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2.
Am J Public Health ; 110(12): 1774-1779, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1021763

ABSTRACT

Some people with disabilities may have greater risk of contracting COVID-19 or experiencing worse outcomes if infected. Although COVID-19 is a genuine threat for people with disabilities, they also fear decisions that might limit lifesaving treatment should they contract the virus.During a pandemic, health systems must manage excess demand for treatment, and governments must enact heavy restrictions on their citizens to prevent transmission. Both actions can have a negative impact on people with disabilities.Ironically, the sociotechnical advances prompted by this pandemic could also revolutionize quality of life and participation for people with disabilities. Preparation for future disasters requires careful consideration.


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , Disabled Persons/statistics & numerical data , Health Care Rationing/organization & administration , Fear , Health Care Rationing/ethics , Humans , Pandemics , Quality of Life , Socioeconomic Factors
3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(1)2020 12 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1006311

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has negatively affected the mental health of the general population, and for healthcare workers (HCWs) it has been no different. Religiosity and spirituality are known coping strategies for mental illnesses, especially in stressful times. This study aimed to describe the role of spiritual-religious coping regarding fear and anxiety in relation to COVID-19 in HCWs in Portugal. A cross-sectional quantitative online survey was performed. Socio-demographic and health data were collected as well as the Duke University Religion Index, Spirituality Scale, Fear of COVID-19 Scale, and Coronavirus Anxiety Scale. Two hundred and twenty-two HCWs participated in the study, 74.3% were female and 81.1% were physicians. The median age was 37 years (Q1, Q3: 31, 51.3). Religiosity was neither a significant factor for coronavirus-related anxiety nor it was for fear of COVID-19. Participants with higher levels in the hope/optimism dimension of the Spirituality Scale showed less coronavirus-related anxiety. Female HCWs, non-physicians, and the ones with a previous history of anxiety presented higher levels of fear and/or anxiety related to COVID-19. HCWs' levels of distress should be identified and reduced, so their work is not impaired.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Psychological , Anxiety/epidemiology , Fear , Health Personnel/psychology , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Portugal/epidemiology , Religion , Spirituality
4.
Pathologica ; 112(4): 172-173, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1005779
5.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244631, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1004468

ABSTRACT

Social distancing measures have been implemented in many countries to limit the spread of COVID-19. Emerging literature reveals that fear of acquiring COVID-19 has detrimental psychological ramifications. However, it seems likely that social distancing will have a further negative impact on well-being. The focus of this study was therefore to investigate whether changes in behaviour as a result of social distancing would predict changes in well-being. Participants (n = 95) rated their level of well-being as it was both during social distancing and retrospectively one month before beginning social distancing. Participants also indicated how much time they spent engaged in various activities both during social distancing and one month before social distancing and nominated how important each of these activities was for them. These measures employed scales created specifically for the present study. In addition, participants completed the Big Five Inventory-2 Extra-Short Form and the nine-item version of the Personal Optimism and Self-Efficacy Optimism Scale. We found that affectivity-both positive and negative-decreased with increased engagement in meaningful activities and that affectivity increased with increased activity in general. While both sorts of activity appear to improve some aspects of well-being, it appears that meaningful activity regulates psychological homeostasis while busyness in general does not.


Subject(s)
/prevention & control , Fear/psychology , Social Behavior , Adolescent , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
6.
BMJ Open ; 10(12): e041641, 2020 12 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1004168

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has certainly resulted in an increased level of anxiety and fear in communities in terms of disease management and infection spread. Due to fear and social stigma linked with COVID-19, many individuals in the community hide their disease and do not access healthcare facilities in a timely manner. In addition, with the widespread use of social media, rumours, myths and inaccurate information about the virus are spreading rapidly, leading to intensified irritability, fearfulness, insomnia, oppositional behaviours and somatic complaints. Considering the relevance of all these factors, we aim to explore the perceptions and attitudes of community members towards COVID-19 and its impact on their daily lives and mental well-being. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This formative research will employ an exploratory qualitative research design using semistructured interviews and a purposive sampling approach. The data collection methods for this formative research will include indepth interviews with community members. The study will be conducted in the Karimabad Federal B Area and in the Garden (East and West) community settings in Karachi, Pakistan. The community members of these areas have been selected purposively for the interview. Study data will be analysed thematically using NVivo V.12 Plus software. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval for this study has been obtained from the Aga Khan University Ethical Review Committee (2020-4825-10599). The results of the study will be disseminated to the scientific community and to the research subjects participating in the study. The findings will help us explore the perceptions and attitudes of different community members towards the COVID-19 pandemic and its impact on their daily lives and mental well-being.


