealed that parent emotional well-being significantly mediated the relation between parenting stress and children's COVID-19 fear. In addition, parent management of children's COVID-19 knowledge significantly mediated the relation between parenting stress and children's COVID-19 fear. CONCLUSION: We found that the combined effect of parents' emotional well-being and parents' management of children's COVID-19 knowledge significantly mediated the positive relation between parenting stress and children's COVID-19 fear. Based on our findings, once parents' parenting stress is decreased and their well-being increases, parents may be more likely to provide children with developmentally appropriate and accurate COVID-19 information.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Parenting , Child , Male , Humans , Female , Parenting/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Parents/psychology , Fear , Information Management , Parent-Child Relations
15.
J Affect Disord ; 310: 384-395, 2022 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2131258

ABSTRACT

Studies conducted during the pandemic revealed strong associations between gender and COVID-19 related fear and anxiety. Females perceive coronavirus as a greater threat to personal health and population than males. The aim of the current meta-analysis is to estimate gender difference in COVID-19 related fear and anxiety. The second purpose of this study is to clarify the role of potential moderators in COVID-19 fear and anxiety. For these reasons, studies published between March 2020 and October 2021 were searched in various databases (Web of Science, SCOPUS, PubMed, and Google Scholar). In total, 315 studies met the inclusion criteria, and 60 studies for COVID-19 related fear and 23 studies for COVID-19 related anxiety were included in the current study. Cohen's d effect size values were calculated based on these individual studies showing the difference between males and females in terms of COVID-19 related fear and anxiety. Results revealed that gender has a moderate and statistically significant effect on COVID-19 related fear (ES = 0.307) and anxiety (ES = 0.316) in favor of females. Moderator analyses showed that continent variable was a statistically significant moderator of gender difference in COVID-19 related fear and anxiety. The highest effect size of gender differences in COVID-related fear and anxiety were obtained from the studies conducted in Europe. However, other moderators (the average age of sample, culture, timing, and population) were not statistically significant. Although this meta-analysis has a few limitations, the findings showed that COVID-19 outbreak negatively affected females more.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Fear , Female , Humans , Male
16.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(22)2022 Nov 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2115959

ABSTRACT

The "infodemic" is one of the main obstacles in the fight against the COVID-19 pandemic. In order to face it, health literacy (HL) is essential since it allows for knowledge about COVID-19 and the practice of preventive measures to be fostered. This is especially relevant in university students due to their idiosyncrasy. This study aims to evaluate the level of HL related to COVID-19 (HLC), risk perception, misinformation, and the attitudes and behaviors adopted to prevent the spread of coronavirus in Spanish university students. An online questionnaire was administered to 499 Spanish university students. The HLC index presented a mean of 33.89 out of 50; a total of 63.8% had an inadequate level of HLC. They practiced a mean of 7.54 out of 9 preventive behaviors, and the mean knowledge score was 10.40 out of 13. The HLC showed significantly different scores for the degree, the practice of preventive measures, and some sources of information. The level of HL correlates with the adoption of preventive measures. The higher the severity and perceived susceptibility, the more preventive measures are taken by the students. Therefore, there is a need to strengthen the HL skills of university students and address the dissemination of misinformation. Although caution should be taken when generalizing these results due to the limitations inherent within a cross-sectional study and the convenience sampling, our results can guide the establishment of health education strategies and policies for the management of the infodemic in pandemic situations, according to this target population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Literacy , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Universities , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Students , Fear
17.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(22)2022 Nov 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110083

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the relationship between fear of the coronavirus, belief in COVID-19 conspiracy theories, and dimensions of the need for cognitive closure. As there is evidence of associations between these variables, we hypothesized that the relationship between the need for closure dimensions and coronavirus fear may be mediated by conspiracy beliefs about COVID-19. We analyzed the results from 380 individuals who completed online versions of three scales: the Fear of COVID-19 Scale, a short version of the Need for Closure Scale, and-designed for this study-the Conspiracy Theories about the Coronavirus Scale. The results showed that belief in COVID-19 conspiracy theories fully mediated the relationship between the fear of the coronavirus and avoidance of ambiguity, as well as closed-mindedness. The findings provided evidence that beliefs in conspiracy theories may play a significant role in reducing the level of coronavirus fear in people with high levels of these traits. In addition, a partial mediation between the fear of the coronavirus and the need for predictability was found. The limitations and implications of the research are discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Fear
18.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(11)2022 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2121403

