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1.
Inflamm Bowel Dis ; 26(9): 1306-1314, 2020 08 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-684619

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has a direct impact on the gastrointestinal system, as up to 50% of fecal samples from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients contain detectable viral RNA despite a negative rhino-pharyngeal swab. This finding, together with an intestinal expression of angiotensin conversion enzyme 2 protein, suggests a possible fecal-oral transmission for SARS-CoV-2. Furthermore, gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms are common in COVID-19 patients including watery diarrhea, vomiting-particularly in children-nausea, and abdominal pain. Pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 infection presents significant similarities to those of some immune-mediated diseases, such as inflammatory bowel diseases or rheumatoid arthritis, leading to the hypothesis that targeted therapies used for the treatment of immune-mediated disease could be effective to treat (and possibly prevent) the main complications of COVID-19. In this review, we synthesize the present and future impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection on the gastrointestinal system and on gastroenterology practice, hypothesizing a potential role of the "gut-lung axis" and perhaps of the gut and lung microbiota into the interindividual differential susceptibility to COVID-19 19 disease. Finally, we speculate on the reorganization of outpatient gastroenterology services, which need to consider, among other factors, the major psychological impact of strict lockdown measures on the whole population.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Gastrointestinal Diseases/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Feces/virology , Gastrointestinal Tract/virology , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , RNA, Viral/analysis
2.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B ; 21(9): 749-751, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-745668

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), was found initially in Wuhan, China in early December 2019. The pandemic has spread to 216 countries and regions, infecting more than 23310 000 people and causing over 800 000 deaths globally by Aug. 24, 2020, according to World Health Organization (https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/ novel-coronavirus-2019). Fever, cough, and dyspnea are the three common symptoms of the condition, whereas the conventional transmission route for SARS-CoV-2 is through droplets entering the respiratory tract. To date, infection control measures for COVID-19 have been focusing on the involvement of the respiratory system. However, ignoring potential faecal transmission and the gastrointestinal involvement of SARS-CoV-2 may result in mistakes in attempts to control the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Feces/virology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Betacoronavirus/genetics , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Environmental Microbiology , Humans , Models, Biological , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , RNA, Viral/analysis , RNA, Viral/genetics , Virus Shedding
3.
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 45(5): 560-564, 2020 May 28.
Article in English, Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-745321

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To analyze the clinical characteristics of fecal severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) nucleic acid-positive in patients with coronavirus dasease 2019 (COVID-19) and to provide a scientific basis for the prevention and control of this disease. METHODS: The clinical data of 16 patients with fecal SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid positive, who hospitalized in the North Branch of the First Hospital of Changsha (Changsha Public Health Rescue Center) from January to February 2020, were retrospectively analyzed. Their clinical manifestations, laboratory data and imaging data were summarized. RESULTS: Among the 16 patients, there were 9 males (56.25%) and 7 females (43.75%), the ratio of males to females was 1∶1.29. The age of onset was (43.3±14.6) years. There were 15 patients with contact history of Wuhan, 1 patient with contact history of local patient.Twelve patients were common type (75%), and 4 patients were severe type (25%). Clinical symptoms included fever in 14 patients (87.5%), cough in 12 patients (75%), shortness of breath in 5 patients (31.25%), pharyngalgia in 10 patients (62.5%), fatigue in 7 patients (43.75%), and diarrhea in 4 patients (25%). There were 14 patients (87.5%) with normal or decreased white blood cell count, 11 patients (68.75%) with decreased lymphocyte count, 15 patients (93.75%) with increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate, 13 patients (81.25%) with increased hypersensitivity C-reactive protein, 5 patients (31.25%) with increased procalcitonin, and 8 patients (50%) with increased serum ferritin in peripheral blood, and stool routine was basically normal. Compared with the common type, there was significant difference in the white blood cell and lymphocyte counts in the severe type (P<0.01); the infection indicators, such as hypersensitivity C-reactive protein and serum ferritin, were significantly increased, with significant difference (all P<0.01); but the procalcitonin and erythrocyte sedimentation rate was not significantly different (both P>0.05). Chest CT mainly showed patchy shadows and interstitial changes. According to imaging examination, 4 patients (25%) showed unilateral pneumonia and 12 patients (75%) showed bilateral pneumonia. CONCLUSIONS: The patients have the clinical symptoms of COVID-19, but gastrointestinal symptoms (such as diarrhea) are more common, and the changes of white blood cell count, lymphocyte count, hypersensitivity C-reactive protein, ferritin are more obvious in severe patients.The positivity of fecal nucleic acid suggests the possibility of digestive tract transmission of SARS-CoV-2, and fecal nucleic acid testing can be used as a routine testing method in clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Adult , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , China , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Diarrhea/virology , Feces/virology , Female , Ferritins/analysis , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Retrospective Studies
4.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 10: 445, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-732914

