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1.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261023, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1630607

ABSTRACT

Since the outbreak of Covid-19, the use of digital devices, especially smartphones, remarkably increased. Smartphone use belongs to one's daily routine, but can negatively impact physical and mental health, performance, and relationships if used excessively. The present study aimed to investigate potential correlates of problematic smartphone use (PSU) severity and the mechanisms underlying its development. Data of 516 smartphone users from Germany (Mage = 31.91, SDage = 12.96) were assessed via online surveys in April and May 2021. PSU severity was significantly negatively associated with sense of control. In contrast, it was significantly positively linked to fear of missing out (FoMO), repetitive negative thinking (RNT), and daily time spent on smartphone use. In a moderated mediation analysis, the negative relationship between sense of control and PSU severity was significantly mediated by FoMO. RNT significantly moderated the positive association between FoMO and PSU severity. Specifically, the higher the RNT, the stronger the relationship between FoMO and PSU. The present findings disclose potential mechanisms that could contribute to PSU. Potential ways of how to reduce PSU severity are discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Internal-External Control , Smartphone/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Behavior, Addictive/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Fear/psychology , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Middle Aged , Thinking , Young Adult
2.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0261967, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1630458

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Mental health is a significant problem following exposure to a traumatic event. This study aimed to examine quarantine-related experiences, traumatic stress, and coping strategies among adults quarantined in Saudi Arabia due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) exposure or travel history. METHODS: Individuals aged ≥ 18 years who were quarantined in Saudi Arabia due to COVID-19 exposure or travel history were included. We used a sequential mixed methods design, using an online survey followed by in-depth individual telephonic interviews. The Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) was used to measure post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms after the quarantine. To identify factors associated with significant symptoms (IES-R score ≥ 33), prevalence ratios (PR) with 95% confidence intervals were computed using Poisson regression with robust error variance. In the next phase, a subset of the participants (n = 26) were interviewed to elicit their quarantine-related experiences and coping responses. Major themes and subthemes were identified. RESULTS: Of the 111 adults who completed the survey, 32 (28.8% [95% CI, 21.1-38.0%]) had significant PTSD symptoms (IES-R score ≥ 33) and 27 (24.3% [95% CI, 17.2-33.3%]) had severe symptoms (IES-R score > 37). Marital status was the only variable that was significantly associated with significant PTSD symptoms (P = 0.028). Significant symptoms were twice as prevalent in married adults than among other marital groups (PR 2.00, 95% CI, 1.08-3.72). Participants reported negative emotions such as overwhelming fear, helplessness, anxiety, and disgust. Participants utilized both problem-centered coping (e.g., use of social support) and emotion-centered coping (e.g., use of positive diversionary activities) during the quarantine period. CONCLUSION: PTSD symptoms were present in one out of every four quarantined persons. The quarantine experience is viewed negatively. These findings highlight the need for increased awareness about stress-related disorders among quarantined individuals. Efforts are needed to detect and manage these symptoms early while making the quarantine experience more satisfying for the involved individuals and groups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Quarantine/psychology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Adult , Anxiety/psychology , Anxiety Disorders/psychology , Fear/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Health , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personal Satisfaction , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Saudi Arabia , Social Support/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires
3.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261745, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1598351

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 pandemic has had a global major healthcare, social and economic impact. In present study we aim to adapt the Fear of COVID-19 Scale to Hungarian. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forward-backward translation method was used to translate the English version of the scale to Hungarian. Participants were a convenience sample of 2175 university students and employees. The study was conducted between January 18th and February 12th 2021. The test battery included Hungarian versions of Fear of COVID-19 scale, short Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-H) and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). RESULTS: The scale showed one-factor structure, the loadings on the factor were significant and strong (from .47 to .84). Internal consistency was very good (α = .84). Construct validity for the Fear of COVID-19 Scale was supported by significant and positive correlations with STAI (r = 0.402; p < 0.001) and BDI-H (r = 0.270; p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The Hungarian version of Fear of COVID-19 Scale is a reliable and valid tool in assessing fear of coronavirus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Fear/psychology , Pandemics , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales/standards , Psychometrics/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/virology , Faculty/psychology , Female , Humans , Hungary/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Reproducibility of Results , Students/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
4.
J Cancer Res Ther ; 17(6): 1540-1546, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1597096