Subject(s)
Anxiety , Social Perception/psychology , Social Stigma , Stress, Psychological , Adult , Anxiety/diagnosis , Anxiety/etiology , Attitude to Health , /prevention & control , Community Medicine/methods , Fear , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Mental Health/trends , Middle Aged , Pakistan/epidemiology , Population Surveillance , Qualitative Research , Research Design , Stress, Psychological/diagnosis , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/etiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology
7.
Psychol Trauma ; 13(1): 9-15, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1003295

ABSTRACT

Objective: The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic represents an acute worldwide public health crisis causing an immediate disruption to every demographic group. One group significantly affected both educationally and psychosocially is college students, as they experienced an abrupt cancellation of in-person courses, were forced to leave their dormitories, and witnessed a loss of social activities. Method: This study utilizes survey data from college students in the throes of COVID-19-based home schooling collected for a Belgium-based international study including more than 134,000 participants from 28 countries around the world. Two hundred fifty-seven college students from a U.S. university participated in this study. Results: Results indicate that college students are affected by COVID-19 on several levels, including fear of themselves or others in their social network contracting the virus, apprehension about the changes in coursework delivery and unclear instructional parameters, overall loneliness, compromised motivation, and sleep disturbances, as well as anxious and depressive symptoms. Conclusions: Analyses reveal a positive relationship between academic frustrations and mental health symptoms, the latter also negatively related to trust in the government regarding the preventive measures being implemented. Worries about becoming infected were positively related to mental health symptoms and negatively related to trust in the government. Results and implications are discussed. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
Academic Performance , Mental Health , Students/psychology , Universities , Adolescent , Adult , Anxiety/psychology , Depression/psychology , Emotions/physiology , Fear/psychology , Female , Humans , Loneliness/psychology , Male , Motivation/physiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
8.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(3-4): 577-580, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1000827

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although research has been mainly focused on effective treatment for SARS-COV-2 infection, psychosocial aspects of the infection it is vital to be taken into consideration. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the psychosomatic effects and the fear of stigma which patients may face after the end of treatment and discharge from hospital. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This was a non-intervention perspective study conducted in the Department of Infectious Diseases of University General Hospital of Alexandroupolis (Greece). Patients on the discharge day completed questionnaires in which 5 topics were evaluated: pain/discomfort, anxiety/distress, fear/worries, stigma and tolerance of treatment. The questionnaires were derived from similar Quality of Life Tools. The total score of each patient was normalized as percentage. RESULTS: Females and younger than 40 years old had more worries and fears on discharge day. Significant factors were days of hospitalization, days of fever and need of oxygen therapy. Patients who hospitalized more than 10 days, particularly in isolation negative pressure rooms, with persistent fever more than 7 days and need of oxygen therapy had more anxiety, worries for their clinical condition and fear of stigma. The majority of patients (80%) were expecting to face moderate to severe problems with family members, friends and colleagues underlying the dimensions of stigma. CONCLUSIONS: It is crucial to evaluate the psychosocial aspects of this infection and limit the stigma which patients may face returning to their daily routine. Further studies are needed with larger patient series and with the usage of psychometric instruments.


