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1.
BMJ Open ; 12(4): e059940, 2022 Apr 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1788968

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We sought to investigate if duplicate faecal immunochemical testing (FIT) sampling improves the negative and positive predictive value of patients thought to be at risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). Specifically, we aimed to investigate whether the proportion of FIT-negative CRC missed by a single FIT test in symptomatic patients could be reduced by duplicate FIT testing. DESIGN: A retrospective service evaluation cohort study of the diagnostic accuracy of duplicate FIT testing. SETTING: Patients referred from primary care with suspected CRC to four secondary care trusts in North-West England. PARTICIPANTS: 28 622 patients over 18-years-old with lower gastrointestinal symptoms suggestive of CRC who completed two FIT samples. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: The performance of duplicate FIT for detecting CRC at a threshold of 10 µgHb/g. RESULTS: The sensitivity if either test was >10 µgHb/g was 0.978 (0.955-0.989), specificity was 0.662 (0.657-0.668), positive predictive value 0.031 (0.028-0.035) and negative predictive value 1.00 (0.999-1.00). Despite two-thirds of patients (18952) being negative following two tests, at this threshold only seven CRC were missed over a 26-month period. All seven patients had other high-risk features which should have prompted investigation. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that in routine NHS practice, a duplicate FIT sample strategy together with clinical evaluation for evidence of anaemia and weight loss is superior to a single FIT sample alone and would allow symptomatic patients to be managed in primary care without the need for urgent referral to secondary care for urgent colonic imaging.


Subject(s)
Colorectal Neoplasms , Early Detection of Cancer , Adolescent , Cohort Studies , Colonoscopy , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , England , Feces/chemistry , Hemoglobins/analysis , Humans , Occult Blood , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity
2.
Gut ; 71(5): 950-960, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1784858

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Implementation of faecal immunochemical tests (FIT) as a triage test in primary healthcare may improve the efficiency of referrals without missing cases of colorectal cancer (CRC). We aim to summarise the performance characteristics of FITs for CRC in symptomatic patients presenting to primary healthcare. DESIGN: We performed a systematic literature review of Medline and EMBASE databases from May 2018 to November 2020. Previous related systematic searches were also adapted to this aim and completed with reference screening. We identified studies performed on adult patients consulting for abdominal symptoms in primary care which reported data such that the FIT diagnostic performance parameters for CRC could be obtained. Bivariate models were used to synthesise available evidence. Meta-regression analysis was performed to evaluate the causes of heterogeneity. RESULTS: Twenty-three studies (69 536 participants) were included (CRC prevalence 0.3%-6.2%). Six studies (n=34 691) assessed FIT as rule in test (threshold of ≥150 µg Hb/g faeces) showing a sensitivity of 64.1% (95% CI 57.8% to 69.9%) and a specificity of 95.0% (95% CI 91.2% to 97.2%). A threshold of 10 µg/g (15 studies; n=48 872) resulted in a sensitivity of 87.2% (95% CI 81.0% to 91.6%) and a specificity of 84.4% (95% CI 79.4% to 88.3%) for CRC. At a 20 µg Hb/g faeces threshold (five studies; n=24 187) less than one additional CRC would be missed per 1000 patients investigated compared with 10 µg Hb/g faeces threshold (CRC prevalence 2%). CONCLUSION: FIT is the test of choice to evaluate patients with new-onset lower gastrointestinal symptoms in primary healthcare.


Subject(s)
Colorectal Neoplasms , Early Detection of Cancer , Adult , Colonoscopy , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Feces/chemistry , Hemoglobins/analysis , Humans , Occult Blood , Primary Health Care/methods , Sensitivity and Specificity
3.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0261344, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1602770