ABSTRACT

A new type of coronavirus-induced pneumonia eventually termed "coronavirus disease 2019" (COVID-19) was diagnosed in patients in Wuhan (Hubei Province, China) in December 2019, and soon spread worldwide. To improve the detection rate of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), we analyzed the results of viral nucleic acid and serum-specific antibody tests on clinical samples from 20 patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection diagnosed at the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University in China. By comparing various sample types collected from COVID-19 patients, we revealed multiple pathways for SARS-CoV-2 shedding, and a prolonged detectable period for viral nucleic acid test in sputum specimens, demonstrating that the timeline of the viral shedding is of great value in determining the time of release from quarantine or discharge from hospital. We also recommend for the application of serological test to assist in confirming SARS-CoV-2 infection judged by viral nucleic acid test, especially when COVID-19-related symptoms have appeared and the viral nucleic acid test was negative. Our findings are critical for the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection and for determining deadline of restriction measures to prevent transmission caused by convalescent patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Feces/virology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Sputum/virology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/physiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , RNA, Viral/analysis , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sensitivity and Specificity , Serologic Tests , Virus Shedding
5.
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr ; 71(2): 150-152, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-729244

ABSTRACT

The aim of the study was to investigate differences in viral shedding in respiratory and fecal samples from children with novel coronavirus disease 19. We searched PubMed, SCOPUS, Embase, and Web of Science databases to identify pediatric studies comparing the pattern of fecal and respiratory shedding of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA. Summary estimates were calculated using random-effects models. Four studies reporting data from 36 children were included. A higher proportion of children had viral shedding in stools after 14 days of symptoms onset compared to respiratory samples (risk ratio = 3.2, 95% confidence interval 1.2-8.9, I2 = 51%). Viral RNA shedding was longer in fecal samples with a mean difference of approximately 9 days (mean difference = 8.6, 95% confidence interval 1.7-15.4, I2 = 77%) compared with respiratory samples. SARS-CoV-2 shedding seems to be present in feces for a longer time than in the respiratory tract of children. Although fecal SARS-CoV-2 presence in feces do not confirm its transmissibility, the high and fast spread of the novel coronavirus disease 19 worldwide indicate other transmission routes are also plausible.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Feces/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , RNA, Viral , Virus Shedding , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Female , Gastrointestinal Tract/virology , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Respiratory System/virology
6.
J Infect Dis ; 222(6): 910-918, 2020 08 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-694657

