Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 701
Filter
1.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 43(10): 1317-1325, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2185255

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the prevalence of hospital-onset bacteremia and fungemia (HOB), identify hospital-level predictors, and to evaluate the feasibility of an HOB metric. METHODS: We analyzed 9,202,650 admissions from 267 hospitals during 2015-2020. An HOB event was defined as the first positive blood-culture pathogen on day 3 of admission or later. We used the generalized linear model method via negative binomial regression to identify variables and risk markers for HOB. Standardized infection ratios (SIRs) were calculated based on 2 risk-adjusted models: a simple model using descriptive variables and a complex model using descriptive variables plus additional measures of blood-culture testing practices. Performance of each model was compared against the unadjusted rate of HOB. RESULTS: Overall median rate of HOB per 100 admissions was 0.124 (interquartile range, 0.00-0.22). Facility-level predictors included bed size, sex, ICU admissions, community-onset (CO) blood culture testing intensity, and hospital-onset (HO) testing intensity, and prevalence (all P < .001). In the complex model, CO bacteremia prevalence, HO testing intensity, and HO testing prevalence were the predictors most associated with HOB. The complex model demonstrated better model performance; 55% of hospitals that ranked in the highest quartile based on their raw rate shifted to a lower quartile when the SIR from the complex model was applied. CONCLUSIONS: Hospital descriptors, aggregate patient characteristics, community bacteremia and/or fungemia burden, and clinical blood-culture testing practices influence rates of HOB. Benchmarking an HOB metric is feasible and should endeavor to include both facility and clinical variables.


Subject(s)
Bacteremia , Fungemia , Humans , Fungemia/diagnosis , Fungemia/epidemiology , Benchmarking , Feasibility Studies , Bacteremia/diagnosis , Bacteremia/epidemiology , Hospitals
2.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(3): e26719, 2021 03 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2197901

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patient travel history can be crucial in evaluating evolving infectious disease events. Such information can be challenging to acquire in electronic health records, as it is often available only in unstructured text. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to assess the feasibility of annotating and automatically extracting travel history mentions from unstructured clinical documents in the Department of Veterans Affairs across disparate health care facilities and among millions of patients. Information about travel exposure augments existing surveillance applications for increased preparedness in responding quickly to public health threats. METHODS: Clinical documents related to arboviral disease were annotated following selection using a semiautomated bootstrapping process. Using annotated instances as training data, models were developed to extract from unstructured clinical text any mention of affirmed travel locations outside of the continental United States. Automated text processing models were evaluated, involving machine learning and neural language models for extraction accuracy. RESULTS: Among 4584 annotated instances, 2659 (58%) contained an affirmed mention of travel history, while 347 (7.6%) were negated. Interannotator agreement resulted in a document-level Cohen kappa of 0.776. Automated text processing accuracy (F1 85.6, 95% CI 82.5-87.9) and computational burden were acceptable such that the system can provide a rapid screen for public health events. CONCLUSIONS: Automated extraction of patient travel history from clinical documents is feasible for enhanced passive surveillance public health systems. Without such a system, it would usually be necessary to manually review charts to identify recent travel or lack of travel, use an electronic health record that enforces travel history documentation, or ignore this potential source of information altogether. The development of this tool was initially motivated by emergent arboviral diseases. More recently, this system was used in the early phases of response to COVID-19 in the United States, although its utility was limited to a relatively brief window due to the rapid domestic spread of the virus. Such systems may aid future efforts to prevent and contain the spread of infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases, Emerging/diagnosis , Electronic Health Records , Information Storage and Retrieval/methods , Public Health Surveillance/methods , Travel/statistics & numerical data , Algorithms , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Feasibility Studies , Female , Humans , Machine Learning , Male , Middle Aged , Natural Language Processing , Reproducibility of Results , United States/epidemiology
3.
J Diabetes Sci Technol ; 16(4): 955-961, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2194856