ABSTRACT

With more than 1400 chiropteran species identified to date, bats comprise one-fifth of all mammalian species worldwide. Many studies have associated viral zoonoses with 45 different species of bats in the EU, which cluster within 5 families of bats. For example, the Serotine bats are infected by European Bat 1 Lyssavirus throughout Europe while Myotis bats are shown infected by coronavirus, herpesvirus and paramyxovirus. Correct host species identification is important to increase our knowledge of the ecology and evolutionary pattern of bat viruses in the EU. Bat species identification is commonly determined using morphological keys. Morphological determination of bat species from bat carcasses can be limited in some cases, due to the state of decomposition or nearly indistinguishable morphological features in juvenile bats and can lead to misidentifications. The overall objective of our study was to identify insectivorous bat species using molecular biology tools with the amplification of the partial cytochrome b gene of mitochondrial DNA. Two types of samples were tested in this study, bat wing punches and bat faeces. A total of 163 bat wing punches representing 22 species, and 31 faecal pellets representing 7 species were included in the study. From the 163 bat wing punches tested, a total of 159 were genetically identified from amplification of the partial cyt b gene. All 31 faecal pellets were genetically identified based on the cyt b gene. A comparison between morphological and genetic determination showed 21 misidentifications from the 163 wing punches, representing ~12.5% of misidentifications of morphological determination compared with the genetic method, across 11 species. In addition, genetic determination allowed the identification of 24 out of 25 morphologically non-determined bat samples. Our findings demonstrate the importance of a genetic approach as an efficient and reliable method to identify bat species precisely.


Subject(s)
Chiroptera/classification , Chiroptera/genetics , DNA, Mitochondrial/analysis , Animals , Epidemiological Monitoring , Feces/chemistry , France , Rabies/veterinary , Wings, Animal/chemistry , Zoonoses
4.
Ann Clin Biochem ; 59(3): 171-177, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1582786

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: NICE recommends measurement of faecal haemoglobin (f-Hb) using faecal immunochemical test (FIT) when colorectal cancer is suspected and calprotectin (f-Cal) in the context of inflammatory bowel disease, though neither is disease specific. During the COVID-19 pandemic, f-Hb has been a requirement prior to referral for endoscopy in England; f-Cal is often performed simultaneously. The aim of this study was to investigate test performance of both tests for significant bowel disease in those patients referred. DESIGN: All adult patients with simultaneous measurements of f-Hb and f-Cal between April 2019 and September 2020 were included. For those referred, outcomes were determined from clinical records. RESULTS: 650 patients with simultaneous samples for f-Hb an f-Cal were managed in Primary Care; 319 patients were referred to hospital; SBD was found in 32 (10.0%) (CRC 5, high risk adenomas 5, IBD 22). At a cut-off of 10 µg/g for f-Hb and 200 µg/g for f-Cal, the sensitivity, specificity and negative predictive value for diagnosis of SBD were 84.4%, 58.2% and 96.7% and 68.8%, 89.6% and 95.7%, respectively. Performance of both tests would have enabled diagnosis of two more cases of significant, but non-malignant, bowel disease but required over 4% more referrals for investigation. CONCLUSION: Use of FIT has become established to assist prioritisation of patients for referral from Primary Care. Whilst introduced specifically for CRC, FIT performs well as a rule out for IBD in Primary Care and the use of f-Cal is not required.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colorectal Neoplasms , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Adult , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Colorectal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Early Detection of Cancer , Feces/chemistry , Hemoglobins/analysis , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/diagnosis , Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex , Occult Blood , Pandemics , Primary Health Care , Sensitivity and Specificity
5.
Microbiol Spectr ; 9(3): e0112221, 2021 12 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511426