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite the ongoing spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), knowledge about factors affecting prolonged viral excretion is limited. METHODS: In this study, we retrospectively collected data from 99 hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) between 19 January and 17 February 2020 in Zhejiang Province, China. We classified them into 2 groups based on whether the virus test results eventually became negative. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to evaluate factors associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) shedding. RESULTS: Among 99 patients, 61 patients had SARS-CoV-2 clearance (virus-negative group), but 38 patients had sustained positive results (virus-positive group). The median duration of SARS-CoV-2 excretion was 15 (interquartile range, 12-19) days among the virus-negative patients. The shedding time was significantly increased if the fecal SARS-CoV-2 RNA test result was positive. Male sex (hazard ratio [HR], 0.58 [95% confidence interval {CI}, .35-.98]), immunoglobulin use (HR, 0.42 [95% CI, .24-.76]), APACHE II score (HR, 0.89 [95% CI, .84-.96]), and lymphocyte count (HR, 1.81 [95% CI, 1.05-3.1]) were independent factors associated with a prolonged duration of SARS-CoV-2 shedding. Antiviral therapy and corticosteroid treatment were not independent factors. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 RNA clearance time was associated with sex, disease severity, and lymphocyte function. The current antiviral protocol and low-to-moderate dosage of corticosteroid had little effect on the duration of viral excretion.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Virus Shedding , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Adult , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , China , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Feces/virology , Female , Humans , Lymphocytes , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Proportional Hazards Models , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Factors , Time Factors
7.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(15)2020 07 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-693595

ABSTRACT

The virus SARS-CoV-2, which has caused the recent COVID-19 pandemic, may be present in the stools of COVID-19 patients. Therefore, we aimed to detect SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater for surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 in the population. Samples of untreated wastewater were collected from 33 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) of different sizes within the Czech Republic. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was concentrated from wastewater and viral RNA was determined using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in 11.6% of samples and more than 27.3% of WWTPs; in some of them, SARS-CoV-2 was detected repeatedly. Our preliminary results indicate that an epidemiology approach that focuses on the determination of SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater could be suitable for SARS-CoV-2 surveillance in the population.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Waste Water/virology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Czech Republic/epidemiology , Feces/virology , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , RNA, Viral , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
8.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 24(14): 7889-7904, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-693438

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: In late December 2019 in Wuhan (China), Health Commission reported a cluster of pneumonia cases of unknown etiology, subsequently isolated and named Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) Coronavirus 2 (CoV-2). In this review, the main transmission routes and causes of mortality associated with COVID-19 were investigated. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A review was carried out to recognize relevant research available until 10 April 2020. RESULTS: The main transmission routes of COVID-19 have been the following: animal to human and human-to-human pathways, namely: respiratory transmission; oro-fecal transmission; air, surface-human transmission. Transmission from asymptomatic persons, healthcare transmission, and interfamily transmission have been well documented. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 possesses powerful pathogenicity and transmissibility. It is presumed to spread primarily via respiratory droplets and close contact. The most probable transmission pathway is definitely the inter-human one. Asymptomatic patients seem to play a crucial role in spreading the infection. Because of COVID-19 infection pandemic potential, careful surveillance is essential to monitor its future host adaptation, viral evolution, infectivity, transmissibility, and pathogenicity in order to gain an effective vaccine and flock immunity and reduce mortality as soon and as much as it is possible.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Animals , Asymptomatic Diseases , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Feces/virology , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Sputum/virology
10.
Gastroenterol. latinoam ; 31(1): 35-38, mayo 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-678085

ABSTRACT

The pandemic of the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 has caused more than 2.5 millions of confirmed cases worldwide, with a mortality rate around 7%. Most cases appear to be mild with the most common symptoms being fever, dry cough, myalgia, fatigue, and dyspnea but can result in more severe disease. Also, there are described gastrointestinal manifestations: anorexia 27%, diarrhea 12%, nausea/vomiting 10%, and abdominal pain 9%. In Chile, diarrhea has been described in 7.3%, and abdominal pain 3.7%. The primary mechanism proposed is the entry of SARS-CoV-2 into the enterocytes binding the Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), which is widely distributed among the gastrointestinal tract. Also, SARS-CoV-2 can cause elevated liver enzymes in up to 40% of cases. This alteration could also be caused by the binding to the ACE2 receptor in hepatocytes and cholangiocytes. Gastrointestinal symptoms and elevated liver enzymes are more frequent in severe cases. Viral RNA has been detected in stools, which may suggest a possible fecal-oral transmission. It is essential to pay attention to gastrointestinal manifestations because they are frequent and more prevalent in severe cases. The presence of viral RNA in stool forces us to take preventive measures faced with a possible mechanism of fecal-oral transmission, mainly in the gastroenterology and endoscopy services.


