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1.
Am J Public Health ; 112(1): 116-123, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1591384

ABSTRACT

Arguing for the importance of robust public participation and meaningful Tribal consultation to address the cumulative impacts of federal projects, we bridge interdisciplinary perspectives across law, public health, and Indigenous studies. We focus on openings in existing federal law to involve Tribes and publics more meaningfully in resource management planning, while recognizing the limits of this involvement when only the federal government dictates the terms of participation and analysis. We first discuss challenges and opportunities for addressing cumulative impacts and environmental justice through 2 US federal statutes: the National Environmental Policy Act and the National Historic Preservation Act. Focusing on a major federal planning process involving fracking in the Greater Chaco region of northwestern New Mexico, we examine how the Department of the Interior attempted Tribal consultation during the COVID-19 pandemic. We also highlight local efforts to monitor Diné health and well-being. For Diné people, human health is inseparable from the health of the land. But in applying the primary legal tools for analyzing the effects of extraction across the Greater Chaco region, federal agencies fragment categories of impact that Diné people view holistically. (Am J Public Health. 2022;112(1):116-123. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2021.306562).


Subject(s)
Community Participation , Decision Making , Environmental Policy/legislation & jurisprudence , Hydraulic Fracking/legislation & jurisprudence , Federal Government , Government Regulation , Humans , New Mexico/ethnology , Public Health
2.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(2): e23957, 2021 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1576022

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic in Canada, Prime Minister Justin Trudeau provided updates on the novel coronavirus and the government's responses to the pandemic in his daily briefings from March 13 to May 22, 2020, delivered on the official Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC) YouTube channel. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine comments on Canadian Prime Minister Trudeau's COVID-19 daily briefings by YouTube users and track these comments to extract the changing dynamics of the opinions and concerns of the public over time. METHODS: We used machine learning techniques to longitudinally analyze a total of 46,732 English YouTube comments that were retrieved from 57 videos of Prime Minister Trudeau's COVID-19 daily briefings from March 13 to May 22, 2020. A natural language processing model, latent Dirichlet allocation, was used to choose salient topics among the sampled comments for each of the 57 videos. Thematic analysis was used to classify and summarize these salient topics into different prominent themes. RESULTS: We found 11 prominent themes, including strict border measures, public responses to Prime Minister Trudeau's policies, essential work and frontline workers, individuals' financial challenges, rental and mortgage subsidies, quarantine, government financial aid for enterprises and individuals, personal protective equipment, Canada and China's relationship, vaccines, and reopening. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first to longitudinally investigate public discourse and concerns related to Prime Minister Trudeau's daily COVID-19 briefings in Canada. This study contributes to establishing a real-time feedback loop between the public and public health officials on social media. Hearing and reacting to real concerns from the public can enhance trust between the government and the public to prepare for future health emergencies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Federal Government , Natural Language Processing , Public Health , Public Opinion , Social Media , COVID-19 Vaccines , Canada , Emigration and Immigration , Financial Stress , Financing, Government , Government , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment , Public Policy , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2 , Unsupervised Machine Learning
5.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0259362, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504217

ABSTRACT

We analyze whether and to what extent strategies employed by governments to fight the COVID-19 pandemic made a difference for GDP growth developments in 2020. Based on the strength and speed with which governments imposed non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) when confronted with waves of infections we distinguish between countries pursuing an elimination strategy and countries following a suppression / mitigation strategy. For a sample of 44 countries fixed effect panel regression results show that NPI changes conducted by elimination strategy countries had a less severe effect on GDP growth than NPI changes in suppression / mitigation strategy countries: strategy matters. However, this result is sensitive to the countries identified as "elimination countries" and to the sample composition. Moreover, we find that exogenous country characteristics drive the choice of strategy. At the same time our results show that countries successfully applying the elimination strategy achieved better health outcomes than their peers without having to accept lower growth.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Federal Government , Government , Humans , Internationality , Models, Economic , Pandemics , Physical Distancing , Public Policy , Quarantine , Regression Analysis , Risk , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Am J Nurs ; 121(11): 14, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493970

ABSTRACT

Some states seek to limit health officials' powers to act in disease outbreaks.