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has affected the entire health-care system and has led to a sense of fear and anxiety in the minds of patients. Patient's perceptions in this scenario of the pandemic are unknown. Providing continued care for cancer patients during the lockdown has been challenging. Measures are needed to improve patient safety and satisfaction during these challenging times and hence the importance of measuring the degree of satisfaction for the quality of care provided. The aim of the study was to evaluate the factors related to patients' satisfaction and also understand their apprehensions, fears, and anxieties they face as they receive radiotherapy treatment amid COVID-19 pandemic. The study's objective was to explore other aspects such as logistic issues, patient-staff communication, and also perceptions of the patients toward the outbreak. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted from April to September 2020. A questionnaire was created for which the patients were asked to provide answers. Parameters assessed included general information such as mode of transport used, frame of mind during treatment, awareness about pandemic, satisfaction toward care provided by health-care staff, and also documenting the suggestions to improve the quality of care. Results: During this period, we interviewed 108 patients: 56 males (51.9%) and 52 females (48.1%). 90.7% of the participants were satisfied with the condition and safety measures employed in waiting area and billing section. Majority (88.9%) were found to be aware about COVID-19. 74.1% of the participants were very satisfied with the services provided to them in the department of radiation oncology. Conclusion: The survey was useful in measuring the patient satisfaction, in understanding their fears and anxieties, and also in determining their awareness about the pandemic. The survey was also useful to get the patients' opinion and ideas for improvement in the health-care services.


Subject(s)
Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Patient Satisfaction/statistics & numerical data , Professional-Patient Relations , Tertiary Care Centers/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communication , Fear/psychology , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Safety , Quality of Health Care , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
5.
Ann Med ; 53(1): 2120-2131, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1510753

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has been influencing people's psychological health, especially in pregnant women. We aimed to examine associated factors of fear of COVID-19, anxiety and depression among pregnant women during the pandemic where the impacts of healthy eating behaviour (HES) and health literacy (HL) were emphasized. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted between 14 February 2020 and 31 May 2020 in 18 health centres and hospitals across Vietnam. Data of 518 pregnant women were analysed, including socio-demographics, pregnant-related factors, HES, HL, health-related behaviours, fear of COVID-19 scale (FCoV-19S), anxiety (using the generalized anxiety disorder (GAD-7)) and depression (using the patient health questionnaire with 9 items (PHQ-9)). Regression analysis was utilized to explore the associations. RESULTS: Pregnant women with higher scores of HES and HL had lower likelihood of anxiety (odds ratio, OR, 0.79; 95% confidence interval (95%CI), 0.73, 0.87; p < .001; and OR, 0.94; 95%CI, 0.90, 0.99; p = .018) and depression (OR, 0.84; 95%CI, 0.78, 0.91; p < .001; and OR, 0.96; 95%CI, 0.91, 0.99; p = .044), respectively. Pregnant women being employed had a lower FCoV-19S score (regression coefficient, B, -1.46; 95%CI, -2.51, -0.40; p = .007). Besides, other significant predictors of anxiety were eating healthier during the pandemic, unchanged or more physical activity, elevated gestational age and smoking. Other significant predictors of depression were eating healthier during the pandemic, elevated gestational age and smoking. CONCLUSIONS: Among others, HES and HL had positive impacts on protecting pregnant women against anxiety and depression. Improving HES and HL should be addressed as a strategic approach to improve reproductive health during the pandemic.KEY MESSAGEThe COVID-19 pandemic influences antenatal mental disorders with the higher level as opposed to that before the pandemic.Healthy eating behaviour and better health literacy (HL) had critical roles in lowering prenatal anxiety and depression during the COVID-19 crisis.Strategic approaches for improving healthy eating and HL should be recommended for protecting pregnant women from mental health problems during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/psychology , Diet, Healthy , Fear/psychology , Health Literacy , Pregnant Women/psychology , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Feeding Behavior , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
6.
Psychosom Med ; 83(4): 338-344, 2021 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1494128