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hospitalization of persons with diabetes in an inpatient diabetes unit is challenging, notably for patients having different profiles. We aimed to evaluate the feasibility and the benefit of a continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) telemetry system to control glucose excursions in hospitalized patients with diabetes, according to their diabetes type and the reasons for their hospitalization. METHOD: A prospective pilot study was conducted in 53 insulin-requiring diabetes patients hospitalized in the general ward. Glucose was monitored using Guardian Connect (GC, Medtronic) to adopt insulin therapy. The time in range (TIR, target 70-180 mg/dL), the time below range (TBR), and the time above range (TAR) were recorded by GC between the start of hospitalization (SH) and end of hospitalization (EH), and analyzed according to the diabetes type (type 1 diabetes n = 28, type 2 diabetes n = 25) and the reasons for hospitalization (acute complications n = 35, therapeutic education n = 18). Patient and caregiver satisfaction was also assessed. RESULTS: In patients with type 2 diabetes and those hospitalized for acute complications, TIR significantly increased between the SH and EH, from 75.7% (95%CI 48.5-84.6) to 82.2% (95%CI 63.2-91.8) P = 0.043 and from 58.3% (95%CI 46.3-69.7) to 66.4% (95%CI 55.6-75.5) P = 0.031, respectively, and TAR significantly decreased, with no change in TBR. In patients with diabetes hospitalized for therapeutic education, TBR significantly decreased from 3.4% (95%CI 0-9.4) to 0% (95%CI 0-3.8) P = 0.037. Finally, 94% of patients and caregivers deemed the GC system useful. CONCLUSIONS: CGM telemetry system use is feasible and well accepted in patients hospitalized in diabetes care unit and could be useful to improve therapeutic education and metabolic control, especially for specific homogenous populations with diabetes.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Feasibility Studies , Humans , Inpatients , Insulin/therapeutic use , Pilot Projects , Prospective Studies , Telemetry
5.
BMJ Open ; 12(11): e066044, 2022 11 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2137787

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Long COVID (LC), also known as post-COVID-19 syndrome, refers to symptoms persisting 12 weeks after COVID-19 infection. It affects up to one in seven people contracting the illness and causes a wide range of symptoms, including fatigue, breathlessness, palpitations, dizziness, pain and brain fog. Many of these symptoms can be linked to dysautonomia or dysregulation of the autonomic nervous system after SARS-CoV2 infection. This study aims to test the feasibility and estimate the efficacy, of the heart rate variability biofeedback (HRV-B) technique via a standardised slow diaphragmatic breathing programme in individuals with LC. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: 30 adult LC patients with symptoms of palpitations or dizziness and an abnormal NASA Lean Test will be selected from a specialist Long COVID rehabilitation service. They will undergo a 4-week HRV-B intervention using a Polar chest strap device linked to the Elite HRV phone application while undertaking the breathing exercise technique for two 10 min periods everyday for at least 5 days a week. Quantitative data will be gathered during the study period using: HRV data from the chest strap and wrist-worn Fitbit, the modified COVID-19 Yorkshire Rehabilitation Scale, Composite Autonomic Symptom Score, WHO Disability Assessment Schedule and EQ-5D-5L health-related quality of life measures. Qualitative feedback on user experience and feasibility of using the technology in a home setting will also be gathered. Standard statistical tests for correlation and significant difference will be used to analyse the quantitate data. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study has received ethical approval from Health Research Authority (HRA) Leicester South Research Ethics Committee (21/EM/0271). Dissemination plans include academic and lay publications. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT05228665.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , Biofeedback, Psychology/methods , Dizziness , Feasibility Studies , Heart Rate/physiology , Quality of Life , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Sci Data ; 9(1): 711, 2022 11 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2133501

ABSTRACT

Social distancing has been widely-implemented as a public health measure during the COVID-19 pandemic. Despite widespread application of social distancing guidance, the feasibility of people adhering to such guidance varies in different settings, influenced by population density, the built environment and a range of socio-economic factors. Social distancing constraints however have only been identified and mapped for limited areas. Here, we present an ease of social distancing index, integrating metrics on urban form and population density derived from new multi-country building footprint datasets and gridded population estimates. The index dataset provides estimates of social distancing feasibility, mapped at high-resolution for urban areas across 50 countries in sub-Saharan Africa.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Physical Distancing , Humans , Feasibility Studies , Pandemics , Public Health
8.
AANA J ; 90(6): 462-468, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2126131