Subject(s)
Infection Control/standards , Politics , Public Health Nursing , Public Health/legislation & jurisprudence , State Government , COVID-19 , Federal Government , Humans , United States
11.
J Prim Health Care ; 13(2): 116-120, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462064

ABSTRACT

During the first months of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in early 2020, South Korea stood as one of the most successful in preventing a nationwide outbreak. The country was unique in that it did so without enforcing massive border restrictions and tight social distancing measures, instead focusing on maximal testing, contact tracing, and treatment. But as the year 2020 went on, the country has suffered second and third waves, each one being larger and harder to combat than the last. The Korean government, however, has been unwilling to impose stringent measures due to potential economic consequences and has still relied on its initial strategies in an attempt to prevent further disease transmission. It is therefore crucial to revisit their position beyond their early successes to re-evaluate the effectiveness of their strategy, and to finally decide if it is time to move on to more drastic measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19 Testing , Communicable Disease Control/economics , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Contact Tracing , Federal Government , Humans , Physical Distancing , Republic of Korea
15.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(9): e2122885, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1400713

ABSTRACT

Importance: Federal data underestimate the impact of COVID-19 on US nursing homes because federal reporting guidelines did not require facilities to report case and death data until the week ending May 24, 2020. Objective: To assess the magnitude of unreported cases and deaths in the National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) and provide national estimates of cases and deaths adjusted for nonreporting. Design, Setting, and Participants: This is a cross-sectional study comparing COVID-19 cases and deaths reported by US nursing homes to the NHSN with those reported to state departments of health in late May 2020. The sample includes nursing homes from 20 states, with 4598 facilities in 12 states that required facilities to report cases and 7401 facilities in 19 states that required facilities to report deaths. Estimates of nonreporting were extrapolated to infer the national (15 397 facilities) unreported cases and deaths in both May and December 2020. Data were analyzed from December 2020 to May 2021. Exposures: Nursing home ownership (for-profit or not-for-profit), chain affiliation, size, Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services star rating, and state. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcome was the difference between the COVID-19 cases and deaths reported by each facility to their state department of health vs those reported to the NHSN. Results: Among 15 415 US nursing homes, including 4599 with state case data and 7405 with state death data, a mean (SE) of 43.7% (1.4%) of COVID-19 cases and 40.0% (1.1%) of COVID-19 deaths prior to May 24 were not reported in the first NHSN submission in sample states, suggesting that 68 613 cases and 16 623 deaths were omitted nationwide, representing 11.6% of COVID-19 cases and 14.0% of COVID-19 deaths among nursing home residents in 2020. Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that federal NHSN data understated total cases and deaths in nursing homes. Failure to account for this issue may lead to misleading conclusions about the role of different facility characteristics and state or federal policies in explaining COVID outbreaks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Nursing Homes/statistics & numerical data , Bias , COVID-19/mortality , Cross-Sectional Studies , Databases, Factual , Federal Government , Humans , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States/epidemiology
18.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256136, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1381278

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Political ideologies drove public actions and health behaviors in the first year of the global pandemic. Different ideas about contagion, health behaviors, and the actions of governing bodies impacted the spread of the virus and health and life. Researchers used an immediate, mixed methods design to explore sociocultural responses to the virus and identified differences and similarities in anxiety, fear, blame, and perceptions of nation across political divides. METHODS: Researchers conducted 60 in-depth, semi-structured interviews and administered over 1,000 questionnaires with people living in the United States. The team analyzed data through an exploratory and confirmatory sequential mixed methods design. RESULTS: In the first months of the pandemic interviewees cited economic inequality, untrustworthy corporations and other entities, and the federal government as threats to life and pandemic control. Participants invoked ideas about others to determine blame. Findings reveal heavy associations between lack of safety during a public health crisis and blame of "culture" and government power across the political spectrum. CONCLUSION: Data indicate anxiety across political differences related to ideas of contagion and the maleficence of a powerful elite. Findings on how people understand the nation, politics, and pandemic management contribute to understanding dimensions of health behaviors and underlying connections between anxiety and the uptake of conspiracy theories in public health. The article ends with recommendations drawn from project findings for future pandemic response.


Subject(s)
Anxiety , COVID-19 , Fear/psychology , Health Behavior , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Federal Government , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Public Health , United States/epidemiology
19.
J Public Health Policy ; 42(3): 439-451, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1376232

ABSTRACT

In this manuscript, we point out that the federal government headed by President Bolsonaro has pursued a political agenda that contributed to the spread of COVID-19, transforming the country into a major repository for SARS-CoV-2 and its variants, thus representing a risk for worldwide containment efforts. Furthermore his actions are also weakening democratic institutions, which could counter his political agenda, effectively facilitating the spread of COVID-19. Thus, the perpetuation of the COVID-19 pandemic in Brazil is due to human behaviour factors, especially high-level public decision makers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Federal Government , Global Health , Pandemics , Politics , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Global Health/statistics & numerical data , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
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