ABSTRACT

Whole-genome sequencing was used to characterize carbapenemase-producing Enterobacterales (CPE) strains recovered from rectal screening swab samples obtained from children at a tertiary-care pediatric hospital in Qatar during a 3-year period. A total of 72 CPE isolates recovered from 61 fecal carriers were characterized. Escherichia coli (47 isolates [65.3%]) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (22 isolates [30.6%]) were the most common species identified. High levels of genetic diversity were observed for both species. These 72 isolates produced 78 carbapenemases, characterized as either NDM-type (41 enzymes [52.6%]) or OXA-48-type (37 enzymes [47.4%]). NDM-5 (24 enzymes [30.8%]), NDM-1 (15 enzymes [19.2%]), and OXA-181 (15 enzymes [19.2%]) were the most common variants detected within each type. Twenty-three NDM producers exhibited difficult-to-treat resistance, compared with only 2 of the OXA-48 producers. Multiple comorbidities were identified in 88.5% of the patients, whereas recent travel history to countries in which CPE are endemic was documented for 57.4% of the patients. All 9 blaOXA-48-type-gene-containing E. coli sequence type 38 (ST38) strains were isolated from patients without international travel history. The mean quarterly incidence of fecal carriage decreased more than 6-fold after the implementation of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related international travel restrictions in Qatar in mid-March 2020. Our data suggest that NDM-type and OXA-48-type carbapenemases expressed by a large diversity of E. coli and K. pneumoniae genotypes are largely dominant in the pediatric population of Qatar. Although our data indicate successful local expansion of E. coli ST38 strains harboring blaOXA-244 genes, at least within health care settings, blaOXA-48-type and blaNDM-type genes appear to have been mainly introduced sporadically by asymptomatic carriers who visited or received health care in some nearby countries in which the genes are endemic. IMPORTANCE To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study addressing the molecular characteristics of CPE in a pediatric population in Qatar using whole-genome sequencing. Since several countries in the Arabian Peninsula share relatively similar demographic patterns and international links, it is plausible that the molecular characteristics of CPE in children, at least in the middle and eastern parts of the region, are similar to those observed in our study.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Proteins/chemistry , Enterobacteriaceae/enzymology , Feces/chemistry , beta-Lactamases/chemistry , Adolescent , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Bacterial Proteins/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Child , Enterobacteriaceae/genetics , Enterobacteriaceae/isolation & purification , Escherichia coli/enzymology , Escherichia coli/genetics , Genotype , Humans , Klebsiella pneumoniae/enzymology , Klebsiella pneumoniae/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Mutation , Qatar , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Whole Genome Sequencing , beta-Lactamases/genetics , beta-Lactamases/isolation & purification
6.
World J Gastroenterol ; 27(38): 6415-6429, 2021 Oct 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1472443

ABSTRACT

Faecal immunochemical tests (FITs) are the most widely colorectal cancer (CRC) diagnostic biomarker available. Many population screening programmes are based on this biomarker, with the goal of reducing CRC mortality. Moreover, in recent years, a large amount of evidence has been produced on the use of FIT to detect CRC in patients with abdominal symptoms in primary healthcare as well as in surveillance after adenoma resection. The aim of this review is to highlight the available evidence on these two topics. We will summarize the evidence on diagnostic yield in symptomatic patients with CRC and significant colonic lesion and the different options to use this (thresholds, brands, number of determinations, prediction models and combinations). We will include recommendations on FIT strategies in primary healthcare proposed by regulatory bodies and scientific societies and their potential effects on healthcare resources and CRC prognosis. Finally, we will show information regarding FIT-based surveillance as an alternative to endoscopic surveillance after high-risk polyp resection. To conclude, due to the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, FIT-based strategies have become extremely relevant since they enable a reduction of colonoscopy demand and access to the healthcare system by selecting individuals with the highest risk of CRC.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colorectal Neoplasms , Colonoscopy , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Colorectal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Early Detection of Cancer , Feces/chemistry , Hemoglobins/analysis , Humans , Mass Screening , Occult Blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
9.
World J Gastroenterol ; 27(22): 3130-3137, 2021 Jun 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1268366

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: One third of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients have gastrointestinal symptoms. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA has been detected in stool samples of approximately 50% of COVID-19 individuals. Fecal calprotectin is a marker of gastrointestinal inflammation in the general population. AIM: To investigate if fecal calprotectin correlates with SARS-CoV-2 intestinal shedding in COVID-19 patients with pneumonia. METHODS: Patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia admitted to the Infectious Disease Unit (University Hospital of Trieste, Italy) from September to November 2020 were consecutively enrolled in the study. Fecal samples were collected and analyzed for quantification of fecal calprotectin (normal value < 50 mg/kg) and SARS-CoV-2 RNA presence by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Inter-group differences were determined between patients with and without diarrhea and patients with and without detection of fecal SARS-CoV-2. RESULTS: We enrolled 51 adults (40 males) with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. Ten patients (20%) presented with diarrhea. Real-time-PCR of SARS-CoV-2 in stools was positive in 39 patients (76%), in all patients with diarrhea (100%) and in more than two thirds (29/41, 71%) of patients without diarrhea. Obesity was one of the most common comorbidities (13 patients, 25%); all obese patients (100%) (P = 0.021) tested positive for fecal SARS-CoV-2. Median fecal calprotectin levels were 60 mg/kg [interquartile range (IQR) 21; 108]; higher fecal calprotectin levels were found in the group with SARS-CoV-2 in stools (74 mg/kg, IQR 29; 132.5) compared to the group without SARS-CoV-2 (39 mg/kg, IQR 14; 71) (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: High fecal calprotectin levels among COVID-19 patients correlate with SARS-CoV-2 detection in stools supporting the hypothesis that this virus can lead to bowel inflammation and potentially to the 'leaky gut' syndrome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex/analysis , Virus Shedding , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , Feces/chemistry , Female , Humans , Italy , Male , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Health Phys ; 121(1): 73-76, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1232236

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: This work considers the implications of cloth masks due to the COVID-19 pandemic on suspected plutonium inhalations and dose assessment. In a plutonium inhalation scenario, the greater filtration efficiency for large particles exhibited by cloth masks can reduce early fecal excretion without a corresponding reduction in dose. For plutonium incidents in which cloth masks are worn, urinary excretion should be the preferred method of inferring dose immediately after the inhalation, and fecal excretion should be considered unreliable for up to 10 days.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Feces/chemistry , Inhalation Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Masks , Occupational Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Plutonium/analysis , Radiation Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Radiation Monitoring , Humans , Inhalation Exposure/prevention & control , Occupational Exposure/prevention & control , Plutonium/pharmacokinetics , Radiation Exposure/prevention & control , Radiation Monitoring/methods , Respiratory System/chemistry
11.
BMJ Open Gastroenterol ; 8(1)2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1219408

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Following the disruption of normal paediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) services during the peak of the COVID-19 pandemic, we prospectively audited the first-time use of home faecal calprotectin testing. We aimed to provide an alternative to laboratory tests and to assess the value of home testing as part of our regular services going forward. METHODS: Home test kits as well as accompanying user instructions were made available to our patients with paediatric IBD that required faecal calprotectin test between 17 April and 12 August 2020. Once the user completed the test, results were automatically uploaded to the result portal and clinical staff were alerted. A user feedback questionnaire was sent to users that had completed the home test. RESULTS: Of the 54 patients, 41 (76%) aged between 4.7 and 18.1 years used the home test. A total of 45 home tests were done, one of which produced an invalid result. The decision to modify management was made in 12 (29%) of the patients, while 14 (34%) had no changes made and 15 (37%) required further assessment. Twenty (48.8%) responded to the questionnaire and 85% stated that they preferred the home test to the laboratory testing method. CONCLUSIONS: Home calprotectin tests were useful in guiding clinical management during a time when laboratory testing was less available. They may offer benefits as part of routine paediatric IBD monitoring to help target appointments and reduce unnecessary hospital attendances in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Feces/chemistry , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/therapy , Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex/analysis , Pandemics , Point-of-Care Testing , Adolescent , Biomarkers/analysis , Child , Child, Preschool , Clinical Chemistry Tests/statistics & numerical data , Feedback , Female , Home Care Services , Humans , Male , Patient Portals , Patient Preference/statistics & numerical data , Prospective Studies , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic/statistics & numerical data , Reference Values , Surveys and Questionnaires
12.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(3)2021 Mar 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1143533

ABSTRACT

Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) negative results in the upper respiratory tract represent a major concern for the clinical management of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. Herein, we report the case of a 43-years-old man with a strong clinical suspicion of COVID-19, who resulted in being negative to multiple severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RT-PCR tests performed on different oropharyngeal and nasopharyngeal swabs, despite serology having confirmed the presence of SARS-CoV-2 IgM. The patient underwent a chest computed tomography (CT) that showed typical imaging findings of COVID-19 pneumonia. The presence of viral SARS-CoV-2 was confirmed only by performing a SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR test on stool. Performing of SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR test on fecal samples can be a rapid and useful approach to confirm COVID-19 diagnosis in cases where there is an apparent discrepancy between COVID-19 clinical symptoms coupled with chest CT and SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR tests' results on samples from the upper respiratory tract.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Feces/chemistry , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Nasopharynx/chemistry , Oropharynx/chemistry , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19 Serological Testing , False Negative Reactions , Feces/virology , Humans , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Male , Nasopharynx/virology , Oropharynx/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Specimen Handling , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
13.
Br J Biomed Sci ; 78(4): 211-217, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1101764

ABSTRACT

Introduction: We aimed to determine the analytical capabilities of a commonly used faecal immunochemical test (FIT) to detect faecal haemoglobin (Hb) in symptomatic people attending primary care in the context of the English NICE DG30 guidance.Materials and Methods: Data obtained from independent verification studies and clinical testing of the HM-JACKarc FIT method in routine primary care practice were analysed to derive performance characteristics.Results: Detection capabilities for the FIT method were 0.5 µg/g (limit of blank), 1.3 µg/g (limit of detection) and 3.0 µg/g (limit of quantitation). Of 33 non-homogenized specimens, 31 (93.9%) analysed in triplicate were consistently categorized relative to 10 µg/g, compared to all 33 (100%) homogenized specimens. Imprecision was higher (median 27.8%, (range 20.5% to 48.6%)) in non-homogenized specimens than in homogenized specimens (10.2%, (7.0 to 13.5%)). Considerable variation was observed in sequential clinical specimens from individual patients but no positive or negative trend in specimen degradation was observed over time (p = 0.26).Discussion: The FIT immunoassay evaluated is capable of detecting faecal Hb at concentrations well below the DG30 threshold of 10 µg/g and is suitable for application in this context. The greatest practical challenge to FIT performance is reproducible sampling, the pre-analytical step associated with most variability. Further research should focus on reducing sampling variability, particularly as post-COVID-19 guidance recommends greater FIT utilization.


Subject(s)
Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Early Detection of Cancer/standards , Feces/chemistry , Hemoglobins/analysis , Immunohistochemistry/standards , Occult Blood , Primary Health Care , Biomarkers/analysis , COVID-19 , Colorectal Neoplasms/blood , England , Humans , Limit of Detection , Predictive Value of Tests , Reproducibility of Results
14.
Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 18(4): 269-283, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1085424

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread to more than 200 countries and regions globally. SARS-CoV-2 is thought to spread mainly through respiratory droplets and close contact. However, reports have shown that a notable proportion of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) develop gastrointestinal symptoms and nearly half of patients confirmed to have COVID-19 have shown detectable SARS-CoV-2 RNA in their faecal samples. Moreover, SARS-CoV-2 infection reportedly alters intestinal microbiota, which correlated with the expression of inflammatory factors. Furthermore, multiple in vitro and in vivo animal studies have provided direct evidence of intestinal infection by SARS-CoV-2. These lines of evidence highlight the nature of SARS-CoV-2 gastrointestinal infection and its potential faecal-oral transmission. Here, we summarize the current findings on the gastrointestinal manifestations of COVID-19 and its possible mechanisms. We also discuss how SARS-CoV-2 gastrointestinal infection might occur and the current evidence and future studies needed to establish the occurrence of faecal-oral transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Diarrhea/physiopathology , Dysbiosis/physiopathology , Gastroenteritis/physiopathology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Nausea/physiopathology , Vomiting/physiopathology , Abdominal Pain/physiopathology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Anorexia/physiopathology , COVID-19/transmission , Cell Line , Colon/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Feces/chemistry , Gastroenteritis/virology , Humans , Intestinal Mucosa/metabolism , Intestine, Small/metabolism , Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex/metabolism , Organoids , RNA, Viral , Receptors, Coronavirus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Viral Load , Virus Shedding
16.
Br J Cancer ; 124(7): 1231-1236, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065853

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The faecal immunochemical test (FIT) was introduced to triage patients with low-risk symptoms of possible colorectal cancer in English primary care in 2017, underpinned by little primary care evidence. METHODS: All healthcare providers in the South West of England (population 4 million) participated in this evaluation. 3890 patients aged ≥50 years presenting in primary care with low-risk symptoms of colorectal cancer had a FIT from 01/06/2018 to 31/12/2018. A threshold of 10 µg Hb/g faeces defined a positive test. RESULTS: Six hundred and eighteen (15.9%) patients tested positive; 458 (74.1%) had an urgent referral to specialist lower gastrointestinal (GI) services within three months. Forty-three were diagnosed with colorectal cancer within 12 months. 3272 tested negative; 324 (9.9%) had an urgent referral within three months. Eight were diagnosed with colorectal cancer within 12 months. Positive predictive value was 7.0% (95% CI 5.1-9.3%). Negative predictive value was 99.8% (CI 99.5-99.9%). Sensitivity was 84.3% (CI 71.4-93.0%), specificity 85.0% (CI 83.8-86.1%). The area under the ROC curve was 0.92 (CI 0.86-0.96). A threshold of 37 µg Hb/g faeces would identify patients with an individual 3% risk of cancer. CONCLUSIONS: FIT performs exceptionally well to triage patients with low-risk symptoms of colorectal cancer in primary care; a higher threshold may be appropriate in the wake of the COVID-19 crisis.


Subject(s)
Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Feces/chemistry , Occult Blood , Primary Health Care , Anemia, Iron-Deficiency/complications , Colorectal Neoplasms/complications , Colorectal Neoplasms/physiopathology , England , Female , Hemoglobins/analysis , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , Sensitivity and Specificity , Weight Loss
17.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1152: 338267, 2021 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1056120

ABSTRACT

Although SARS-CoV-2 can invade the intestine, though its effect on digestion and absorption is not fully understood. In the present study, 56 COVID-19 patients and 47 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects were divided into a discovery cohort and a validation cohort. Blood, faeces and clinical information were collected from the patients in the hospital and at discharge. The faecal metabolome was analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and Spearman's correlation analyses of clinical features, the serum metabolome, and the faecal micro- and mycobiota were conducted. The results showed that, the faeces of COVID-19 patients were enriched with important nutrients that should be metabolized or absorbed, such as sucrose and 2-palmitoyl-glycerol; diet-related components that cannot be synthesized by humans, such as 1,5-anhydroglucitol and D-pinitol; and harmful metabolites, such as oxalate, were also detected. In contrast, purine metabolites such as deoxyinosine and hypoxanthine, low-water-soluble long-chain fatty alcohols/acids such as behenic acid, compounds rarely occurring in nature such as D-allose and D-arabinose, and microbe-related compounds such as 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol were depleted in the faeces of COVID-19 patients. Moreover, these metabolites significantly correlated with altered serum metabolites such as oxalate and gut microbesincluding Ruminococcaceae, Actinomyces, Sphingomonas and Aspergillus. Although levels of several faecal metabolites, such as sucrose, 1,5-anhydroglucitol and D-pinitol, of discharged patients were not different from those of healthy controls (HCs), those of oxalate and 2-palmitoyl-glycerol did differ. Therefore, alterations in the faecal metabolome of COVID-19 patients may reflect malnutrition and intestinal inflammation and warrant greater attention. The results of present study provide new insights into the pathogenesis and treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Dysbiosis/diagnosis , Feces/chemistry , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/physiology , Metabolome/physiology , Adult , Bacteria/metabolism , Cohort Studies , Dysbiosis/physiopathology , Feces/microbiology , Female , Fungi/metabolism , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 105(4): 1407-1419, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1052960

ABSTRACT

Bats as flying mammals are potent vectors and natural reservoir hosts for many infectious viruses, bacteria, and fungi, also detected in their excreta such as guano. Accelerated deforestation, urbanization, and anthropization hastily lead to overpopulation of the bats in urban areas allowing easy interaction with other animals, expansion, and emergence of new zoonotic disease outbreaks potentially harmful to humans. Therefore, getting new insights in the microbiome of bat guano from different places represents an imperative for the future. Furthermore, the use of novel high-throughput sequencing technologies allows better insight in guano microbiome and potentially indicated that some species could be typical guano-dwelling members. Bats are well known as a natural reservoir of many zoonotic viruses such as Ebola, Nipah, Marburg, lyssaviruses, rabies, henipaviruses, and many coronaviruses which caused a high number of outbreaks including ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Additionally, many bacterial and fungal pathogens were identified as common guano residents. Thus, the presence of multi-drug-resistant bacteria as environmental reservoirs of extended spectrum ß-lactamases and carbapenemase-producing strains has been confirmed. Bat guano is the most suitable substrate for fungal reproduction and dissemination, including pathogenic yeasts and keratinophilic and dimorphic human pathogenic fungi known as notorious causative agents of severe endemic mycoses like histoplasmosis and fatal cryptococcosis, especially deadly in immunocompromised individuals. This review provides an overview of bat guano microbiota diversity and the significance of autochthonous and pathogenic taxa for humans and the environment, highlighting better understanding in preventing emerging diseases. KEY POINTS: Bat guano as reservoir and source for spreading of autochthonous and pathogenic microbiota Bat guano vs. novel zoonotic disease outbreaks Destruction of bat natural habitats urgently demands increased human awareness.


Subject(s)
Chiroptera/microbiology , Feces/chemistry , Microbiota , Animals , Biodiversity , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/microbiology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/prevention & control , Conservation of Natural Resources , Disease Reservoirs , Humans
19.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(2): 2151-2163, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1031655

ABSTRACT

The objective of this prospective cohort study was to investigate the effect of bovine coronavirus (BCoV), bovine rotavirus (BRoV), and Cryptosporidiumparvum on dairy calf health and performance and to determine the prevalence of these pathogens. A total of 198 male dairy calves housed at a grain-fed veal facility were examined from June 11, 2018, to October 9, 2018. Calves were fed milk replacer twice daily and housed individually until weaning at 56 d. Once weaned, calves were moved into groups of 5 until they were moved to a finishing facility at 77 d. At the grain-fed veal facility, calves were scored for fecal consistency for the first 28 d and had fecal samples taken on arrival and at 7 and 14 d. Fecal samples were frozen and submitted to a commercial laboratory, where they were tested for BCoV, C.parvum, and 2 groups of BRoV: group A (BRoV A) and group B (BRoV B). Calves were weighed on arrival and at 14, 49, 56, and 77 d using a digital body scale. Treatments for disease and mortalities that occurred over the 77 d were also recorded. Statistical models, including Cox proportional hazards and repeated measures models, were built to determine the effect of infection with 1 of the pathogens. Over the 3 sampling points, 151 (85.8%), 178 (94.2%), 3 (1.5%), and 97 (57.4%) calves tested positive at least once for BCoV, BRoV A, BRoV B, and C.parvum, respectively. The source of the calves and the level of serum total protein measured on arrival were associated with testing positive for a pathogen. Calves that tested positive for C.parvum had an increased proportion of days with diarrhea and severe diarrhea; calves that tested positive for BCoV and BRoV A had an increased proportion of days with severe diarrhea. In addition, calves that tested positive for C.parvum had a higher hazard of being treated for respiratory disease. With respect to body weight, calves that had diarrhea or severe diarrhea had lower body weight at 49, 56, and 77 d. Specifically, calves that had an increased proportion of days with diarrhea showed a reduction in weight gain of up to 15 kg compared to calves without diarrhea. Calves that tested positive for C.parvum had a lower body weight at 49, 56, and 77 d; calves that tested positive for BCoV had a lower body weight at 56 and 77 d. This study demonstrates that the prevalence of BCoV, BRoV A, and C.parvum infection is high in this population of calves and has significant effects on the occurrence of diarrhea and body weight gain. Future studies should evaluate approaches for minimizing the effect of infection with these pathogens to improve the welfare, health, and productivity of dairy calves.


Subject(s)
Cattle Diseases/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus, Bovine , Cryptosporidiosis/physiopathology , Cryptosporidium parvum , Rotavirus Infections/veterinary , Animals , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/epidemiology , Cattle Diseases/parasitology , Cattle Diseases/virology , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Cryptosporidiosis/parasitology , Diarrhea/parasitology , Diarrhea/veterinary , Diarrhea/virology , Feces/chemistry , Feces/parasitology , Feces/virology , Male , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Tract Diseases/therapy , Respiratory Tract Diseases/veterinary , Rotavirus , Rotavirus Infections/epidemiology , Rotavirus Infections/physiopathology , Weight Gain
20.
Clin Transl Gastroenterol ; 12(1): e00293, 2021 01 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1028690

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has spread from Wuhan, China, and become a worldwide pandemic. Most patients display respiratory symptoms but up to 50% report gastrointestinal symptoms. Neopterin is a surrogate marker for viral inflammation, and its production by macrophages is driven by interferon-γ. METHODS: We measured fecal neopterin in 37 hospitalized COVID-19 patients not requiring intensive care measures and 22 healthy controls. RESULTS: Fecal neopterin was elevated in stool samples from COVID-19 patients compared with that in samples from healthy controls. Especially, patients reporting gastrointestinal symptoms exhibited increased fecal neopterin values. DISCUSSION: COVID-19 is associated with an inflammatory immune response in the gastrointestinal tract.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Feces/chemistry , Gastrointestinal Diseases/metabolism , Gastrointestinal Diseases/virology , Neopterin/analysis , Adult , Aged , Austria/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Female , Gastrointestinal Diseases/diagnosis , Gastrointestinal Tract/immunology , Gastrointestinal Tract/pathology , Gastrointestinal Tract/virology , Humans , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/virology , Inpatients , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , Macrophages/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
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