ABSTRACT

In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, several protective barrier enclosures were developed to protect healthcare providers during airway manipulation. A certified registered nurse anesthetist (CRNA) created a barrier, the disposable intubation drape (I-Drape), that addressed limitations in range of motion. A nonrandomized, quasi-experimental design with repeated measures was used to evaluate I-Drape usability. CRNAs implemented I-Drape up to three times. Multilevel modeling was used to analyze the primary outcome: time (in seconds) to successful intubation. An online survey was used to evaluate secondary outcomes of interest: users' perceptions of features such as usability, visibility, and durability. We recruited 23 CRNAs as participants for 59 trials. Overall successful intubation and first-pass success rates were 96.6% and 93.2%, respectively. Time to successful intubation did not significantly decrease (ß = -9.16, P = 0.323) or differ significantly among types of laryngoscopy device and years of experience was not a significant factor. Overall, users favorably rated I-Drape with respect to usability, visibility, durability, and feature utility. This study demonstrated the functionality, success rate, and acceptability of I-Drape. I-Drape can be used safely and efficiently with any type of laryngoscopy device by providers with various experience levels.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intubation, Intratracheal , Humans , Feasibility Studies , Pandemics , Laryngoscopy
9.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(4): e23806, 2021 04 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141288

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Consumer-based physical activity trackers have increased in popularity. The widespread use of these devices and the long-term nature of the recorded data provides a valuable source of physical activity data for epidemiological research. The challenges include the large heterogeneity between activity tracker models in terms of available data types, the accuracy of recorded data, and how this data can be shared between different providers and third-party systems. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to develop a system to record data on physical activity from different providers of consumer-based activity trackers and to examine its usability as a tool for physical activity monitoring in epidemiological research. The longitudinal nature of the data and the concurrent pandemic outbreak allowed us to show how the system can be used for surveillance of physical activity levels before, during, and after a COVID-19 lockdown. METHODS: We developed a system (mSpider) for automatic recording of data on physical activity from participants wearing activity trackers from Apple, Fitbit, Garmin, Oura, Polar, Samsung, and Withings, as well as trackers storing data in Google Fit and Apple Health. To test the system throughout development, we recruited 35 volunteers to wear a provided activity tracker from early 2019 and onward. In addition, we recruited 113 participants with privately owned activity trackers worn before, during, and after the COVID-19 lockdown in Norway. We examined monthly changes in the number of steps, minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, and activity energy expenditure between 2019 and 2020 using bar plots and two-sided paired sample t tests and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. RESULTS: Compared to March 2019, there was a significant reduction in mean step count and mean activity energy expenditure during the March 2020 lockdown period. The reduction in steps and activity energy expenditure was temporary, and the following monthly comparisons showed no significant change between 2019 and 2020. A small significant increase in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was observed for several monthly comparisons after the lockdown period and when comparing March-December 2019 with March-December 2020. CONCLUSIONS: mSpider is a working prototype currently able to record physical activity data from providers of consumer-based activity trackers. The system was successfully used to examine changes in physical activity levels during the COVID-19 period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Electronic Data Processing/methods , Epidemiological Monitoring , Fitness Trackers/statistics & numerical data , Software , Adult , Exercise , Feasibility Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Norway , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2
10.
J Endourol ; 36(8): 1070-1076, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1849621