La pandemia por el nuevo coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 ha causado más de 2,5 millones de casos confirmados en el mundo, con una mortalidad cercana al 7%. La mayoría de los casos parecen ser leves y los síntomas más comunes son fiebre, tos seca, mialgia, fatiga y disnea, pero pueden provocar una enfermedad más grave. También se han descrito síntomas gastrointestinales: anorexia 27%, diarrea 12%, náuseas/vómitos 10%, y dolor abdominal 9%. En Chile, se ha descrito diarrea en 7,3%, y dolor abdominal 3,7%. El principal mecanismo fisiopatológico propuesto es el ingreso al enterocito utilizando la Enzima Convertidora de Angiotensina 2 (ECA2) como receptor, el cual es ampliamente distribuido a lo largo del tracto gastrointestinal. También se ha descrito alteración de pruebas hepáticas hasta en 40% de los casos. Esta alteración también podría ser causada por el ingreso a los hepatocitos y colangiocitos mediante la ECA2. Los síntomas gastrointestinales, y las alteraciones de pruebas hepáticas son más frecuentes en los pacientes graves. Se ha detectado la presencia de ARN viral en deposiciones de pacientes, lo que podría sugerir una posible vía de transmisión fecal-oral. Es importante prestar atención a las manifestaciones gastrointestinales, ya que son comunes y más frecuentes en pacientes graves. La presencia viral en las heces nos obliga a tomar medidas de precaución y prevención de un posible mecanismo de transmisión fecal-oral, especialmente en los servicios de gastroenterología y endoscopia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , Gastrointestinal Diseases/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Feces/virology , Pandemics
11.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 39(9): e249-e256, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-630302

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Children with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are more likely to have mild or no symptoms compared with adults and may represent important vectors for transmitting the virus. Little is known about the duration of respiratory and gastrointestinal viral shedding in children with COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: To determine the average shedding times of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) via the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts in children. METHODS: We performed a systematic search of Ovid MEDLINE, Embase and Cochrane CENTRAL databases for studies reporting real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rt-PCR) results in children with COVID-19, then extracted and synthesized data on duration of viral shedding from symptom onset in respiratory and gastrointestinal samples. RESULTS: Based on data compiled from 69 pediatric cases, the duration of viral shedding through the respiratory tract is up to 24 days from symptom onset with a mean of 11.1 ± 5.8 days. Of the children who underwent testing with stool PCR, rectal swab or anal swab, 86% returned a positive result. The mean duration of viral shedding via the gastrointestinal tract was 23.6 ± 8.8 days from symptom onset. In 89% of cases, viral shedding via the gastrointestinal tract persisted after nasopharyngeal or throat swabs became negative, for as long as 4 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to systematically review the duration of respiratory and gastrointestinal viral shedding of SARS-CoV-2 in pediatric patients. These findings may have important implications for infection control strategies during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Gastrointestinal Tract/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Respiratory System/virology , Adolescent , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Databases, Factual , Feces/virology , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Nasopharynx/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , RNA, Viral/analysis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Virus Shedding
12.
J Infect Dis ; 222(6): 910-918, 2020 08 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-622475

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite the ongoing spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), knowledge about factors affecting prolonged viral excretion is limited. METHODS: In this study, we retrospectively collected data from 99 hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) between 19 January and 17 February 2020 in Zhejiang Province, China. We classified them into 2 groups based on whether the virus test results eventually became negative. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to evaluate factors associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) shedding. RESULTS: Among 99 patients, 61 patients had SARS-CoV-2 clearance (virus-negative group), but 38 patients had sustained positive results (virus-positive group). The median duration of SARS-CoV-2 excretion was 15 (interquartile range, 12-19) days among the virus-negative patients. The shedding time was significantly increased if the fecal SARS-CoV-2 RNA test result was positive. Male sex (hazard ratio [HR], 0.58 [95% confidence interval {CI}, .35-.98]), immunoglobulin use (HR, 0.42 [95% CI, .24-.76]), APACHE II score (HR, 0.89 [95% CI, .84-.96]), and lymphocyte count (HR, 1.81 [95% CI, 1.05-3.1]) were independent factors associated with a prolonged duration of SARS-CoV-2 shedding. Antiviral therapy and corticosteroid treatment were not independent factors. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 RNA clearance time was associated with sex, disease severity, and lymphocyte function. The current antiviral protocol and low-to-moderate dosage of corticosteroid had little effect on the duration of viral excretion.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Virus Shedding , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Adult , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , China , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Feces/virology , Female , Humans , Lymphocytes , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Proportional Hazards Models , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Factors , Time Factors
13.
J Clin Microbiol ; 58(9)2020 08 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-628838

ABSTRACT

The ability to detect SARS-CoV-2 in the upper respiratory tract ceases after 2 to 3 weeks post-symptom-onset in most patients. In contrast, SARS-CoV-2 can be detected in the stool of some patients for greater than 4 weeks, suggesting that stool may hold utility as an additional source for diagnosis. We validated the Cepheid Xpert Xpress SARS-CoV-2 and Hologic Panther Fusion real-time RT-PCR assays for detection of viral RNA in stool specimens and compared performance. We utilized remnant stool specimens (n = 79) from 77 patients with gastrointestinal symptoms. Forty-eight patients had PCR-confirmed COVID-19, and 29 either were nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal PCR negative or presented for reasons unrelated to COVID-19 and were not tested. Positive percent agreement between the Cepheid and Hologic assays was 93% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 81.1% to 98.2%), and negative percent agreement was 96% (95% CI: 89% to 0.99%). Four discrepant specimens (Cepheid positive only, n = 2; Hologic positive only, n = 2) exhibited average cycle threshold (CT ) values of >37 for the targets detected. Of the 48 patients with PCR-confirmed COVID-19, 23 were positive by both assays (47.9%). For the negative patient group, 2/29 were positive by both assays (6.9%). The two stool PCR-positive, nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal PCR-negative patients were SARS-CoV-2 IgG positive. Our results demonstrate acceptable agreement between two commercially available molecular assays and support the use of stool PCR to confirm diagnosis when SARS-CoV-2 is undetectable in the upper respiratory tract.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Feces/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/standards , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Limit of Detection , Pandemics , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Polymerase Chain Reaction/standards , Polymerase Chain Reaction/statistics & numerical data , RNA, Viral/analysis , RNA, Viral/genetics , Reproducibility of Results
14.
J Infect ; 81(3): 357-371, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-627897

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To summarise the evidence on the detection pattern and viral load of SARS-CoV-2 over the course of an infection (including any asymptomatic or pre-symptomatic phase), and the duration of infectivity. METHODS: A systematic literature search was undertaken in PubMed, Europe PubMed Central and EMBASE from 30 December 2019 to 12 May 2020. RESULTS: We identified 113 studies conducted in 17 countries. The evidence from upper respiratory tract samples suggests that the viral load of SARS-CoV-2 peaks around symptom onset or a few days thereafter, and becomes undetectable about two weeks after symptom onset; however, viral loads from sputum samples may be higher, peak later and persist for longer. There is evidence of prolonged virus detection in stool samples, with unclear clinical significance. No study was found that definitively measured the duration of infectivity; however, patients may not be infectious for the entire duration of virus detection, as the presence of viral ribonucleic acid may not represent transmissible live virus. CONCLUSION: There is a relatively consistent trajectory of SARS-CoV-2 viral load over the course of COVID-19 from respiratory tract samples, however the duration of infectivity remains uncertain.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Viral Load , Adult , Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , Child , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Feces/virology , Humans , Limit of Detection , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , RNA, Viral , Severity of Illness Index , Sputum/virology , Time Factors , Virus Shedding
15.
Virol J ; 17(1): 86, 2020 06 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-618211