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: for isolated older adults, alternative training indoors to maintain balance is essential; however, related studies are lacking. To improve the balance of isolated older adults and reduce their fear of falling, we aimed to examine the balance-keeping effect of a virtual reality (VR) program and motor imagery training (MIT) and propose training that could improve physical activity among older adults. Methods: a total of 34 older adults admitted to a convalescent hospital were assessed. VR (n = 12) and MIT (n = 10) groups completed their assigned intervention in six weeks, whereas the control group (CG) (n = 12) did not. The follow-up was performed after two weeks. Results: in group × time interactions, body center movement area, open and closed eyes balance scores, and fall efficacy were significantly different (p < 0.05). In contrast with the VR group, the MIT group did not show a significant difference in the open or closed eyes balance scores depending on the period. However, there was a significant difference between the MIT group and CG in the open eyes balance score post-test (d = 1.13, 95% confidence interval, 0.40-12.33). Conclusions: we propose VR and MIT as training methods to prevent physical weakness in isolated older adults.


Subject(s)
Postural Balance , Virtual Reality , Humans , Aged , Fear , Exercise Therapy/methods
19.
Brain Behav ; 12(11): e2757, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2118861

ABSTRACT

AIM: To evaluate how gelotophobia correlates with trait anxiety in a sample of Brazilian college students. METHODS: We evaluated the association of GELOPH < 15 > scores with both self-reported experiences of bullying victimization and trait anxiety measures assessed by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). The study consisted of a sample of 65 adult volunteers (M = 21.48, SD = 2.54 years, 38 females), recruited through social media or flyer distribution, and submitted to online versions of the gelotophobia assessment instrument (GELOPH < 15 >) and the STAI. RESULTS: Most participants (N = 56, 86.15%) had an STAI-T score indicative of high trait anxiety. The average GELOPH < 15 > score of the sample was 2.69 (0.65) and 39 of the subjects (60%) were considered gelotophobes. There was a strong positive correlation between the GELOPH < 15 > and STAI-T scores but no correlation between bullying and either the STAI-T and GELOPH < 15 > scores. However, the great majority of subjects with gelotophobia reported been previously bullied. CONCLUSION: In our sample, all gelotophobes had trait anxiety, but only a fraction of anxious subjects had gelotophobia. These preliminary findings expand on previous reports underscoring the high prevalence of mental health problems afflicting higher education students in Brazil.


Subject(s)
Anxiety , Fear , Adult , Female , Humans , Brazil/epidemiology , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , Fear/psychology , Anxiety Disorders/psychology , Personality Inventory
20.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 72(8): 1564-1571, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2101070

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To find the moderating role of social support and creative coping, and the mediating role of cyberchondria in relationship between fear of coronavirus disease-2019 and stress in university students. METHODS: The correlational study was conducted at the Lahore Garrison University, Lahore, Pakistan, between May and September 2020, and comprised students regardless of gender and age from different public and private universities across Pakistan. Data was collected online using Fear of Coronavirus Disease-2019 Scale, Cyberchondria Severity Scale, Creative Coping Strategies Scale, Social Support Survey, Perceived Stress Scale and Perception of Academic Stress Scale. Data was analysed using SPSS 22. RESULTS: Of the 205 subjects, 83(40.5%) were males and 122(59.5%) were females. The overall mean age was 21.22±1.84 years. Fear of coronavirus disease-2019 had significant positive relationship with cyberchondria, and cyberchondria had significant positive relationship with creative coping and academic stress (p<0.05). Social support had significant negative relationship with general stress (p<0.05). There was significant interaction among fear of coronavirus disease-2019, creative coping, social support and cyberchondria in predicting general stress (p<0.05). Fear of coronavirus disease-2019 alone did not predict stress (p>0.05), but it significantly predicted cyberchondria which, in turn, predicted stress (p<0.05). Creative coping and social support significantly moderated the relationship involving fear of coronavirus disease-2019, cyberchondria and general stress (p<0.05). The female subjects utilised more creative coping strategies, received more social support, and had higher levels of general stress compared to the males (p<0.05), while the male subjects had more mistrust on medical professionals (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The findings are important for students, parents and teachers to understand the role of social support to reduce the fear of coronavirus disease-2019.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Male , Female , Humans , Young Adult , Adult , Universities , Cross-Sectional Studies , Adaptation, Psychological , Fear , Social Support , Students
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