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Telehealth utilization has increased dramatically over the past few years due to improvement in technology and the COVID-19 pandemic. To date, no study has examined whether a telehealth visit alone for preoperative evaluation is safe and sufficient before surgery. We examined the safety and feasibility of preoperative telehealth visits alone before minimally invasive urologic surgery. Materials and Methods: Single institution retrospective review of robotic prostate, kidney, and cystectomy procedures between April and December 2020. Cases were dichotomized into those who underwent preoperative evaluation by telehealth only vs traditional in-person visits. Outcomes included complications, blood loss, conversion to open surgery rates, and operative times. We assessed efficiency of care by measuring time from preoperative visit to surgery. Results: Three hundred fourteen patients were included in the study, with 14% of cases (n = 45) being performed after a preoperative telehealth visit. The majority of cases included in analysis were robotic surgeries of the prostate (56.1% of all cases, n = 176) and the kidney (35.0% of all cases, n = 110). Patients seen via telehealth alone preoperatively had no significant differences in any grade of complications, perioperative outcomes, blood loss, operative time, and length of stay. There was no difference in change in anticipated procedure between the groups, and there was no case of conversion to open surgery in the telehealth only group. Time from preoperative visit to surgery was significantly shorter for the telehealth group by 13 days. Conclusions: Our study is the first to analyze the safety of telehealth only preoperative visits before minimally invasive urologic surgery. We found no difference in perioperative outcomes including conversion to open surgery or change in planned procedure. Furthermore, telehealth preoperative visits appeared to facilitate shorter time to surgery. This study has important implications for expediting patient care and medicolegal considerations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Robotic Surgical Procedures , Telemedicine , Feasibility Studies , Humans , Male , Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures/methods , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Robotic Surgical Procedures/methods , Treatment Outcome
11.
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis ; 17: 2931-2944, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2118940

ABSTRACT

Background: Telemedicine may help the detection of symptom worsening in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), potentially resulting in improved outcomes. This study aimed to determine the feasibility and acceptability of telemedicine among patients with COPD and physicians and facility staff in Japan. Methods: This was a 52-week multicenter, prospective, single-arm, feasibility and acceptability cohort study of Japanese patients ≥40 years of age with COPD or asthma-COPD overlap. Participants underwent training to use YaDoc, a telemedicine smartphone App, which included seven daily symptom questions and weekly COPD Assessment Test (CAT) questions. The primary endpoint was participant compliance for required question completion. The secondary endpoint was participant and physician/facility staff acceptability of YaDoc based on questionnaires completed at Week 52. The impact of the Japanese COVID-19 pandemic state of emergency on results was also assessed. Results: Of the 84 participants enrolled (mean age: 68.7 years, 88% male), 72 participants completed the study. Completion was high in the first six months but fell after that. Median (interquartile range [IQR]) compliance for daily questionnaire entry was 66.6% (31.0-91.8) and 81.0% (45.3-94.3) for weekly CAT entry. Positive participant responses to the exit questionnaire were highest regarding YaDoc ease of use (83.8%), positive impact on managing health (58.8%), and overall satisfaction (53.8%). Of the 26 physicians and facility staff enrolled, 24 completed the study. Of these, the majority (66.7%) responded positively regarding app facilitation of communication between physicians and participants to manage disease. Compliance was similar before and after the first COVID-19 state of emergency in Japan. Conclusion: Daily telemedicine monitoring is potentially feasible and acceptable to both patients and physicians in the management of COPD. These results may inform potential use of telemedicine in clinical practice and design of future studies. Clinical Trial Registration: JapicCTI-194916.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Telemedicine , Humans , Male , Female , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/diagnosis , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/therapy , Cohort Studies , Feasibility Studies , Prospective Studies , Pandemics , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Telemedicine/methods
12.
BMJ Open ; 12(11): e064916, 2022 11 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2118672