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Persistent somatic symptoms, such as pain and fatigue, have been referred to as somatization. Somatization is commonly associated with histories of trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Although previous research has demonstrated that PTSD can predict somatic problems, there has been no examination of this at the level of PTSD symptom clusters and multidimensional assessment of somatic symptoms. We examined the association between the three International Classification of Disease (11th Edition) PTSD symptom clusters (reexperiencing in the here and now, avoidance, and sense of threat), measured in relation to the COVID-19 pandemic as the stressor, and somatic symptoms while statistically adjusting for confounding variables. METHODS: Participants were a nationally representative sample of 1041 adults from the general population of the Republic of Ireland. Physical health problems across the domains of pain, gastrointestinal, cardiopulmonary, and fatigue were assessed by the Patient Health Questionnaire, and PTSD symptoms were assessed using the International Trauma Questionnaire. RESULTS: Sense of threat was associated with the presence of pain (ß = 0.254), fatigue (ß = 0.332), gastrointestinal (ß = 0.234), and cardiovascular symptoms (ß = 0.239). Avoidance was associated with pain (ß = 0.347). Reexperiencing was not associated with any physical health variable. CONCLUSIONS: In the context of COVID-19, the sense of threat symptoms in PTSD is most strongly related to somatic problems. Findings suggest that interventions addressing sense of threat symptoms might provide relief from somatization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Fear/psychology , Medically Unexplained Symptoms , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/etiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Female , Humans , Ireland/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
7.
Riv Psichiatr ; 55(6): 1-2, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463355

ABSTRACT

Scopo del presente lavoro è descrivere alcune reazioni umane e alcuni elementi di psicopatologia durante la pandemia. La pandemia ha messo in luce diversi aspetti dell'animo umano negli operatori sanitari, nei pazienti e nelle altre persone. Vi sono medici, infermieri, operatori che lavorano 24 ore su 24 per curare e assistere i malati, accompagnare chi non ce la fa. Incuranti del rischio di contagio, della fatica, dei propri bisogni hanno un'unica priorità : aiutare, fare il proprio dovere. Molti di loro si sono ammalati, molti sono morti. Tra loro vi è un alto tasso di contagiati, malati, qualcuno muore. Tutti sono stremati. Sono stati chiamati eroi, ma non tutti sono eroi. I nostri pazienti psichiatrici, inizialmente, sono i più adeguati, prudenti, saggi, responsabili. Con poche, semplici parole esprimono tanta consapevolezza e sana umanità. Al contrario, altre persone, quelle che normalmente si sentono "al di sopra delle cose", entrano nel panico Questa pandemia ci ha fatto capire (se ancora lo ignoravamo) che la vita è fragile, che tutto ciò che ci circonda e su cui costruiamo le nostre sicurezze è precario e incerto.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Fear/psychology , Health Personnel/psychology , Pandemics , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Italy , Mental Disorders/psychology , National Health Programs/standards , Psychopathology , Xenophobia
8.
Lit Med ; 38(2): 349-370, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450722

ABSTRACT

This enquiry considers how the dignity of the frail elderly is objectively grounded, socially constructed, and subjectively experienced. The lives of the frail trouble public consciousness. A terror of old age, felt by young or old, is liable to form a toxic affective culture of social death. Against such threats, the dignity of the frail requires defense. However, empathy- and capacities-based approaches to dignity fail to give a compelling account of humanity's membership in shared community. By contrast, the poetry of the Psalms and New Testament puts terror to flight by articulating how dignity is found within God's steadfast, worth-bestowing love which tenderly accompanies humanity in its shared dustiness from the womb to old age and beyond. The blessed dignity these sources describe is found to be more conceptually robust and affectively compelling than an individualistic eudaimonism. Cultivating an ecology of dignity in practice is finally shown to depend on a compassion which grows from the same fertile, imaginative ground.


Subject(s)
Empathy , Fear/psychology , Frail Elderly/psychology , Respect , Social Isolation/psychology , Aged , COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 245, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1449272

ABSTRACT

Introduction: the year 2020 was marked by the COVID-19 pandemic that killed more than one million people. Several vaccines have been developed and vaccination campaigns started in December 2020. The objective of our study was to assess the acceptability of the COVID-19 vaccine by hospital staff. Methods: cross-sectional study conducted on a representative sample drawn at random from the staff of the Military General Hospital of Tunis. Data was collected between August and September 2020 by a clinical psychologist. We studied the associations between the different characteristics of our population and the decision to accept or refuse vaccination against COVID-19. Results: a total of 398 hospital staff agreed to answer our questionnaire. Our sample was composed of 9% (n=36) physicians, 0.9% (n=3) pharmacists, 41.3% (n=164) paramedics, 16.1% (n=64) cleaning staff and 32.7% (n=131) administrative staff. The rapid discovery of the vaccine was hoped by 97% (n=386). Vaccination was considered a means of collective protection by 84.7% (n=337). However, only 58% (n=231) agreed to be vaccinated by the COVID-19 vaccine. The main factors significantly associated with acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccine was previous influenza vaccination (aOR: 2.58, 95% CI 1.69-3.94; p=0.000). Conclusion: apprehension about vaccination does not appear to be sparing the future COVID-19 vaccine. Fear of vaccine side effects outweighs fear of the disease, even among hospital staff. To achieve vaccination coverage, several awareness and communication activities must be carried out.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Attitude of Health Personnel , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fear/psychology , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Hospitals, General , Humans , Immunization Programs , Male , Middle Aged , Personnel, Hospital , Surveys and Questionnaires , Tunisia , Vaccination/psychology , Young Adult
10.
BMC Nephrol ; 22(1): 301, 2021 09 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1398847