ABSTRACT

The need for timely establishment of a complete diagnostic protocol of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is demanded worldwide. We selected 15 positive novel coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) patients with mild or no symptom. Initially, fecal samples were negative in the 67% (10/15) of the cases, while 33% (5/10) of the cases were positive. After serial virus RNA testing, 73% (11/15) of the cases resulted positive to fecal specimens. In particular, 15 days after the first positive respiratory specimens test, 6 fecal specimens became positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA, while 13 respiratory test returned negative result. In conclusion, qRT-PCR assays of fecal specimens, is an important step to control infection, suggesting that samples remained positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA longer time then respiratory tract samples. Our results enhance the recent knowledge on this emerging infectious disease and offer suggestions for a more complete diagnostic strategy.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Feces/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Genes, Viral/genetics , Humans , Male , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Respiratory System/virology , Time Factors , Virus Shedding
16.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 18(8): 1753-1759.e2, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-613156

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & AIMS: We compared clinical, laboratory, radiological, and outcome features of patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection (COVID-19) with pneumonia, with vs without diarrhea. METHODS: We performed a retrospective, single-center analysis of 84 patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia in Wuhan Union Hospital, China, from January 19 through February 7, 2020. Cases were confirmed by real-time reverse-transcriptase PCR of nasal and pharyngeal swab specimens for SARS-CoV-2 RNA. Blood samples were analyzed for white blood cell count, lymphocyte count, alanine aminotransferase, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, D-dimer, C-reactive protein, and in some cases, immunoglobulins, complement, lymphocyte subsets, and cytokines. Virus RNA was detected in stool samples by real-time PCR. RESULTS: Of the 84 patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia, 26 (31%) had diarrhea. The duration of fever and dyspnea in patients with diarrhea was significantly longer than those without diarrhea (all P < .05). Stool samples from a higher proportion of patients with diarrhea tested positive for virus RNA (69%) than from patients without diarrhea (17%) (P < .001). As of February 19, a lower proportion of patients with diarrhea had a negative result from the latest throat swab for SARS-CoV-2 (77%) than patients without diarrhea (97%) (P = .010), during these patients' hospitalization. Of 76 patients with a negative result from their latest throat swab test during hospitalization, a significantly higher proportion of patients with diarrhea had a positive result from the retest for SARS-CoV-2 in stool (45%) than patients without diarrhea (20%) (P = .039). CONCLUSIONS: At a single center in Wuhan, China, 31% of patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia had diarrhea. A significantly higher proportion of patients with diarrhea have virus RNA in stool than patients without diarrhea. Elimination of SARS-CoV-2 from stool takes longer than elimination from the nose and throat.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Carrier State/virology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Diarrhea/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Adult , Aged , Blood Cell Count , Blood Chemical Analysis , China , Diarrhea/pathology , Feces/virology , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nasal Mucosa/virology , Pandemics , Pharynx/virology , RNA, Viral/analysis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
17.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 429, 2020 Jun 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-608211

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since December 2019, over 80,000 patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been confirmed in China. With the increasing number of recovered patients, more attention should be paid to the follow-up of these patients. METHODS: In the study, 576 patients with COVID-19 discharged from hospital in Chongqing, China from January 24, 2020, to March 10, 2020 were evaluated by viral nucleic acid tests for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2(SARS-CoV-2) to determine if they could be released from quarantine. Among the 576 patients, 61 patients (10.6%) had positive RT-PCR test results of SARS-CoV-2. We aimed to analyze the demographics, clinical characteristics and treatment of 61 patients. RESULTS: These positive patients were characterized by older age, chronic medical illness and mild conditions. 38 (62.3%) patients who were asymptomatic without abnormalities on chest radiographs were found in the positive with COVID-19. Also, they showed positive results of stool or sputum specimens with negative results of nasal and pharyngeal swab specimens. The median duration of positive result of SARS-CoV-2 was varied from 3 days to 35 days in the patients discharged from hospital with no family member infection. CONCLUSIONS: Multi-site screening of SARS-CoV-2 including nasal and pharyngeal swabs, stool and sputum specimens could be considered to improve the diagnosis, treatment and infection control in patients with COVID-19. Our findings provide the important information and clinical evidence for the improved management of patients recovered from COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Patient Discharge , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus , China , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Feces/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nose/virology , Pandemics , Pharynx/virology , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Sputum/virology
18.
Euro Surveill ; 25(24)2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-605372

ABSTRACT

Containment strategies and clinical management of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) patients during the current pandemic depend on reliable diagnostic PCR assays for the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Here, we compare 11 different RT-PCR test systems used in seven diagnostic laboratories in Germany in March 2020. While most assays performed well, we identified detection problems in a commonly used assay that may have resulted in false-negative test results during the first weeks of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Diagnostic Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/instrumentation , Feces/virology , Germany , Humans , Laboratories , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction/instrumentation , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Pandemics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/instrumentation , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/instrumentation , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Sensitivity and Specificity
19.
J Virol ; 94(17)2020 08 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-601769

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses (CoVs) have repeatedly emerged from wildlife hosts and infected humans and livestock animals to cause epidemics with significant morbidity and mortality. CoVs infect various organs, including respiratory and enteric systems, as exemplified by newly emerged severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The constellation of viral factors that contribute to developing enteric disease remains elusive. Here, we investigated CoV interferon antagonists for their contribution to enteric pathogenesis. Using an infectious clone of an enteric CoV, porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (icPEDV), we generated viruses with inactive versions of interferon antagonist nonstructural protein 1 (nsp1), nsp15, and nsp16 individually or combined into one virus designated icPEDV-mut4. Interferon-responsive PK1 cells were infected with these viruses and produced higher levels of interferon responses than were seen with wild-type icPEDV infection. icPEDV-mut4 elicited robust interferon responses and was severely impaired for replication in PK1 cells. To evaluate viral pathogenesis, piglets were infected with either icPEDV or icPEDV-mut4. While the icPEDV-infected piglets exhibited clinical disease, the icPEDV-mut4-infected piglets showed no clinical symptoms and exhibited normal intestinal pathology at day 2 postinfection. icPEDV-mut4 replicated in the intestinal tract, as revealed by detection of viral RNA in fecal swabs, with sequence analysis documenting genetic stability of the input strain. Importantly, icPEDV-mut4 infection elicited IgG and neutralizing antibody responses to PEDV. These results identify nsp1, nsp15, and nsp16 as virulence factors that contribute to the development of PEDV-induced diarrhea in swine. Inactivation of these CoV interferon antagonists is a rational approach for generating candidate vaccines to prevent disease and spread of enteric CoVs, including SARS-CoV-2.IMPORTANCE Emerging coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-2 and porcine CoVs, can infect enterocytes, cause diarrhea, and be shed in the feces. New approaches are needed to understand enteric pathogenesis and to develop vaccines and therapeutics to prevent the spread of these viruses. Here, we exploited a reverse genetic system for an enteric CoV, porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), and outline an approach of genetically inactivating highly conserved viral factors known to limit the host innate immune response to infection. Our report reveals that generating PEDV with inactive versions of three viral interferon antagonists, nonstructural proteins 1, 15, and 16, results in a highly attenuated virus that does not cause diarrhea in animals and elicits a neutralizing antibody response in virus-infected animals. This strategy may be useful for generating live attenuated vaccine candidates that prevent disease and fecal spread of enteric CoVs, including SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus/immunology , Interferons/immunology , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/immunology , Vaccines, Attenuated/immunology , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Animals , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Diarrhea/pathology , Diarrhea/virology , Disease Models, Animal , Endoribonucleases/antagonists & inhibitors , Feces/virology , Ileum/pathology , Immunity, Innate , Jejunum/pathology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/genetics , RNA Replicase , RNA, Viral , Swine , Swine Diseases/virology , Vero Cells , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/immunology
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