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Many people living with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are expected to self-manage their condition. Patient activation is the term given to describe the knowledge, skills and confidence a person has in managing their own health and is closely related to the engagement in preventive health behaviours. Self-management interventions have the potential to improve remote disease management and health outcomes. We are testing an evidence-based and theory-based digital self-management structured 10-week programme developed for peoples with CKD called 'My Kidneys & Me'. The primary aim of the study (Self-Management Intervention through Lifestyle Education for Kidney health (SMILE-K)) is to assess the effect on patient activation levels. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A single-blind randomised controlled trial (RCT) with a nested pilot study will assess the feasibility of the intervention and study design before continuation to a full RCT. Individuals aged 18 years or older, with established CKD stage 3-4 (eGFR of 15-59 mL/min/1.73 m2) will be recruited through both primary and secondary care pathways. Participants will be randomised into two groups: intervention group (receive My Kidneys & Me in addition to usual care) and control group (usual care). The primary outcome of the nested pilot study is feasibility and the primary outcome of the full RCT is the Patient Activation Measu (PAM-13). The full RCT will assess the effect of the programme on online self-reported outcomes which will be assessed at baseline, after 10 weeks, and then after 20 weeks in both groups. A total sample size of N=432 participants are required based on a 2:1 randomisation. A substudy will measure physiological changes (eg, muscle mass, physical function) and patient experience (qualitative semi-structured interviews). ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study was fully approved by the Research Ethics Committee-Leicester South on the 19 November 2020 (reference: 17/EM/0357). All participants are required to provide informed consent obtained online. The results are expected to be published in scientific journals and presented at clinical research conferences. This is protocol version 1.0 dated 27 January 2021. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN18314195.


Subject(s)
Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Self-Management , Humans , Pilot Projects , Self-Management/methods , Feasibility Studies , Quality of Life , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy , Life Style , Kidney , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
13.
J Nippon Med Sch ; 89(5): 500-505, 2022 Nov 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2117697

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Nasopharyngeal swabs (NPS) are generally used as specimen samples for antigen qualitative tests for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The principle of the reaction to the antigen protein is the same when saliva is used, and saliva samples were reported to be as accurate as NPS for real-time reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) testing to identify SARS-CoV-2. Unlike NPS collection, self-collected saliva does not expose healthcare workers to the risk of infection. In this study, we evaluated the feasibility of using saliva samples for a SARS-CoV-2 antigen qualitative test (TA2107SA) under development. METHODS: Saliva samples were collected from patients with confirmed or suspected COVID-19 infection and analyzed. The sensitivity, specificity, and concordance index of the antigen qualitative test were calculated using an RT-qPCR test as reference. RESULTS: Saliva samples were collected from 105 patients. The mean interval from onset to specimen collection was 5.7 days. The mean cycle threshold (Ct) value of RT-qPCR was 31.3. The sensitivity, specificity, and concordance index were 70.7%, 100%, and 0.85, respectively. In 33 patients with Ct values <30, the results of both the RT-qPCR and antigen tests were positive. The sensitivity of the saliva-based TA2107SA SARS-CoV-2 antigen qualitative test was slightly lower than that of the conventional antigen qualitative test using NPS samples from the same patient. CONCLUSION: Saliva-based antigen qualitative tests for SARS-CoV-2 are an alternative option during a pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , Saliva , Feasibility Studies , Pandemics , Specimen Handling , Sensitivity and Specificity
14.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(22)2022 Nov 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2115980

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic interrupted face-to-face health services, leveraging telehealth strategies. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate, from a parent's perspective, the feasibility of a remote assessment of functioning in children with developmental disabilities during the pandemic and related contextual factors, based on how parents carry out the assessment. Parents of children with developmental disabilities (mean age = 7.56 ± 3.68) responded to a remote assessment via electronic forms and telephone interview. We analyzed parents' perspectives about the feasibility of the assessment. We also tested the association between feasibility score and sociodemographics/pandemic experience. Regression analysis tested if children's functioning characteristics predicted feasibility. A total of 57 mothers completed the remote assessment, and more than 95% did not report difficulties in accessing/responding to electronic forms. They scored remote assessment as easy and feasible, and reported no difficulties with telephone interview. Greater feasibility rates were related to lower maternal age (rho Spearman = -0.290; p = 0.029). The model shows that children's characteristics predicted 20.4% of feasibility (p < 0.005). Remote assessment showed to be feasible. Younger mothers might consider easier-to-use technologies, beyond considering remote assessment more viable. These results can guide the next steps in research and remote clinical practice.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Developmental Disabilities , Child , Female , Humans , Adolescent , Child, Preschool , Developmental Disabilities/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Feasibility Studies , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology
15.
BMC Med ; 20(1): 442, 2022 11 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2115840