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Globally, renal healthcare practitioners provide intensive and protracted support to a highly complex multi-morbid patient population however knowledge about the impact of COVID-19 on these practitioners is extremely limited. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore the experiences of COVID-19 with renal healthcare practitioners during the first global lockdown between June 2020 and September 2020. METHODS: A multi-methods approach was carried out including a quantitative survey and qualitative interviews. This was a multinational study of renal healthcare practitioners from 29 countries. Quantitative: A self-designed survey on COVID-19 experiences and standardised questionnaires (General Health Questionnaire-12; Maslach Burnout Inventory). Descriptive statistics were generated for numerical data. Qualitative: Online semi-structured interviews were conducted. Data was subjected to thematic analysis. Renal healthcare practitioners (n = 251) completed an online survey. Thirteen renal healthcare practitioners took part in semi-structured interviews (12 nurses and 1 dietician). RESULTS: The majority of participants surveyed were female (86.9 %; n = 218), nurses (86.9 %; n = 218) with an average 21.5 (SD = 11.1) years' experience since professional qualification, and 16.3 years (SD = 9.3) working in renal healthcare. Survey responses indicated a level of preparedness, training and satisfactory personal protective equipment during the pandemic however approximately 40.3 % experienced fear about attending work, and 49.8 % experienced mental health distress. The highest prevalence of burnout was emotional exhaustion (35.9 %). Three themes emerged from the qualitative analysis highlighting the holistic complexities in managing renal healthcare, a neglected specialist workforce, and the need for appropriate support at work during a pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: Results have highlighted the psychological impact, in terms of emotional exhaustion and mental health distress in our sample of renal healthcare practitioners. As the pandemic has continued, it is important to consider the long-term impact on an already stretched workforce including the risk of developing mental health disorders. Future research and interventions are required to understand and improve the provision of psychological support for specialist medical and nursing personnel.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Global Health , Nephrology/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Adult , Aged , Burnout, Professional/epidemiology , Burnout, Professional/psychology , COVID-19/therapy , Clinical Competence/statistics & numerical data , Fear/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nephrology Nursing/economics , Nephrology Nursing/statistics & numerical data , Nursing Staff, Hospital/psychology , Nursing Staff, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , Occupational Diseases/psychology , Personal Protective Equipment , Psychological Distress , Qualitative Research , Workforce
11.
Int J Public Health ; 66: 1604164, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1394849

ABSTRACT

Objectives: During the first peak of the COVID-19 outbreak in the United States, we investigated the impact of digital interventions to reduce COVID-19 related fear, loneliness, and public stigma. Methods: We recruited and randomly assigned 988 United States residents to: 1) no intervention 2) informational sheet to learn about COVID-19, 3) (2) AND video encouraging digital social activity, 4) (2) AND video sensitizing to COVID-19 related stigma (registered in Clinicaltrials.gov). Surveys were conducted between April 2-16, 2020. We employed generalized linear mixed models to investigate intervention effects. Results: 10% of the participants reported not being afraid of people COVID-19+ and 32% reported not feeling lonely. Stigma and fear items reflected acute worries about the outbreak. Relative to the informational sheet only group, video groups led to greater reduction in perceptions of fear towards COVID-19+ (ORvideo.solo = 0.78, p-val<0.001; ORvideo.friend = 0.79, p-val<0.001) and of stigma (BETAvideo.solo = -0.50, p-val<0.001; BETAvideo.friend = -0.69, p-val<0.001). Conclusion: Video-based interventions lead to reductions in COVID-19-related fear and stigma. No difference in social activity among groups was found, potentially explaining lack of efficacy on loneliness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychosocial Intervention , Video Recording , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Fear/psychology , Female , Humans , Loneliness/psychology , Male , Middle Aged , Perception , Psychosocial Intervention/methods , Social Stigma , Treatment Outcome , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
12.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257064, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1394555