Subject(s)
Patient Discharge , Adult , Fear , Female , Humans , Male , Quality of Life
9.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(3-4): 499-504, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1000817

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pandemics are direct antecedent of distinctive physical, psychological, social and financial impacts. A large number of researches are being conducted regarding previous epidemics and pandemics and lot more is currently in progress vis-?-vis COVID-19. The current research is an attempt to explore psychological impacts of COVID-19 specifically to find out the existence, intensity and dynamics of COVID-19 fear in non-clinical educated population. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A cross sectional online study was conducted with non-clinical educated Pakistani citizens. Self-structured questionnaire comprising close and open ended questions was used for data collection from different cities of Pakistan. N=317 participants (men=121, women=196) were the sample for this study. Demographic information was also sought. The age range of sample was 18 to 50+ years. Most of the participants fall in the category of age group 23-28 of sample. All the participants were educated from Intermediate till PhD but majority of participants had 16 years of education. SPSS 22 was used for quantitative data analysis. Qualitative data were analyzed using thematic analysis and content analysis. RESULTS: Results yield significant age wise and profession wise difference in existence of COVID fear. Nine major themes were extracted regarding nature of fear i.e. Corona Fear, Loss, fear of isolation or quarantine, religion related fear, death, consequences of COVID-19, Under developed country, Psychological component of fear and empathy. Those who denied fear were asked the reasons and six major themes were extracted here i.e Religion, Inevitability of death, Precautions, Belief in self, Myths or misinterpretation of disease and Avoidant approach. CONCLUSIONS: Age and profession significantly influenced fear of COVID-19. Gender-wise exploration of themes yields interesting insights. Participants reflected positivity and empathy in crisis situation.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fear , Humans , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Young Adult
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(50): e23298, 2020 Dec 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-983598

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Good communication strategies are essential in times of crisis, such as the coronavirus pandemic. The dissemination of inaccurate information and the need for social isolation to control coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have shown a negative impact on the population, causing damage to mental health, with the appearance or worsening of symptoms of stress, fear, anxiety, and depression. Thus, the systematic review study is intended to gather evidence on the impact of information about COVID-19 on the mental health of the population. METHODS: This systematic review protocol is conducted using the guidelines of the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses protocols and the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. The review aims to include published studies that address the exposure of the general population to information about COVID-19, through observational and experimental studies, which consider the following outcomes: fear, stress, anxiety, and depression. Thus, a comprehensive research strategy will be conducted in the following databases: PubMed / Medline, Scopus, Web of Science, EMBASE, Science Direct, CINAHL, PsycINFO and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL). Two independent reviewers will perform all procedures, such as study selection, data collection, and methodological evaluation. Disagreements will be forwarded to a third reviewer. RevMan 5.3 software will be used for data analysis. RESULTS: This systematic review will provide evidence of the influence of access to and consumption of media and scientific information about COVID-19 on the mental health of the population. It will consider information about the characterization of the study and the population studied, clinical and epidemiological information on mental health, and data on access to and consumption of media and scientific information. DISCUSSION: The results should inform about the consequences of communication about the new coronavirus on the emergence or worsening of psychological and psychiatric symptoms, allowing to develop strategies to achieve effective communication of information to promote the mental health of the population. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION NUMBER: PROSPERO CRD42020182918.


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , Health Communication/methods , Mass Media/statistics & numerical data , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Anxiety/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Fear/psychology , Humans , Pandemics , Research Design , Social Isolation , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology
11.
J Prim Care Community Health ; 11: 2150132720967503, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-983351

ABSTRACT

Teachers are vulnerable non-essential workers that continue to have significant misgivings about in-person school reopening. Dialogue around pandemic management has relatively neglected these concerns so far. This perspective offers a broad framework for risk assessment related to COVID-19 and in-person instruction. The accumulated general body of knowledge related to COVID-19 is particularized to the special dynamics of education. We highlight the impact of historic investments and underinvestment in education on the viability of adapting best practices to mitigate risk. Gaps in public health planning to supply educators with needed personal protective equipment and vaccination are explored. The challenges for low-income and minority-predominant districts receive special attention. We place these problems within the broader context of socioeconomic disparities and the societal consequences of the pandemic. The local level of community transmission, resources, and circumstances should dictate reopening dates. Without effective infection control, teachers are justified to fear infection. The transparency and scientific rigor that would allow teachers to assess their personal health risk and characterize the process for decision-making has been largely absent.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , School Teachers/psychology , Schools/organization & administration , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Fear , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Risk Assessment , School Teachers/statistics & numerical data , United States/epidemiology
13.
J Korean Med Sci ; 35(48): e426, 2020 Dec 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-976188