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The SARS-CoV-2 containment strategy has been successful in mainland China prior to the emergence of Omicron. However, in the era of highly transmissible variants, whether it is possible for China to sustain a local containment policy and under what conditions China could transition away from it are of paramount importance at the current stage of the pandemic. METHODS: We developed a spatially structured, fully stochastic, individual-based SARS-CoV-2 transmission model to evaluate the feasibility of sustaining SARS-CoV-2 local containment in mainland China considering the Omicron variants, China's current immunization level, and nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs). We also built a statistical model to estimate the overall disease burden under various hypothetical mitigation scenarios. RESULTS: We found that due to high transmissibility, neither Omicron BA.1 nor BA.2 could be contained by China's pre-Omicron NPI strategies which were successful prior to the emergence of the Omicron variants. However, increased intervention intensity, such as enhanced population mobility restrictions and multi-round mass testing, could lead to containment success. We estimated that an acute Omicron epidemic wave in mainland China would result in significant number of deaths if China were to reopen under current vaccine coverage with no antiviral uptake, while increasing vaccination coverage and antiviral uptake could substantially reduce the disease burden. CONCLUSIONS: As China's current vaccination has yet to reach high coverage in older populations, NPIs remain essential tools to maintain low levels of infection while building up protective population immunity, ensuring a smooth transition out of the pandemic phase while minimizing the overall disease burden.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Aged , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Feasibility Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , China/epidemiology
16.
Lancet Oncol ; 23(2): 270-278, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2115061

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Endoscopic surveillance is recommended for patients with Barrett's oesophagus because, although the progression risk is low, endoscopic intervention is highly effective for high-grade dysplasia and cancer. However, repeated endoscopy has associated harms and access has been limited during the COVID-19 pandemic. We aimed to evaluate the role of a non-endoscopic device (Cytosponge) coupled with laboratory biomarkers and clinical factors to prioritise endoscopy for Barrett's oesophagus. METHODS: We first conducted a retrospective, multicentre, cross-sectional study in patients older than 18 years who were having endoscopic surveillance for Barrett's oesophagus (with intestinal metaplasia confirmed by TFF3 and a minimum Barrett's segment length of 1 cm [circumferential or tongues by the Prague C and M criteria]). All patients had received the Cytosponge and confirmatory endoscopy during the BEST2 (ISRCTN12730505) and BEST3 (ISRCTN68382401) clinical trials, from July 7, 2011, to April 1, 2019 (UK Clinical Research Network Study Portfolio 9461). Participants were divided into training (n=557) and validation (n=334) cohorts to identify optimal risk groups. The biomarkers evaluated were overexpression of p53, cellular atypia, and 17 clinical demographic variables. Endoscopic biopsy diagnosis of high-grade dysplasia or cancer was the primary endpoint. Clinical feasibility of a decision tree for Cytosponge triage was evaluated in a real-world prospective cohort from Aug 27, 2020 (DELTA; ISRCTN91655550; n=223), in response to COVID-19 and the need to provide an alternative to endoscopic surveillance. FINDINGS: The prevalence of high-grade dysplasia or cancer determined by the current gold standard of endoscopic biopsy was 17% (92 of 557 patients) in the training cohort and 10% (35 of 344) in the validation cohort. From the new biomarker analysis, three risk groups were identified: high risk, defined as atypia or p53 overexpression or both on Cytosponge; moderate risk, defined by the presence of a clinical risk factor (age, sex, and segment length); and low risk, defined as Cytosponge-negative and no clinical risk factors. The risk of high-grade dysplasia or intramucosal cancer in the high-risk group was 52% (68 of 132 patients) in the training cohort and 41% (31 of 75) in the validation cohort, compared with 2% (five of 210) and 1% (two of 185) in the low-risk group, respectively. In the real-world setting, Cytosponge results prospectively identified 39 (17%) of 223 patients as high risk (atypia or p53 overexpression, or both) requiring endoscopy, among whom the positive predictive value was 31% (12 of 39 patients) for high-grade dysplasia or intramucosal cancer and 44% (17 of 39) for any grade of dysplasia. INTERPRETATION: Cytosponge atypia, p53 overexpression, and clinical risk factors (age, sex, and segment length) could be used to prioritise patients for endoscopy. Further investigation could validate their use in clinical practice and lead to a substantial reduction in endoscopy procedures compared with current surveillance pathways. FUNDING: Medical Research Council, Cancer Research UK, Innovate UK.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma/pathology , Barrett Esophagus/pathology , COVID-19 , Esophageal Neoplasms/pathology , Patient Selection , Watchful Waiting/methods , Adenocarcinoma/diagnostic imaging , Adenocarcinoma/metabolism , Aged , Barrett Esophagus/diagnostic imaging , Barrett Esophagus/metabolism , Barrett Esophagus/therapy , Biomarkers/metabolism , COVID-19/prevention & control , Clinical Decision-Making , Clinical Trials as Topic , Cross-Sectional Studies , Decision Trees , Disease Progression , Esophageal Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Esophageal Neoplasms/metabolism , Esophagoscopy , Feasibility Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pilot Projects , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Trefoil Factor-3/metabolism , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/metabolism
17.
N Z Med J ; 135(1565): 83-94, 2022 Nov 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2112071