ABSTRACT

The pandemic of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has brought significant pressure on nurses globally as they are the frontline of care. This study aimed to explore the experiences and challenges of nurses who worked with hospitalised patients with COVID-19. In this qualitative study, a purposive sample of 14 nurses participated in in-depth telephone interviews. Data were analysed using Colaizzi's phenomenological method. Five key themes emerged: (1) physical and psychological distress of nurses, (2) willingness to work, (3) the essential role of support mechanisms, (4) educational and informational needs of nurses and (5) the role of modern technology in COVID-19 care. Although the provision of care led to physical and psychological distress among nurses, with their commitment and professional obligation, it is a new experience that leads to personal satisfaction. Guilty feeling related to inefficiency of care, witnessing the suffering of patients, discomfort associated with wearing personal protective equipment (PPE), work-related issues (e.g., long hour shifts), negative impact to the family and rejection by others are the leading distress factors. Religious beliefs, including keeping trust in good and bad merits, have become a strong coping mechanism. Addressing distress among nurses is essential. The reported learning needs of nurses included skills related to donning and doffing PPE, skills in performing nursing procedures and breaking bad news. Nurse managers need to pay special attention to expanding training opportunities as well as support mechanisms, for example, welfare, appreciations and counselling services for nurses. Modern technology, particularly robots and telecommunication, can perform an essential role in COVID-19 care. The establishment of timely policies and strategies to protect health workers during a national disaster like COVID-19 is needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Nurses/psychology , Nursing Staff, Hospital/psychology , Pandemics , Adaptation, Psychological , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Fear/psychology , Female , Health Personnel/psychology , Humans , Interviews as Topic , Male , Personal Protective Equipment/standards , Psychological Distress , Psychology, Clinical , Robotics/standards , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Telecommunications
13.
Public Health Nurs ; 38(5): 781-788, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1394000

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To measure COVID-19 vaccine acceptance and related factors to undercover nurses' concerns and fears. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. SAMPLE: The study included 639 nurses; 83% were women and 80% under 50 years. MEASUREMENT: A self-administered questionnaire was used. It included demographic characteristics, COVID-19-related fears and concerns, COVID-19 vaccine perceived benefits, and intention toward getting the vaccine. RESULTS: Forty percent of the nurses planned to get the vaccine when available, 41% would take it later when adequate protection and safety were presented, and 18% would never take it. Significant factors associated with vaccination intention were as follows: age (adjusted OR 1.42, 95% CI: 1.02-1.99); lack of knowledge about the vaccine (adjusted OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.81-3.8); concern about long-term side effects (adjusted OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.4-2.9); fear of injection (adjusted OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.04-2.13); natural immunity preference (adjusted OR 5.8, 95% CI 4.5-8.3); media misrepresentation (adjusted OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.2-2.4); and getting COVID-19 from the vaccine (adjusted OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1-2.1). CONCLUSION: COVID-19 vaccine safety and side-effects concerns impact nurses' intentions to accept the vaccine and may result in low acceptance rates. Urgent action is needed to address these fears and raise confidence, as nurses' vaccine-related decisions can affect the public's vaccine acceptance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Intention , Nurses , Vaccination , Adult , Age Factors , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fear/psychology , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nurses/psychology , Nurses/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vaccination/psychology , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data
15.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256136, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1381278

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Political ideologies drove public actions and health behaviors in the first year of the global pandemic. Different ideas about contagion, health behaviors, and the actions of governing bodies impacted the spread of the virus and health and life. Researchers used an immediate, mixed methods design to explore sociocultural responses to the virus and identified differences and similarities in anxiety, fear, blame, and perceptions of nation across political divides. METHODS: Researchers conducted 60 in-depth, semi-structured interviews and administered over 1,000 questionnaires with people living in the United States. The team analyzed data through an exploratory and confirmatory sequential mixed methods design. RESULTS: In the first months of the pandemic interviewees cited economic inequality, untrustworthy corporations and other entities, and the federal government as threats to life and pandemic control. Participants invoked ideas about others to determine blame. Findings reveal heavy associations between lack of safety during a public health crisis and blame of "culture" and government power across the political spectrum. CONCLUSION: Data indicate anxiety across political differences related to ideas of contagion and the maleficence of a powerful elite. Findings on how people understand the nation, politics, and pandemic management contribute to understanding dimensions of health behaviors and underlying connections between anxiety and the uptake of conspiracy theories in public health. The article ends with recommendations drawn from project findings for future pandemic response.


Subject(s)
Anxiety , COVID-19 , Fear/psychology , Health Behavior , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Federal Government , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Public Health , United States/epidemiology
16.
J Appl Psychol ; 106(8): 1188-1201, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1368913

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused hundreds of thousands of deaths in the U.S. As chief strategists of their respective firms, how do Chief Executive Officers (CEOs) react to mortality salience associated with the number of new daily COVID deaths in the U.S.? To answer this question, we integrate terror management theory (TMT) with regulatory focus theory to examine how CEOs respond to mortality salience. Based on a sample of CEOs of S&P 500 firms, we found that mortality salience was associated with CEOs' increased other-orientation, and this association was more pronounced among those with high prevention focus. Mortality salience also was associated with CEOs' decreased self-orientation, particularly among those with high promotion focus. We also found that CEOs' self-orientation was negatively related to the likelihood of their firms' making community donations. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Commerce/economics , Death , Fear/psychology , Models, Psychological , Pandemics , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Charities , Female , Humans , Male , Motivation , Organizational Culture , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 19(1): 198, 2021 Aug 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1365358

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has caused significant disruptions in the implementation of programs across educational institutions. Nursing students, being both young adults and by practical training, part of the health care system, may be particularly vulnerable during the COVID-19 pandemic. The purpose of this study was to explore the associations between self-reported fear of COVID-19, general health, psychological distress and overall quality of life (QoL) in a sample of Norwegian baccalaureate nursing students compared to reference data. METHODS: The survey targeted baccalaureate nursing students from five universities in February 2021. An electronic questionnaire consisted of the Fear of COVID-19 Scale (FCV-19S), the Hopkins Symptom Checklist 5 (SCL-5), one general health and one overall QoL question. The respondents' mean scores were compared to reference data. Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted, and effect sizes (Cohen's d) were evaluated. RESULTS: In total, 2605 out of 6088 (43%) students responded. Their FCV-19S scores (mean 2.45, CI 2.42, 2.48) were significantly higher than those of the reference population (mean 1.8, P < 0.001). Nursing students scores showed significantly lower general health (mean 3.50 ± 0.93 SD, population mean = 3.57, Cohen's d = 0.07), higher levels of psychological distress (mean 2.68 ± 1.03 SD, population mean = 2.12, Cohen's d = 0.55) and lower overall QoL (mean 5.50 ± 2.16 SD, population mean = 8.00, Cohen's d = 1.16) compared to pre-pandemic reference data. FCV-19S scores were significantly associated with levels of general health (Cohen's d = 0.26), psychological distress (Cohen's d = 0.76) and overall QoL (Cohen's d = 0.18). CONCLUSIONS: Baccalaureate nursing students reported worse outcomes during the Covid-19 pandemic on general health, psychological distress and overall QoL compared to the reference population. Level of fear of Covid-19, however, accounted for few of these differences. Other factors related to the pandemic may have reduced nursing students' overall QoL.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Fear/psychology , Quality of Life/psychology , Students, Nursing/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Universities , Young Adult
18.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255750, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1344161

ABSTRACT

This study's main goal was to evaluate the association between anxious temperament and the fear of COVID-19-related self-infection and infection in loved ones (family members, friends, relatives) and cyberchondria. The sample consisted of 499 men and women aged between 18 and 72 who were gathered from the general population via an online recruitment platform. A numerical rating scale comprising 11 degrees of fear was used to assess participants' COVID-19-related fear, and affective temperaments were evaluated using Akiskal's Temperament Evaluation of the Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego Autoquestionnaire (TEMPS-A) scales. Cyberchondria was assessed using McElroy and Shevlin's Cyberchondria Severity Scale (CSS). Small to medium positive correlations were found between depressive, cyclothymic, irritable and anxious temperaments and cyberchondria and between depressive and anxious temperaments and COVID-19 fears. However, no correlation was observed between the hyperthymic temperament and cyberchondria. Cyberchondria positively correlated with both COVID-19 fears scales, though the correlation coefficients were medium. Based on the results of linear regression analysis, only anxious temperament and COVID-19 fear of self-infection were significant predictors of cyberchondria. The analysis also revealed a significant indirect effect of anxious temperament on cyberchondria through fear of COVID-19 self-infection as a mediator between anxious temperament and cyberchondria.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Hypochondriasis/psychology , Adult , Affect , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fear/psychology , Female , Humans , Internet , Male , Middle Aged , Personality Inventory/statistics & numerical data , Psychometrics/statistics & numerical data , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Surveys and Questionnaires , Temperament
19.
Am J Health Behav ; 45(4): 771-784, 2021 07 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1339701

ABSTRACT

Objectives: COVID-19 has become a global concern, affecting both physical and mental health. In this study, we measured knowledge, fear, anxiety, and psychological distress related to COVID-19 among residents of the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Methods: A total of 1053 adult participants completed a Web-based cross-sectional survey. Results: Our data revealed 75.7% of the sample to be knowledgeable about COVID-19, 15.3% had experienced anxiety and 50.4%, psychological distress about COVID-19. Being knowledgeable about COVID-19 was significantly associated with having spent one to 2 hours reading about COVID-19. There was also an association between being knowledgeable about COVID-19 and low levels of anxiety and psychological distress. Psychological distress was associated with a history of mental illness (76.2%), anxiety (85.1%), and fear of COVID-19 (21±6.6). Age, history of mental illness (OR = 3.70, 95% CI = 2.35-5.82, p < .001), and COVID-19 anxiety (OR = 2.48, 95% CI = 1.48-4.13, p < .001) and fear (OR = 1.17, 95% CI = 1.14-1.20, p < .001) were risk factors for psychological distress. Conclusion: Our results showed significant psychological distress in the UAE population. Providing pre-recorded workshops and continuous telemedicine on biopsychosocial perspectives of COVID-19 may enhance the COVID-19 insight and reduce the COVID-19 anxiety and psychological distress.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19 , Fear/psychology , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Mental Disorders/psychology , Psychological Distress , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Surveys , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , United Arab Emirates
20.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0255050, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1331997

ABSTRACT

AIMS: The present study aimed to investigate whether the psychological impact of the COVID-19 crisis varied with regards to young Swiss men's pre-crisis level of education and socioeconomic status and to changes in their work situation due to it. METHODS: A cohort of 2345 young Swiss men (from 21 out of 26 Swiss cantons; mean age = 29) completed survey-based assessments shortly before (April 2019 to February 2020) and early on during the COVID-19 crisis (May to June 2020). Outcomes measured were psychological outcomes before and during the COVID-19 crisis (depression, perceived stress and sleep quality), and the fear, isolation and psychological trauma induced by it. We investigated associations between these outcomes and their predictors: pre-crisis socioeconomic status (relative financial status, difficulty paying bills, level of education), changes in work situation during the crisis (job loss, partial unemployment, working from home, change in workload) and working in contact with potentially infected people, both inside and outside the healthcare sector. For outcomes measured before and during the crisis, the analyses were adjusted for their pre-crisis levels. RESULTS: About 21% of participants changed their employment status (job loss, partial unemployment or lost money if self-employed) and more than 40% worked predominantly from home during the COVID-19 crisis. Participants with a lower relative socioeconomic status already before the crisis experienced a higher psychological impact due to the COVID-19 crisis, compared to participants with an average socioeconomic status (major depression (b = 0.12 [0.03, 0.22]), perceived stress (b = 0.15 [0.05, 0.25]), psychological trauma (b = 0.15 [0.04, 0.26]), fear (b = 0.20 [0.10, 0.30]) and isolation (b = 0.19 [0.08, 0.29])). A higher impact was also felt by participants who lost their job due to the COVID-19 crisis, the partially unemployed, those with an increased workload or those who worked mainly from home (e.g. depression b = 0.25 [0.16, 0.34] for those working 90%+ at home, compared to those not working at home). CONCLUSIONS: Even in a country like Switzerland, with relatively high social security benefits and universal healthcare, the COVID-19 crisis had a considerable psychological impact, especially among those with a lower socioeconomic status and those who experienced deteriorations in their work situation due to the COVID-19 crisis. Supporting these populations during the crisis may help to prevent an amplification of inequalities in mental health and social status. Such support could help to lower the overall impact of the crisis on the mental well-being of Switzerland's population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Men/psychology , Adult , Cohort Studies , Depression/psychology , Employment/psychology , Fear/psychology , Humans , Male , Mental Health , Social Class , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Switzerland , Unemployment/psychology
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