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BMC Emerg Med ; 22(1): 170, 2022 10 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089162


BACKGROUND: Acute appendicitis is the most common cause of acute abdomen. During the pandemic, to contain the spread of COVID-19, there were some integral changes in the medical processes based on the pandemic prevention policy, especially regarding emergency surgery. This study was conducted to investigate whether this pandemic also impacted the decision-making for both patients and medical personnel along with the treatment outcomes. METHODS: Patients of age 18 years or older who were diagnosed clinically and radiologically with acute appendicitis between Jan 1, 2017, and Dec 31, 202,0 were reviewed. The data of 1991 cases were collected and used for this study. Two groups were formed, one group before and the other group after the outbreak. The gathered data included gender, age, appendiceal fecalith, outcomes of treatment, and long-term outcomes of non-operation (8 months follow-up). We also collected details of surgical cases from the above two groups. This data also included age, gender, appendiceal fecalith, fever, jaundice, length of onset before presenting to an emergency department (ED), anesthesia, surgery, white cell count, pathology, complications, and length of stay. We compared the above data respectively and analyzed the differences. RESULTS: Compared to the period before the outbreak, patient visits for acute appendicitis remarkably dropped (19.8%), but surgical cases showed no change (dropped by roughly 5%). There were significant differences (P < 0.05) in failure of non-operation(after the pandemic 8.31% vs. before pandemic 3.22%), interval appendectomy(after pandemic 6.29% vs. before pandemic 12.84%), recurrence(after pandemic 23.27% vs. before pandemic 14.46%), and outcomes of recurrence. There was a significant difference (P < 0.05) in anesthesia method, surgery way, and complications( before pandemic 4.15% vs. after pandemic9.89% P < 0.05) in patients who underwent the surgery. There was no statistical difference (P > 0.05) concerning age, gender, fever, jaundice, appendiceal fecalith, white cell count, and length of onset before presenting to the ED. CONCLUSION: The current pandemic prevention policy is very effective, but some decision-making processes of doctor-patient have changed in the context of COVID-19 pandemic, that further influenced some treatment outcomes and might lead to a potential economic burden. It is essential to address the undue concern of everyone and optimize the treatment process.

Appendicitis , COVID-19 , Fecal Impaction , Humans , Infant , Adolescent , Appendicitis/epidemiology , Appendicitis/surgery , Appendicitis/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Fecal Impaction/epidemiology , Appendectomy/methods , Acute Disease , Retrospective Studies , Length of Stay
N Engl J Med ; 383(20): 1907-1919, 2020 11 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-920642


BACKGROUND: Antibiotic therapy has been proposed as an alternative to surgery for the treatment of appendicitis. METHODS: We conducted a pragmatic, nonblinded, noninferiority, randomized trial comparing antibiotic therapy (10-day course) with appendectomy in patients with appendicitis at 25 U.S. centers. The primary outcome was 30-day health status, as assessed with the European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions (EQ-5D) questionnaire (scores range from 0 to 1, with higher scores indicating better health status; noninferiority margin, 0.05 points). Secondary outcomes included appendectomy in the antibiotics group and complications through 90 days; analyses were prespecified in subgroups defined according to the presence or absence of an appendicolith. RESULTS: In total, 1552 adults (414 with an appendicolith) underwent randomization; 776 were assigned to receive antibiotics (47% of whom were not hospitalized for the index treatment) and 776 to undergo appendectomy (96% of whom underwent a laparoscopic procedure). Antibiotics were noninferior to appendectomy on the basis of 30-day EQ-5D scores (mean difference, 0.01 points; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.001 to 0.03). In the antibiotics group, 29% had undergone appendectomy by 90 days, including 41% of those with an appendicolith and 25% of those without an appendicolith. Complications were more common in the antibiotics group than in the appendectomy group (8.1 vs. 3.5 per 100 participants; rate ratio, 2.28; 95% CI, 1.30 to 3.98); the higher rate in the antibiotics group could be attributed to those with an appendicolith (20.2 vs. 3.6 per 100 participants; rate ratio, 5.69; 95% CI, 2.11 to 15.38) and not to those without an appendicolith (3.7 vs. 3.5 per 100 participants; rate ratio, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.45 to 2.43). The rate of serious adverse events was 4.0 per 100 participants in the antibiotics group and 3.0 per 100 participants in the appendectomy group (rate ratio, 1.29; 95% CI, 0.67 to 2.50). CONCLUSIONS: For the treatment of appendicitis, antibiotics were noninferior to appendectomy on the basis of results of a standard health-status measure. In the antibiotics group, nearly 3 in 10 participants had undergone appendectomy by 90 days. Participants with an appendicolith were at a higher risk for appendectomy and for complications than those without an appendicolith. (Funded by the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute; CODA number, NCT02800785.).

Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Appendectomy , Appendicitis/drug therapy , Appendicitis/surgery , Appendix/surgery , Absenteeism , Administration, Intravenous , Adult , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects , Appendectomy/statistics & numerical data , Appendicitis/complications , Appendix/pathology , Fecal Impaction , Female , Health Status , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Laparoscopy , Male , Middle Aged , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Quality of Life , Surveys and Questionnaires , Treatment Outcome