ABSTRACT

AIM: To determine the feasibility and acceptability of a telehealth offer and contactless delivery of human papillomavirus (HPV) cervical screening self-test during the 2021 COVID-19 Level 4 lockdown in Auckland, New Zealand. METHODS: A small proof-of-concept study was undertaken to test telehealth approaches in never-screened, due or overdue Maori and Pacific women enrolled in a local Primary Health Organisation (PHO). Study invitation, active follow-up, nurse-led discussions, result notification and a post-test questionnaire were all delivered through telehealth. RESULTS: A sample of 197 eligible Maori and Pacific women were invited to take part, of which 86 women were successfully contacted. Sixty-six agreed to take part. Overall uptake was 61 samples returned (31.8%) and uptake of all contactable women was 70.9%. Six of the 61 HPV self-tests (9.8%) were positive, all for non 16/18 types, and were referred for cytology. Three had negative cytology results, and three with positive cytology results were referred for colposcopy. CONCLUSION: The offer of HPV self-testing during COVID-19 lockdown was both feasible and highly acceptable for Maori and Pacific women. Importantly, HPV self-testing via telehealth and mail-out, alongside other options, offers a potential pro-equity approach for addressing the impact of deferred screens due to COVID-19 and other longstanding coverage issues.


Subject(s)
Alphapapillomavirus , COVID-19 , Papillomavirus Infections , Telemedicine , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Papillomavirus Infections/diagnosis , Papillomavirus Infections/epidemiology , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/epidemiology , Self-Testing , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander , Feasibility Studies , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , New Zealand/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Papillomaviridae , Colposcopy , Mass Screening , Disease Outbreaks , Vaginal Smears
18.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(22)2022 Nov 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110102

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Long-COVID affects over 144 million people globally. In the absence of treatments, there is a need to establish the efficacy of therapies that improve patient outcomes. Forest bathing has been demonstrated to improve physical and mental outcomes but there is no evidence in Long-COVID patients. Accordingly, this pilot study sought to determine the feasibility and effectiveness of online forest bathing in adults with Long-COVID. METHODS: Feasibility was assessed by monitoring retention rates and participant feedback. In a waitlist controlled, repeated measures design, 22 Long-COVID patients completed weekly online surveys during a four-week waitlist control period, before engaging in four weekly online forest bathing sessions, completing post-intervention surveys following each session. RESULTS: In terms of retention, 27% did not provide post-intervention data, reasons for non-adherence were: feeling too ill, having medical appointments, or having career responsibilities. Compared with the waitlist control period, there were statistically significant improvements in Anxiety (49% decrease), Rumination (48% decrease), Social Connection (78% increase), and Long-COVID symptoms (22% decrease). Written qualitative comments indicated that participants experienced feelings of calm and joy, felt more connected socially and with nature, and experienced a break from the pain and rumination surrounding their illness. CONCLUSIONS: Online Forest bathing resulted in significant improvements in well-being and symptom severity and could be considered an accessible and inexpensive adjunct therapy for Long-COVID patients. Where people have limited access to in-person nature, virtual nature may offer an alternative to improve health and well-being outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , Pilot Projects , COVID-19/epidemiology , Feasibility Studies , Anxiety/therapy , Forests
19.
BMC Prim Care ; 23(1): 277, 2022 11 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2108744