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We examined the effects of mass media usage on people's level of knowledge about coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), fear of infection, prejudice towards infected people, and anxiety level. In addition, we investigated whether knowledge about COVID-19 can reduce fear, prejudice, and anxiety. METHODS: We performed an anonymous online survey in 1,500 residents aged 19-65 years between April 24 and May 5 of 2020. Anxiety level was assessed using the generalized anxiety disorder-7 scale. We used a questionnaire to investigate COVID-19-related media use, knowledge about COVID-19, fear of infection, and prejudice towards infected people. We analyzed the relationships among the variables using the structural equation model. RESULTS: Media use had significant effects on fear of infection, prejudice against infected people, and anxiety. Knowledge about COVID-19 had a significant protective effect on fear of infection, prejudice against infected people, and anxiety. However, the effect of media use on knowledge about COVID-19 was not statistically significant. There was a partial mediating effect of prejudice against infected people and fear of infection on media usage and anxiety. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated significant effects of mass media coverage regarding COVID-19 on fear, prejudice, and anxiety. While knowledge about COVID-19 could decrease fear, prejudice, and anxiety, the use of mass media did not enhance this knowledge. Medical societies should guide mass media reporting of COVID-19 and provide appropriate public education.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/complications , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Mass Media , Adult , Aged , Fear , Female , Humans , Internet , Male , Middle Aged , Prejudice , Republic of Korea , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
14.
Invest Educ Enferm ; 38(3)2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-971974

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To explore the feelings, stress factors, and adaptation strategies of nurses during the COVID-19 pandemic in Guayaquil, Ecuador. METHODS: A cross-sectional, descriptive quantitative study, conducted through the application of a 52-item questionnaire with four sections (feelings, perceived stress, stress-reducing factors, and adaptation strategies). The study population was 227 nursing professionals from "Hospital General del Guasmo Sur" of the Ministry of Public Health, who worked during the peak of the pandemic from March to May 2020. The sample comprised 155 nurses who voluntarily accepted to participate. The study received 127 complete questionnaires for analysis. RESULTS: The data showed the priority of humanist feelings and professional duty for these nurses, mostly young (59% under 35 years of age and with the professional exercise of three and fewer years), against the fear of contagion and the stress of strenuous work. They also revealed the great importance for them of the institutional support, recognition to the staff, and strict organization of safe care, like strategies for coping with this difficult experience. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic represented for nurses from Guayaquil a great professional and emotional challenge. Health services and society could consider these findings to avoid burning out nurses and their professional desertion.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Psychological , Nursing Staff, Hospital/psychology , Stress, Psychological , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ecuador , Emotions , Fear , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
15.
J Psychosom Res ; 140: 110314, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-970052

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: No studies have examined factors associated with fear in any group of people vulnerable during COVID-19 due to pre-existing medical conditions. OBJECTIVE: To investigate factors associated with fear of consequences of COVID-19 among people living with a pre-existing medical condition, the autoimmune disease systemic sclerosis (SSc; scleroderma), including country. METHODS: Pre-COVID-19 data from the Scleroderma Patient-centered Intervention Network (SPIN) Cohort were linked to COVID-19 data collected in April 2020. Multivariable linear regression was used to assess factors associated with continuous scores of the 10-item COVID-19 Fears Questionnaire for Chronic Medical Conditions, controlling for pre-COVID-19 anxiety symptoms. RESULTS: Compared to France (N = 156), COVID-19 Fear scores among participants from the United Kingdom (N = 50) were 0.12 SD (95% CI 0.03 to 0.21) higher; scores for Canada (N = 97) and the United States (N = 128) were higher, but not statistically significant. Greater interference of breathing problems was associated with higher fears due to COVID-19 (Standardized regression coefficient = 0.12, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.23). Participants with higher financial resources adequacy scores had lower COVID-19 Fear scores (Standardized coefficient = -0.18, 95% CI -0.28 to -0.09). CONCLUSIONS: Fears due to COVID-19 were associated with clinical and functional vulnerabilities in this chronically ill population. This suggests that interventions may benefit from addressing specific clinical issues that apply to specific populations. Financial resources, health policies and political influences may also be important. The needs of people living with chronic illness during a pandemic may differ depending on the social and political context in which they live.


Subject(s)
/psychology , Fear , Scleroderma, Systemic/therapy , Adult , Aged , Canada/epidemiology , Chronic Disease , Cohort Studies , Female , France/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient-Centered Care , Risk Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , United Kingdom/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology
17.
Soins Gerontol ; 25(146): 34-37, 2020.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-951549

ABSTRACT

Following the COVID-19's entry into France, in order to protect the residents, the doors of the accommodation facilities for dependent elderly have been closed and a complete reorganization has been necessary. This confinement and restructuring behind closed doors has many consequences both for the residents and for the staff who accompany them on a daily basis. For the resident, the physical and/or psychological impact will be different depending on his degree of autonomy. The staff fear for their health, their families health, and the one of the elderly they accompany.


Subject(s)
Caregivers/psychology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Homes for the Aged/organization & administration , Nursing Homes/organization & administration , Pandemics/prevention & control , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Fear , Female , France , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Stress, Physiological
19.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0240152, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-950849

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) has not only spawned a lot of stigma and discrimination towards its survivors but also to their corpses. We aimed to assess the magnitude and correlates of stigma in these survivors, on return to their communities. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional, hospital-based, exploratory study conducted by the postgraduate department of psychiatry, in collaboration with the postgraduate department of chest medicine, Govt. medical college, Srinagar. The study was performed among COVID-19 survivors, who attended the outpatient department after their discharge from the hospital. Socio-demographic characteristics were recorded through semi-structured proforma. Stigma was measured by the stigma questionnaire. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and regression analysis. RESULTS: A total of 91 survivors consented to participate in the study. Almost half (46.2%) of them were in the age group of 30-49 years and close to two-thirds (68.1%) were males. About three-fourths (74.7%) were from the urban background. The mean time from hospital discharge to study entry was 11.7±5.1 [Range(R) = 7-21] days. 98% of survivors provided at least one stigma endorsing response and the total mean stigma score was 28.5±7.1[R = 6-39]. The mean stigma sub-scores were highest for enacted stigma (7.6±1.8) [R = 2-9] and externalized stigma (15.0±4.1) [R = 1-20]. Enacted stigma was significantly high in males as compared to females. Enacted stigma and internalized stigma were both associated with education. Enacted stigma, externalized stigma, disclosure concerns, and total stigma was significantly associated with the occupation. Being unemployed and time since discharge were identified as independent predictors of total stigma. CONCLUSION: Our study results showed high levels of enacted and externalized stigma among COVID-19 survivors. Enacted stigma was more among males and in those who were highly educated. Survivor centered and community-driven anti-stigma programs are the need of the hour to promote the recovery and community re-integration of these survivors.


Subject(s)
/psychology , Social Stigma , Survivors/psychology , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fear , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Residence Characteristics , Surveys and Questionnaires
20.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(23)2020 11 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-948961

ABSTRACT

The number of seniors rises worldwide. The lockdown of public institutions caused by COVID-19 influenced the lives of many of them. In the new reality, owners and managers of public spaces need to rethink the way they provide their services, and redesign public spaces to meet the needs of senior citizens. This requires the recognition of the needs of seniors concerning the use of public spaces in the times of the COVID-19 hazard. To investigate this issue, survey studies with 1000 respondents aged 65+ were conducted. The implementation of the obtained data in the process of redesigning public spaces may facilitate the opening up after the lockdown. Taking into account the requirements of a very large group of citizens being seniors is crucial, as it was found that 55% of respondents will also be afraid to use public spaces after the COVID-19 lockdown. The selected ideas that could minimize the feeling of fear when using public spaces after the lockdown were evaluated by seniors.


Subject(s)
Attitude , /psychology , Aged , Fear , Humans , Pandemics , Poland
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