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Chagas is a public health problem, especially in Latin America, exacerbated by migratory movements and increasing urbanization. Argentina is among the countries with the highest estimated prevalence in the region, with 1,500,000 people infected, with mother to child as the main mode of transmission. Vertical transmission has been significantly reduced by treating women of childbearing age; several guidelines in the region recommend treatment as a primary prevention strategy for the child and a secondary prevention strategy for women and their families. Despite recommendations, women of childbearing age are not always treated, and children do not receive timely diagnosis and treatment. The objective of this research was to design an implementation strategy to improve using Chagas guidelines focused on attending women of childbearing age and children at the primary healthcare level and pilot it in three primary health care centers in Argentina. METHODS: We conducted a pilot feasibility study using the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research. A qualitative process evaluation was conducted using semi-structured interviews with health care providers and observations in primary health care centers. RESULTS: We developed a multifaceted implementation strategy including training, flowcharts and reminders, a register of suspected and confirmed cases, and the selection of a management facilitator. The pilot study took place between September 2019 and May 2020. The implementation level was heterogeneous and varied depending on the components, being the facilitating factors, the simplicity of the intervention, professionals' willingness to expand the indication of serologic tests, and staff commitment to the adoption of intervention components. The main barriers found were the change of authorities at the local level, some professionals´ reluctance to administer etiological treatment, staff shortages, lack of diagnostic supplies, and the health emergency caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: Behavioral change strategies should be applied to improve implementation to address some of the main barriers, including support actions offered by opinion leaders, medical experts, and local health authorities. Rapid diagnostic tests should be readily available to maintain behavior changes. We suggest further refinement of the strategy and its implementation in more centers to assess outcomes prospectively with a hybrid implementation research design.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Child , Female , Humans , Pilot Projects , Feasibility Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , Argentina/epidemiology , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Primary Health Care
20.
J Subst Abuse Treat ; 143: 108896, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2105480

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Methadone is one of the most utilized treatments for opioid use disorder. However, requirements for observing methadone dosing can impose barriers to patients and increase risk for respiratory illness transmission (e.g., COVID-19). Video observation of methadone dosing at home could allow opioid treatment programs (OTPs) to offer more take-home doses while ensuring patient safety through remote observation of ingestion. METHODS: Between April and August 2020, a clinical pilot program of video observation of methadone take-home dosing via smartphone was conducted within a multisite OTP agency. Participating patients completed a COVID-19 symptom screener and submitted video recordings of themselves ingesting all methadone take-home doses. Patients who followed these procedures for a two-week trial period could continue participating in the full pilot program and potentially receive more take-home doses. This retrospective observational study characterizes patient engagement and compares clinical outcomes with matched controls. RESULTS: Of 44 patients who initiated the two-week trial, 33 (75 %) were successful and continued participating in the full pilot program. Twenty full pilot participants (61 %) received increased take-home doses. Full pilot participants had more days with observed dosing over a 60-day period than matched controls (mean = 53.2 vs. 16.6 days, respectively). Clinical outcomes were similar between pilot participants and matched controls. CONCLUSIONS: Video observation of methadone take-home dosing implemented during the COVID-19 pandemic was feasible. This model has the potential to enhance safety by increasing rates of observed methadone dosing and reducing infection risks and barriers associated with relying solely on face-to-face observation of methadone dosing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Opioid-Related Disorders , Humans , Methadone , Pandemics , Feasibility Studies , Pilot Projects , Opioid-Related Disorders/drug therapy , Opioid-Related Disorders/rehabilitation , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , Opiate Substitution Treatment/methods
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL